Ian E Smith

The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (108)1128.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the prognostic significance of proliferation, as assessed by Ki67 expression, in breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective search of a prospectively maintained clinical database was performed to identify patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital. The expression of Ki67 was assessed using immunohistochemistry in pre-therapy core-needle biopsy and post-therapy surgical excision specimens. The following factors were considered pre- and post-chemotherapy for their relationship with relapse-free and overall survival: age, menstrual status, T and N stage, pre-therapy operability, Ki67, ER, PgR, HER2, grade, histological subtype, vascular invasion, clinical response, chemotherapy regimen, type of surgery performed, adjuvant therapy, pathological tumour size and nodal involvement. Results In a matched cohort of 103 patients, on multivariate analysis of relapse-free survival, post-therapy Ki67 was the only significant independent prognostic factor. On multivariate analysis for overall survival, both pre- and excision Ki67 were significant independent predictors but the latter showed a stronger prognostic impact. The highest and lowest tertiles of excision Ki67 had different prognosis for both 5-year relapse-free (27% vs. 77%) and overall (39% and 93%) survival. In a cohort of 284 patients with only excision samples, post-therapy Ki67 was a significant independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Post-chemotherapy Ki67 is a strong predictor of outcome for patients not achieving a pathological complete response.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2009; 116(1):53-68. DOI:10.1007/s10549-008-0081-7 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers are more likely to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to those with ER positive tumours. ER positive tumours exhibit low proliferation and ER negative cancers high proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the better response of ER negative cancers correlates with proliferation rate. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database identified 175 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with tissue available for Ki67 analysis. On univariate analysis, pre-therapy Ki67 (P=0.04), ER status (P=0.002), HER2 status (P=0.004) and grade (P=0.0009) were associated with a pCR. In a multivariate model, HER2 was the only significant predictor of pCR. No significant relationship between pre-therapy Ki67 and relapse-free and overall survival was demonstrated. Ki67 is not an independent predictor of clinical CR or pCR. Aspects of ER status beyond its inverse relationship with proliferation may contribute to its predictive value for pCR.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2009; 119(2):315-323. DOI:10.1007/s10549-009-0329-x · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian failure and infertility following adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer are major concerns for some young women. Techniques for oocyte harvesting are associated with delay in starting treatment, potentially undesirable estrogen stimulation and a relatively low success rate. We report an audit of our experience with the luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist, goserelin, to achieve transient ovarian suppression during chemotherapy as a means of preserving ovarian function. Pre-menopausal women were offered goserelin 3.6 mg by subcutaneous injection every 28 days during chemotherapy, starting 0-14 days prior to treatment. The primary end-point was recovery of menstruation. Serum luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and oestradiol were measured at recovery of menstruation or at first year follow-up if amenorrhoea persisted. Subsequent pregnancies were recorded. Fifty-one evaluable women were audited. Amenorrhoea occurred in all but one. All received combination anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens with a mean cumulative cyclophosphamide dose of 3.9 g/m(2). Forty-five (90%) recovered menstruation during the first year of follow-up; mean time to recovery 5 months. Eight pregnancies in 10 women attempting this so far. Using goserelin concurrently with chemotherapy is associated with a high rate of ovarian function preservation.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2008; 110(3):411-6. DOI:10.1007/s10549-007-9745-y · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analysed the clinical features, distribution of basal markers, prevalence of oncogene amplification, and outcome of triple negative (TN) compared to those of non-TN cancers in a series of adjuvant-anthracycline treated breast cancer patients. We examined the prognostic impact of the TN and BL phenotype in 245 breast cancer patients uniformly treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy following primary surgery, with regards to local relapse-free (LRFS), metastasis free (MFS), and breast cancer specific survival (BCSS). A comparative analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics, expression of basal markers (cytokeratins (Cks) 5/6, 14, 17, EGFR, and caveolin 1 and 2), MIB-1, p53 and topoisomerase II alpha, and prevalence of CCND1, MYC and TOP2A amplification in TN and non-TN breast tumours was performed. TN cancers were significantly associated with the expression of basal markers (all P < 0.0001). However 19.4% of TN tumours were negative for basal markers, whilst 7.3% of non-TN tumours expressed basal markers. TN phenotype was significantly associated with p53, MIB-1 and topoisomerase II alpha (all, P < 0.01) expression. No TN cancer harboured amplification of CCND1 or TOP2A. In univariate analysis, TN and BL phenotype were significantly associated with shorter MFS (both, P < 0.01) and BCSS (both, P < 0.005) but not LRFS. Despite treatment with standard dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy, the clinical outcome of TN and BL cancers remains poor. Alternative chemotherapeutic regimens and/or novel therapeutic approaches are warranted. Although a significant phenotypic overlap exists between TN and basal-like tumours, the TN phenotype is not an ideal surrogate marker for basal-like breast cancers.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2008; 111(1):27-44. DOI:10.1007/s10549-007-9756-8 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Sanjay Popat, Ian E Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Anthracyclines and trastuzumab are key agents in the management of patients with breast cancer, and have revolutionized the management of both early-stage and advanced-stage disease. The use of anthracyclines, however, can be compromised by the potential for cardiotoxicity; trastuzumab also has the potential for causing cardiotoxicity in patients receiving concurrent or prior anthracyclines. Although its development is treatment limiting, cardiotoxicity can be minimized with appropriate clinical care and drug scheduling. We discuss the efficacy of trastuzumab, its potential for cardiac compromise, and its interaction with anthracyclines. We highlight biological mechanisms that might be responsible for cardiotoxicity, describe the established and trial schedules of both agents, and discuss clinical strategies used to minimize the risk of developing cardiac failure through appropriate scheduling of trastuzumab with anthracyclines.
    Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 07/2008; 5(6):324-35. DOI:10.1038/ncponc1090 · 8.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor mediating neovascularization. Soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1) is an intrinsic negative counterpart of VEGF signaling and the ratio of sVEGFR-1 to VEGF has been shown to be a prognostic factor. Estrogen-bound estrogen receptor enhances VEGF expression, providing a common link between these signaling pathways that may be targeted by endocrine therapy. We investigated the effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen over time on serum VEGF and sVEGFR-1. The Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined with Tamoxifen (IMPACT) trial compared the preoperative use of anastrozole with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive primary operable breast cancer over 12 weeks. Circulating VEGF and sVEGFR-1 were measured by ELISA in 106 patients treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen alone at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment. The increase in serum VEGF from baseline to 12 weeks was significantly different between anastrozole and tamoxifen (anastrozole versus tamoxifen, 6% versus 38%; P = 0.047). There was a significant increase in sVEGFR-1 levels after 12 weeks of anastrozole (P = 0.037). The sVEGFR-1/VEGF ratio significantly decreased in the tamoxifen arm (P = 0.013) and the change in sVEGFR-1/VEGF ratio from baseline to 12 weeks was significantly different between anastrozole and tamoxifen (anastrozole versus tamoxifen, 24% increase versus 34% decrease; P = 0.013). Treatment with anastrozole and tamoxifen resulted in differential effects on serum angiogenic markers. This may be related to the relative effectiveness of the treatments. These data provide further support for cross talk between estrogen receptor and VEGF.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2008; 14(9):2656-63. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1352 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore potential differences in efficacy, treatment completion, and adverse events (AEs) in elderly women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for five years in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. This report includes the 4,922 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial. The median follow-up was 40.4 months. Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was used to examine the patterns of differences in disease-free survival and incidences of AEs according to age. In addition, three categoric age groups were defined: "younger postmenopausal" patients were younger than 65 years (n = 3,127), "older" patients were 65 to 74 years old (n = 1,500), and "elderly" patients were 75 years of age or older (n = 295). Efficacy results for subpopulations defined by age were similar to the overall trial results: Letrozole significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS), the primary end point, compared with tamoxifen. Elderly patients were less likely to complete trial treatment, but at rates that were similar in the two treatment groups. The incidence of bone fractures, observed more often in the letrozole group, did not differ by age. In elderly patients, letrozole had a significantly higher incidence of any grade 3 to 5 protocol-specified non-fracture AE compared with tamoxifen (P = .002), but differences were not significant for thromboembolic or cardiac AEs. Adjuvant treatment with letrozole had superior efficacy (DFS) compared with tamoxifen in all age groups. On the basis of a small number of patients older than 75 years (6%), age per se should not unduly affect the choice of adjuvant endocrine therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2008; 26(12):1972-9. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.0459 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acquired resistance to endocrine therapies has severely limited their long-term effectiveness in breast cancer. In recent years a clear rationale has developed for combining signal transduction inhibitors (STIs) with endocrine therapies to delay the emergence of acquired resistance and enhance endocrine responsiveness. A variety of biologic agents have been developed to target key proteins along the EGFR, HER2, MAPK, and P13K/Akt signal transduction cascades. While several of these agents have shown early promise in selected breast cancer models, translating these data into convincing clinical results has been generally disappointing to date. By applying more rigorous trial design and tumor selection criteria to future trials, it is much more likely that adding the new generation of targeted therapies can fulfill its promise in enhancing endocrine responsiveness and our ability to treat breast cancer patients.
    Cancer 03/2008; 112(3 Suppl):710-7. DOI:10.1002/cncr.23190 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Marina Parton, Ian E Smith
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    ABSTRACT: A little more than 20% of all breast cancers occur in women younger than age 50 years,(1) and 60% of these are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, compared with 80% being ER-positive in women older than the age of 50 years.(2) Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of adjuvant endocrine treatment for many years, but recent developments with aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women have stimulated renewed interest in the role of estrogen suppression and its optimal duration as part of premenopausal endocrine therapy. This is an important issue, because such treatment can be associated with physiologic and emotional changes, including sexual dysfunction, urogenital difficulties, hot flashes, and cognitive behavior changes, as well as long-term problems of infertility, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular risks. Many premenopausal women are prepared to tolerate a large number of symptoms even for a relatively small benefit,(3) but for some women, these symptoms may be unacceptable.(4-6) Throughout this article we discuss ER-positive breast cancer because the great weight of evidence shows that ER-poor or ER-negative disease does not respond to endocrine therapy.(7).
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(5):745-52. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.3016 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review the state of the science with respect to preoperative systemic therapy and pathologic assessment in operable breast cancer. This article reviews data presented at the National Cancer Institute State of the Science Conference on Preoperative Therapy in Invasive Breast Cancer as well as supporting published data. Preoperative chemotherapy in operable breast cancer has been shown to improve breast conservation rates as a result of tumor response to therapy. When patients are given preoperative systemic therapy, regimens should be the same as those established as safe and active in the adjuvant setting. At present, there are no data to suggest that systemic treatment should be tailored based on initial tumor response, or based on the extent of residual disease. In operable breast cancer, there seems to be no survival advantage from initiation of systemic therapy before surgery. A variety of clinical, imaging, and pathologic measurements are available to gauge tumor response to treatment. There is a clear correlation between tumor response in the breast and lymph nodes and both disease-free and overall survival. Pathologic complete response and other pathologic measures may be useful as surrogate end points in evaluating and understanding new therapies. In operable breast cancer, preoperative systemic therapy is effective and can improve breast conservation rates. Unless the tumor is large or the patient is in a clinical trial, postoperative adjuvant systemic therapy is the standard of care. To achieve optimal outcomes, preoperative systemic therapy must be administered as part of a coordinated, multimodality treatment program. The preoperative setting provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of systemic therapies on breast cancer biology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(5):814-9. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2007.15.3510 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    Ian E Smith
    Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2008; 10 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):S24. DOI:10.1186/bcr2184 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TOP2A gene encodes topoisomerase II alpha, the direct molecular target of anthracyclines. This gene is frequently coamplified with HER2. The aims of this study were to analyse the pattern of TOP2A amplification and protein expression in relation to the molecular subgroups of breast cancers; and to define the impact of TOP2A amplification on the outcome of a series of patients homogeneously treated with adjuvant anthracyclines. A cohort of 245 patients with early breast cancer homogeneously treated with anthracyclines in the adjuvant setting was selected. A tissue microarray containing these cancers was used to determine HER2 and TOP2A gene copy number by means of chromogenic in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical staining of topoisomerase II alpha was also performed using a monoclonal antibody (Ki-S1). TOP2A amplification and protein expression were correlated with classical prognostic parameters, expression of immunohistochemical markers and with a gene expression profiling classification using surrogate immunohistochemical markers. Kaplan-Meier method was used to construct survival curves and results were compared with log-rank test. TOP2A amplification was restricted to tumours with HER2 amplification and was significantly associated with ER positivity. In the subgroup of patients with HER2 amplified tumours, TOP2A amplification predicted a better overall survival and disease free survival (P = 0.028 and 0.026, respectively). On multivariate analysis, TOP2A amplification maintained its predictive value for DFS. TOP2A amplification is likely to be a useful marker to predict the subset of patients who will benefit from anthracyclines.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2008; 106(2):181-9. DOI:10.1007/s10549-006-9492-5 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Ian E Smith, Monica Arnedos
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    ABSTRACT: The most recent Oxford Overview analysis shows that tamoxifen remains a highly effective adjuvant endocrine therapy with continuing benefit for at least 15 years. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) achieve a further small reduction in recurrence in postmenopausal women either as first-line treatment or sequentially after 2-3 years tamoxifen but so far usually without survival benefit. Differences in side effects are minor and specifically there is no evidence for significant differences in cardiovascular side effects. Extended adjuvant therapy with an AI after 5 years tamoxifen gives important additional protection to women with higher risk cancers. The relative benefits of first-line vs. sequential AIs after 2-3 years tamoxifen await the outcome of current trials. The major outstanding questions include duration of endocrine therapy, the value of ovarian suppression in premenopausal women in addition to other treatments, and the selection of patients who require endocrine therapy alone without additional chemotherapy.
    The Breast 01/2008; 16 Suppl 2:S4-9. DOI:10.1016/j.breast.2007.07.001 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression may promote breast cancer resistance to endocrine therapy. We have therefore investigated whether neoadjuvant gefitinib, an EGFR inhibitor, might overcome biologic and clinical resistance to neoadjuvant anastrozole in a phase II placebo-controlled trial. Postmenopausal women with stage I to IIIB hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer received anastrozole 1 mg daily for 16 weeks and were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:5:5 to receive, in addition, gefitinib 250 mg/d orally for 16 weeks: placebo 1 tablet/d orally for 2 weeks and then gefitinib for 14 weeks or placebo for 16 weeks. The primary end point was biologic change in proliferation as measured by Ki67 at 2 and 16 weeks; the main secondary end point was overall objective response (OR). Two hundred six women were randomly assigned. Mean changes in Ki67 with anastrozole and gefitinib versus anastrozole alone were -77.4% and -83.6%, respectively, between baseline and 16 weeks (geometric mean ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 0.79 to 2.39; P = .26), -80.1% and -71.3% between baseline and 2 weeks (geometric mean ratio = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.25; P = .22) and -19.3% and -43% (geometric mean ratio = 1.42; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.35; P = .16) between 2 and 16 weeks. ORs in the combination and anastrozole alone groups were 48% and 61% (estimated difference = -13.1%; 95% CI, -27.3% to 1.2%), respectively, with a nonsignificant trend against the combination (P = .08) and 48% versus 72% (estimated difference = -24.1%; 95% CI, -45.3% to -2.9%) in the progesterone-receptor-positive subgroup, which was significant (P = .03) and consistent with Ki67 changes. Common treatment-related adverse events included diarrhea, rash, alopecia, dry skin, and nausea. There was no evidence of a pharmacokinetic interaction. Addition of gefitinib to neoadjuvant anastrozole had no additional clinical or biologic effect, failing to support our original hypothesis.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2007; 25(25):3816-22. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2006.09.6578 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several clinical trials have reported an early reduction in breast cancer incidence in healthy women using tamoxifen to reduce their risk of breast cancer but have not reported longer follow-up data for the evaluation of breast cancer prevention. We report the blinded 20-year follow-up (median follow-up = 13 years) of the Royal Marsden trial to identify any long-term prevention of breast cancer associated with tamoxifen treatment. We randomly assigned 2494 healthy women to oral tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or placebo for 8 years. The primary outcome was occurrence of invasive breast cancer. A secondary planned analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive invasive breast cancer was also done. Survival was assessed by use of a Cox proportional hazards model in both univariate and multivariable analyses. The durability of the treatment effect was assessed by use of a Cox regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among the 2471 eligible participants (1238 participants in the tamoxifen arm and 1233 participants in the placebo arm), 186 developed invasive breast cancer (82 on tamoxifen and 104 on placebo; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.04; P = .1). Of these 186 cancers, 139 were ER positive (53 on tamoxifen and 86 on placebo; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.86; P = .005). The risk of ER-positive breast cancer was not statistically significantly lower in the tamoxifen arm than in the placebo arm during the 8-year treatment period (30 cancers in the tamoxifen arm and 39 in the placebo arm; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.48 to 1.23; P = .3) but was statistically significantly lower in the posttreatment period (23 in the tamoxifen arm and 47 in the placebo arm; HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.79; P = .004). Fifty-four participants in each arm have died from any cause (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.44; P = .95). The adverse event profiles for both arms were similar to those previously reported and occurred predominantly during the treatment period. A statistically significant reduction in the incidence of ER-positive breast cancer was observed in the tamoxifen arm that occurred predominantly during the post treatment follow-up, indicating long-term prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer by tamoxifen.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 03/2007; 99(4):283-90. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djk050 · 15.16 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet 03/2007; 369(9566):991-992. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60493-0 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67 is widely used to assess the prognosis of cancer patients. A change in the expression of Ki67 after short-term exposure of patients to therapeutic agents is frequently used as a pharmacodynamic marker of efficacy, particularly among breast cancer patients before undergoing surgery. To determine the clinical significance of the level of tumor cell proliferation during endocrine therapy for breast cancer, we measured the expression of Ki67 in tumor biopsy samples taken before and after 2 weeks of presurgical treatment with anastrozole or tamoxifen or the combination of anastrozole plus tamoxifen in 158 patients with hormone receptor-positive primary disease. In a multivariable analysis, we found that higher Ki67 expression after 2 weeks of endocrine therapy was statistically significantly associated with lower recurrence-free survival (P = .004) whereas higher Ki67 expression at baseline was not. Larger baseline tumor size and lower estrogen receptor level after 2 weeks of treatment were also statistically significantly associated with poorer recurrence-free survival (P < .001 and P = .04, respectively). Our data indicate that measurements of tumor Ki67 level after short-term endocrine treatment may improve the prediction of recurrence-free survival by integrating the prognostic value of Ki67 level at baseline with changes in Ki67 level that are associated with treatment benefit.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 02/2007; 99(2):167-70. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djk020 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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    Breast Cancer Research 01/2007; DOI:10.1186/bcr1811 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Docetaxel has significant activity in metastatic breast cancer and weekly schedules are associated with less myelosuppression than 3-weekly schedules. We evaluated the toxicity and the activity of weekly docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated patients. A total of 42 patients were studied. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 weekly as a 30-min infusion for 6 weeks followed by a 2-week rest, with dexamethasone 8 mg i.v. pre-medication and 4 mg orally 12-hourly for 48 h following treatment. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range 34-74). Twenty-six (62%) patients had received prior chemotherapy for advanced disease. Patients received a median 10 weeks of treatment (range 1-24). 11 had a partial response (ORR 26%; 95% CI 13-39%), five of whom had relapsed <12 months since the end of previous anthracycline-based chemotherapy. In addition six patients (14%) had stable disease for >16 weeks. Myelosuppression was rare with only 2 patients (5%) experiencing grade 3 neutropenia (no grade 4 neutropenia). Non-haematological grade III toxicities were as follows: fatigue 17%, neuropathy 0%, hyperlacrimation 5%, stomatitis 7%, diarrhoea 14%, and cutaneous toxicity 19%. Skin toxicity consisted of limb/palmar-plantar erythematous reactions, or fixed-plaque erythrodysaesthesia. Weekly docetaxel has moderate activity in women with anthracycline pre-treated breast cancer. Although the level of myelosuppression is lower than 3-weekly regimens, this weekly regimen cannot be recommended due to the significant non-haematological toxicities associated with the treatment.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2007; 58(6):809-15. DOI:10.1007/s00280-006-0222-9 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Robin L Jones, Ian E Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Primary, preoperative, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in the early 1970s as part of an integrated therapeutic approach to treat inoperable locally advanced breast cancer. The approach resulted in high responses, and sufficient downstaging to allow mastectomy in some patients. In addition, a small number of pathological complete responders were reported. Gradually, the idea of preoperative chemotherapy was extended to include patients with large but operable early-stage breast cancer, with the possibility in some cases of downstaging the primary tumour to avoid mastectomy, and to allow breast-conserving surgery to be done. This approach allows the tumour to be used as a measure of treatment response in vivo. More recently, the possibility has opened up for neoadjuvant chemotherapy to provide information on the use of clinical, pathological, and molecular endpoints, which can be used as surrogate markers to predict long-term outcome in the adjuvant setting. In addition, the anatomical accessibility of the breast provides the potential for serial biopsies to investigate molecular changes during treatment.
    The Lancet Oncology 11/2006; 7(10):869-74. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70906-8 · 24.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,128.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2015
    • The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
      • Breast Unit
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Otago
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
  • 2010
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2006
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2005
    • Bournemouth University
      Bournemouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Cancer Research UK
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom