[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New phenylpyrimido[1,2-c]thienopyrimidinones 4A and 4B were easily prepared in good yields by the one-pot reaction of formamidine derivatives 2 of 4-aminothienopyrimidine 1 with phenylacetyl chlorides. The application of this convenient and reliable method could be used for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimido[1,2-c]thienopyrimidinone derivatives of biological importance. Some of the compounds synthesized showed strong IL-6/STAT3 inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three saikosaponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L.: saikosaponins B3 (1); B4 (2); and D (3). Of the three, compound 3 inhibited the interaction of selectins (E, L, and P) and THP-1 cells with IC50 values of 1.8, 3.0 and 4.3 µM, respectively. Also, the aglycone structure 4 of compound 3 showed moderate inhibitory activity on L-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. From these results, we suspect that compound 3 isolated from Bupleurum falcatum roots would be a good candidate for therapeutic strategies to treat inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A reproducible analytical method using reverse-phase high liquid performance chromatography combined with UV detecting was developed for the quantitative determination of four compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of Phaseolus angularis seeds (PASE): oleanolic acid (1), oleanolic acid acetate (2), stigmasterol (3) and β-sitosterol (4). This method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.999), accuracy (98.5%-100.8%), precision (<0.92%), LOD (<0.0035 mg/mL), and LOQ (<0.0115 mg/mL). The effects of the PASE and isolated compounds 1-4 on TLR4 activation were tested in THP1-Blue cells. Among the tested substances, compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.89 ± 0.17 µM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a search for neuraminidase inhibitors derived from medicinal fungi, we found that the fermentation broth of Phellinus linteus exhibited potent neuraminidase inhibitory activity. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, two active compounds were purified from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion of the fermentation broth of P. linteus. These structures were identified as inotilone (1) and 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (2) by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited H1N1 neuraminidase activity with IC50 values of 29.1 and 125.6 µM, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. They also exhibited an antiviral effect in a viral cytopathic effect reduction assay using MDCK cells. These results suggest that compounds 1 and 2 from the culture broth of P. linteus would be good candidates for the prevention and therapeutic strategies towards viral infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-rotaviral activities of Sophora flavescens extract (SFE) and stevioside (SV) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni either singly or in various combinations were examined in vitro and in vivo using a porcine rotavirus G5[P7] strain. Combination of SFE and SV inhibited in vitro virus replication more efficiently than each single treatment. In the piglet model, SV had no effect on rotavirus enteritis, whereas SFE improved but did not completely cure rotaviral enteritis. Interestingly, combination therapy of SFE and SV alleviated diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. Acute toxicity tests including the piglet lethal dose 50, and body weight, organ weight and pathological changes for the combination therapy did not show any adverse effect on the piglets. These preliminary data suggest that the combination therapy of SV and SFE is a potential curative medication for rotaviral diarrhea in pigs. Determination of the efficacy of this combination therapy in other species including humans needs to be addressed in the future.
Research in Veterinary Science 04/2014; 96(3). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.03.011 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The present study was conducted in order to assess whether extracts or isolated compounds from Vigna angularis were able to suppress IL-6 signalling and to show the therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice.
The effect of V. angularis on IL-6 signalling was studied by measuring Stat3-dependent luciferase activity, expression of inflammation-related genes, and phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by IL-6. CIA was induced by immunizing with bovine type II collagen. V. angularis extract (VAE) was administrated orally at 50 and 100 mg/kg from day 1 to day 28. Induction of arthritis was evaluated with a visual scoring system and histological analysis.
Extracts or two triterpenoid compounds from V. angularis showed potent inhibitory effects on pSTAT3-inducible luciferase activity, STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and the expression of inflammation-related genes induced by IL-6. Administration of VAE significantly suppressed the progression of CIA, accompanied by a reduced antibody response to type II collagen and protection from tissue damage in knee joints.
Administration of VAE has a therapeutic effect on CIA and this effect is associated with the inhibitory activity on IL-6/STAT3 signalling. These results suggest that extracts or compounds from V. angularis could be a useful treatment for diseases related to IL-6, including RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4(+) cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-ĸB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six stilbenes were isolated from the methanol extract of Rheum undulatum rhizomes by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis ((1)H-, (13)C-NMR and MS), to be desoxyrhapontigenin (1), rhapontigenin (2), trans-resveratrol (3), piceatannol (4), piceatannol-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and isorhapontin (6). Compounds 1-4 inhibited the direct binding between sICAM-1 and LFA-1 of the THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 50.1, 25.4, 33.4 and 45.9 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the other compounds 5 and 6 with a glucose moiety in each molecule did not show any inhibitory activity in the cell adhesion assay (IC(50) values of >100.0 μM). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 also had an inhibitory effect on direct binding between sVCAM-1 and VLA-4 of THP-1 cells. This suggests that the stilbenes from Rheum undulatum rhizomes are good candidates for therapeutic strategies towards inflammation.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 10/2012; 35(10):1763-70. DOI:10.1007/s12272-012-1008-8 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract (VAE) on the progress of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The efficacy of VAE in NC/Nga mice was determined by measuring gross and histological skin lesions, serum IgE levels, eosinophil ratio in peripheral leucocytes, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in splenocytes. Continuous ingestion of VAE inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In the VAE-treated mice, the numbers of mast cells in the skin, eosinophil ratio in peripheral leucocytes, relative mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spleen, and serum IgE levels were significantly reduced. Results suggest that VAE can inhibit the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulating immune mediators and cells, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibiting interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been postulated as an effective therapy in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. In this study, seven flavonoids were isolated from the methanol extracts of Psoralea corylifolia by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structures of bakuchiol (1), bavachinin (2), neobavaisoflavone (3), corylifol A (4), corylin (5), isobavachalcon (6), and bavachin (7) were determined by spectroscopic analysis (1H-, 13C- NMR and MS). We demonstrated that compounds 1-7 showed an inhibitory effect on IL-6-induced STAT3 promoter activity in Hep3B cells with IC50 values of 4.57 ± 0.45, 3.02 ± 0.53, 2.77 ± 0.02, 0.81 ± 0.15, 1.37 ± 0.45, 2.45 ± 0.13, and 4.89 ± 0.05 µΜ, respectively. These compounds also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation induced by IL-6 in Hep3B cells. Overall, several flavonoids from P. corylifolia might be useful remedies for treating inflammatory diseases by inhibiting IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of norkurarinol on the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated signaling pathways and rotavirus replication. Norkurarinol, a lavandulylated flavanone, was isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity. Norkurarinol suppressed the NF-κB and AP-1 inducible secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) activity induced by poly(I:C), TLR3 ligand, in THP1-Blue-CD14 cells with IC(50) values of 20.9 µM. Norkurarinol also significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and adhesive molecules induced by poly(I:C) and rotavirus infection. Pretreatment of norkurarinol blocked the NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathway and the phosphorylation of MAPKs induced by poly(I:C). On the other hand, norkurarinol increased the level of IRF3 phosphorylation and IFNβ expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, norkurarinol inhibited the rotavirus-induced cytopathic effects. These results suggest that norkurarinol can modulate the TLR3-mediated inflammatory responses and rotavirus replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of cell adhesion molecule-mediated cell adhesion might be novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. In this study, nine phenolic compounds were isolated from the methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale roots by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR and MS), to be 6-gingerol (1), 8-gingerol (2), 10-gingerol (3), 6-shogaol (4), 8-shogaol (5), 10-shogaol (6), dehydro-6-gingerdione (7), dehydro-10-gingerdione (8) and 6-paradol (9). Compounds 3, 4, 5 and 7 inhibited direct binding between sICAM-1 and LFA-1 of the THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 57.6, 27.1, 65.4 and 62.0μM, respectively. Compounds 4 and 7 had an inhibitory effect on direct binding between sVCAM-1 and VLA-4 of THP-1 cells. These results suggest that the phenolic compounds from Z. officinale roots are good candidates for therapeutic strategies aimed at inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been postulated to be an effective therapy in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. The current study was performed to examine potential effects of manassantin A and B isolated from Saururus chinensis on the IL-6-induced response to human hepatoma cells. We found that manassantin A and B inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity stimulated by IL-6. We also found that both compounds decreased IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Both compounds blocked suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3)-mRNA expression induced by IL-6. In addition, we found that Stat3 inhibitory effects of these compounds could be related to protein tyrosine phosphatase. These findings suggest that manassantin A and B could be useful remedies for treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting IL-6 action.