[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serum antibody against the inward rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 (KIR4.1-IgG) was recently discovered, which is found in almost half of adult patients with multiple sclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of KIR4.1-IgG in children with acquired demyelinating disease (ADD) of the CNS. We also compared antibody responses to KIR4.1 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoproteins (MOGs), another potential autoantigen in childhood ADDs.
We measured KIR4.1-IgG by ELISA in children with ADD (n = 47), other neurologic disease (n = 22), and autoimmune disease (n = 22), and in healthy controls (HCs) (n = 18). One hundred six samples were also measured by capture ELISA. Binding of KIR4.1-IgG human subcortical white matter was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Anti-MOG antibodies were measured using a cell-based assay.
KIR4.1-IgG titers were significantly higher in children with ADD compared with all control groups by ELISA and capture ELISA (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall, 27 of 47 patients with ADD (57.45%) but none of the 62 with other neurologic disease or autoimmune disease or the HCs (0%) were KIR4.1-IgG antibody positive by ELISA. Sera containing KIR4.1-IgG stained glial cells in brain tissue sections. No correlation among KIR4.1-IgG, age, or MOG-IgG was observed in the ADD group.
Serum antibodies to KIR4.1 are found in the majority of children with ADD but not in children with other diseases or in HCs. These findings suggest that KIR4.1 is an important target of autoantibodies in childhood ADD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Although previous studies suggest that valproate (VPA) may induce reproductive endocrine disorders, the effects of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on reproductive endocrine health have not been widely investigated and compared with those of older AEDs. Therefore, this multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of reproductive endocrine dysfunctions in pubertal females with epilepsy receiving VPA, lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapy. Patients and Methods Pubertal girls on VPA (n = 11), LTG (n = 8), or LEV (n = 13) monotherapy for at least 6 months were recruited. Healthy sex-matched and age-matched subjects were enrolled as controls (n = 32). Each participant underwent a comprehensive physical examination concerning signs of hyperandrogenism. The Ferriman-Gallwey score of hirsutism was assessed. In addition, all patients completed a standardized questionnaire regarding epilepsy, menstrual cycle, and hirsutism features. Adiposity indices were measured and weight gain was documented for each subject. Results Hirsutism score, occurrence of hyperandrogenism features, and adiposity indices were significantly higher in the VPA group when compared with LEV and control groups. VPA therapy was more frequently associated with weight gain when compared with LTG and controls, whereas no significant differences with regard to signs of hyperandrogenism were found between VPA and LTG groups. Furthermore, no differences in menstrual disorders were observed between groups. Conclusions Pubertal girls with epilepsy receiving VPA monotherapy were more likely to develop signs of hyperandrogenism, that is, hirsutism and acanthosis, than those on LEV or controls. However, no differences in occurrence of menstrual disorders and other reproductive dysfunctions were found between VPA, LTG, LEV, and control groups. These findings do not allow us to clearly determine whether or not VPA, LEV, and LTG monotherapies considerably affect reproductive endocrine health in pubertal girls with epilepsy. Therefore, further prospective studies of larger sample sizes are needed to establish if screening tests should be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent detection of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) autoantibodies in acquired inflammatory demyelinating diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and multiple sclerosis, in children strongly indicates that B-cell-dependent mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis. This review aims to give an overview of the role of autoantibodies in inflammatory demyelinating pediatric diseases, with a focus on antibodies to AQP4 and MOG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of KCNQ2 mutations in patients with neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (NEE), and to expand the phenotypic spectrum of KCNQ2 epileptic encephalopathy.
Eighty-four patients with unexplained NEE were screened for KCNQ2 mutations using classic Sanger sequencing. Clinical data of 6 additional patients with KCNQ2 mutations detected by gene panel were collected. Detailed phenotyping was performed with particular attention to seizure frequency, cognitive outcome, and video-EEG.
In the cohort, we identified 9 different heterozygous de novo KCNQ2 missense mutations in 11 of 84 patients (13%). Two of 6 missense mutations detected by gene panel were recurrent and present in patients of the cohort. Seizures at onset typically consisted of tonic posturing often associated with focal clonic jerking, and were accompanied by apnea with desaturation. One patient diagnosed by gene panel had seizure onset at the age of 5 months. Based on seizure frequency at onset and cognitive outcome, we delineated 3 clinical subgroups, expanding the spectrum of KCNQ2 encephalopathy to patients with moderate intellectual disability and/or infrequent seizures at onset. Recurrent mutations lead to relatively homogenous phenotypes. One patient responded favorably to retigabine; 5 patients had a good response to carbamazepine. In 6 patients, seizures with bradycardia were recorded. One patient died of probable sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.
KCNQ2 mutations cause approximately 13% of unexplained NEE. Patients present with a wide spectrum of severity and, although rare, infantile epilepsy onset is possible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a common finding in patients with chromosomal macro- and micro-rearrangements but only few aberrations show a constant pattern of seizures. DNA array-based studies have reported causative copy number variations (CNVs) in 5-30% of patients with epilepsy with or without co-morbidities. The interpretation of many of the detected CNVs remains challenging. In order to identify CNVs carrying epilepsy-related genes we investigated 43 children with various patterns of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability, and minor dysmorphism, using the Illumina® Infinium Human1M-DuoV1 array. In three patients we found likely causative de novo CNVs, i.e. deletions in 1q41q42.12 (3.4 Mb) and 19p13.2 (834 kb), and a mosaic two-segment duplication in 17p13.2 (218 kb) and 17p13.1 (422 kb). In 6 additional patients there were aberrations (a deletion in one and duplications in 5 patients) with uncertain clinical consequences. In total, the finding of causative chromosomal micro-rearrangements in 3 out of 43 patients (7%) and potentially causative CNVs in 6 additional patients (14%) with epilepsy and intellectual disability but without major malformations confirms the power of DNA arrays for the detection of new disease-related genetic regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies targeting conformationally intact myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are found in different inflammatory diseases of the CNS, but their antigenic epitopes have not been mapped. We expressed mutants of MOG on human HeLa cells and analyzed sera from 111 patients (104 children, 7 adults) who recognized cell-bound human MOG, but had different diseases, including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), one episode of transverse myelitis or optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-negative neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (CRION). We obtained insight into the recognition of epitopes in 98 patients. All epitopes identified were located at loops connecting the β strands of MOG. The most frequently recognized MOG epitope was revealed by the P42S mutation positioned in the CC'-loop. Overall, we distinguished seven epitope patterns, including the one mainly recognized by mouse mAbs. In half of the patients, the anti-MOG response was directed to a single epitope. The epitope specificity was not linked to certain disease entities. Longitudinal analysis of 11 patients for up to 5 y indicated constant epitope recognition without evidence for intramolecular epitope spreading. Patients who rapidly lost their anti-MOG IgG still generated a long-lasting IgG response to vaccines, indicating that their loss of anti-MOG reactivity did not reflect a general lack of capacity for long-standing IgG responses. The majority of human anti-MOG Abs did not recognize rodent MOG, which has implications for animal studies. Our findings might assist in future detection of potential mimotopes and pave the way to Ag-specific depletion.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There has been tremendous growth in research in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders since operational definitions for these conditions were first proposed in 2007. Further, the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG), which proposed the criteria, has expanded substantially in membership and in its international scope.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background In the majority of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), neurological symptoms are transient. The extent of neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric problems in children is not well researched.Objectives The study aimed to investigate cognitive functions and behavioral problems in children after LNB.Patients and Methods A total of 20 children between 6 and 16 years of age with an episode of LNB at least 4 month before neuropsychological testing were enrolled in the study and compared with 20 healthy controls. Children with LNB had cranial nerve palsies or meningoencephalitis, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies for Borrelia burgdorferi in the peripheral blood, pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (leukocytes > 10 cells/μL) and/or an intrathecal synthesis of antibodies for B. burgdorferi.Neuropsychological tests assessing intellectual skills, memory, and executive functions were used. Two parental questionnaires assessing behavior, psychiatric problems, and executive functions were administered.Results Intellectual skills, memory, and executive functions of children after an episode of LNB were within the normal range. In the subcategory of working memory, children after an episode of LNB performed worse than controls. The questionnaires did not reveal behavior or psychiatric problems, although there was a tendency that children after an episode of LNB had more physical complaints.Conclusion Neuropsychological deficits resulting from LNB in childhood are rare. Most children had a good cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a report on the successful treatment of a 6-year-old girl with genetically proven glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) with modified Atkins diet (MAD). GLUT1-DS is an inborn disorder of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, which leads to energy deficiency of the brain with a broad spectrum of neurological symptoms including therapy-resistant epilepsy. Usually classical ketogenic diet (KD) is the standard treatment for patients with GLUT1-DS. Treatment with MAD, a variant of KD, for an observation period of 17 months resulted in improvement of seizures, alertness, cognitive abilities, and electroencephalography in this patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Midbrain-hindbrain malformations (MHM) may coexist with malformations of cortical development (MCD). This study represents a first attempt to investigate the spectrum of MHM in a large series of patients with MCD and epilepsy. We aimed to explore specific associations between MCD and MHM and to compare two groups of patients: MCD with MHM (wMHM) and MCD without MHM (w/oMHM) with regard to clinical and imaging features. Two hundred and twenty patients (116 women/104 men, median age 28 years, interquartile range 20-44 years at the time of assessment) with MCD and epilepsy were identified at the Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria. All underwent high-resolution MRIs (1.5-T) between 01.01.2002 and 31.12.2011. Midbrain-hindbrain structures were visually assessed by three independent raters. MHM were seen in 17% (38/220) of patients. The rate of patients wMHM and w/oMHM differed significantly (p=0.004) in three categories of MCD (category I - to abnormal neuronal proliferation; category II - to abnormal neuronal migration; and category III - due to abnormal neuronal late migration/organization): MCD due to abnormal neuronal migration (31%) and organization (23%) were more commonly associated with MHM compared to those with MCD due to abnormal neuronal proliferation (9%). Extensive bilateral MCD were seen more often in patients wMHM compared to those w/oMHM (63% vs. 36%; p=0.004). In wMHM group compared to w/oMHM group there were higher rates of callosal dysgenesis (26% vs. 4%; p<0.001) and hippocampal abnormalities (52% vs. 27%; p<0.001). Patients wMHM were younger (median 25 years vs. 30 years; p=0.010) at the time of assessment and had seizure onset at an earlier age (median 5 years vs. 12 years; p=0.043) compared to those w/oMHM. Patients wMHM had higher rates of learning disability (71% vs. 38%; p<0.001), delayed developmental milestones (68% vs. 35%; p<0.001) and neurological deficits (66% vs. 47%; p=0.049) compared to those w/oMHM. The groups (wMHM and w/oMHM) did not differ in their response to antiepileptic treatment, seizure outcome, seizure types, EEG abnormalities and rate of status epilepticus. Presence of MHM in patients with MCD and epilepsy is associated with severe morphological and clinical phenotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has been identified as a target of demyelinating autoantibodies in animal models of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have aimed to establish a role for MOG antibodies in patients with MS, although the results have been controversial. Cell-based immunoassays using MOG expressed in mammalian cells have demonstrated the presence of high-titre MOG antibodies in paediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, MS, aquaporin-4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica, or isolated optic neuritis or transverse myelitis, but only rarely in adults with these disorders. These studies indicate that MOG antibodies could be associated with a broad spectrum of acquired human CNS demyelinating diseases. This Review article discusses the current literature on MOG antibodies, their potential clinical relevance, and their role in the pathogenesis of MOG antibody-associated demyelinating disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) share overlapping clinical, radiologic and laboratory features at onset. Because autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of both diseases, we sought to identify autoantibody biomarkers that are capable of distinguishing them. METHODS: We used custom antigen arrays to profile anti-myelin-peptide autoantibodies in sera derived from individuals with pediatric ADEM (n = 15), pediatric multiple sclerosis (Ped MS; n = 11) and adult MS (n = 15). Using isotype-specific secondary antibodies, we profiled both IgG and IgM reactivities. We used Statistical Analysis of Microarrays software to confirm the differences in autoantibody reactivity profiles between ADEM and MS samples. We used Prediction Analysis of Microarrays software to generate and validate prediction algorithms, based on the autoantibody reactivity profiles. RESULTS: ADEM was characterized by IgG autoantibodies targeting epitopes derived from myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic glycoprotein, and alpha-B-crystallin. In contrast, MS was characterized by IgM autoantibodies targeting myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic glycoprotein and oligodendrocyte-specific protein. We generated and validated prediction algorithms that distinguish ADEM serum (sensitivity 62-86%; specificity 56-79%) from MS serum (sensitivity 40-87%; specificity 62-86%) on the basis of combined IgG and IgM anti-myelin autoantibody reactivity to a small number of myelin peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Combined profiles of serum IgG and IgM autoantibodies identified myelin antigens that may be useful for distinguishing MS from ADEM. Further studies are required to establish clinical utility. Further biological assays are required to delineate the pathogenic potential of these antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. METHODS: The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. RESULTS: The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. CONCLUSION: Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Given the high frequency of failure of first-line therapies, there is an urgent need for second-line treatment strategies for pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To report the use of natalizumab in pediatric MS. Natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting α4 integrin, is effective against active relapsing-remitting MS in adults. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Eleven centers for neurology and pediatric neurology in Germany and Austria. PARTICIPANTS A total of 20 pediatric patients with MS who started treatment with natalizumab prior to 18 years of age. These patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging as clinically indicated, despite the fact that 19 of these 20 patients were undergoing first-line disease-modifying therapy. The mean (SD) age at initiation of natalizumab therapy was 16.7 (1.1) years, and the mean (SD) pretreatment period was 18 (10) months. INTERVENTION Natalizumab, 300 mg every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Annualized relapse rates, Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, number of new T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions and contrast-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, number of adverse events, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab, and serum JC virus-antibody status. RESULTS Treatment with natalizumab was associated with reductions in mean annualized relapse rates (3.7 without treatment vs 0.4 with treatment; P < .001), median Expanded Disability Status Scale scores (2 without treatment vs 1 with treatment; P < .02), and mean number of new T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions per year (7.8 without treatment vs 0.5 with treatment; P < .001). Two patients developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab and had to stop therapy. Adverse events included headaches, asthenia, infections, and hypersensitivity. Abnormal laboratory results were found for 8 patients. JC virus antibodies were found in 5 of 13 patients. After the discontinuation of natalizumab therapy, relapse activity occurred in 6 of 8 patients within 6 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our data indicate that natalizumab may be safe and effective against MS in pediatric patients with breakthrough disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first investigation of MMPs in children with febrile seizures. In a prospective, cross sectional study, serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP8/9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/2), of children with FS (n=13), children with febrile infection (FI, n=13) and children with unprovoked generalized seizures (US, n=11) were compared. Neither provoked nor unprovoked seizures in FS and US seem to elevate levels of MMPs or TIMPs, whereas in case of febrile infection blood level of MMP8 was significant elevated. Seizures in general might have no influence on this distinctive inflammatory process or even might have suppressive impact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Some pediatric patients with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disorders cannot be classified under any of the established disease entities, making their treatment and prognosis difficult. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize a subgroup of pediatric patients with recurrent demyelinating central nervous system disorders. METHODS: This study includes a case series of pediatric patients with monophasic or recurrent acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who later presented with either monophasic or recurrent optic neuritis (ON). RESULTS: We describe seven patients with a median follow-up of six years (five females, two males) who presented at a median age of 6 years (range 4-8 years) with monophasic (n = 4) or recurrent ADEM (two to four attacks) followed by monophasic (n = 3) or recurrent ON (two to nine attacks). Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was typical for ADEM (n = 6) with complete or almost complete resolution of lesions on follow-up. Cerebrospinal (CSF) studies at the time of ADEM showed a pleocytosis in six patients and were negative for oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in all. In all patients high titers for serum anti-MOG antibodies were detected. CONCLUSION: ADEM followed by ON is a rare but distinct clinical phenotype among pediatric patients. Further studies are needed to allow recommendations on treatment or prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review is a summary of the most important clinical findings and implications of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in children. It is based on a Pubmed search with the terms "tick-borne encephalitis", "children", "infection", "meningitis", "meningoencephalitis", and "outcome". TBE in children shares several features with their adult counterpart but has overall a better prognosis. Nevertheless, TBE is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in a small group of children and seems to cause cognitive dysfunctions, which needs to be studied in further detail.
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 06/2012; 162(11-12):244-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a heterogeneous group of epilepsies characterized by myoclonus, seizures and progressive neurological symptoms. The index patient was a 6-year old boy showing early-onset therapy resistant PME and severe developmental delay. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified several candidate regions. The potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 7 gene (KCTD7) in the 7q11.21 linkage region emerged as a suitable candidate. Sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation (p.R94W) in a highly conserved segment of exon 2. This is the second family with PME caused by KCTD7 mutations, hence KCTD7 mutations might be a recurrent cause of PME.
Annals of Human Genetics 05/2012; 76(4):326-31. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic criteria for paediatric multiple sclerosis have been established on the basis of brain imaging findings alone. The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, however, include spinal cord imaging for detection of lesion dissemination in space. The new criteria have been recommended in paediatric multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate the 2010 McDonald multiple sclerosis criteria in children with a clinically isolated syndrome and to compare them with recently proposed magnetic resonance criteria for children; (2) to assess whether the inclusion of spinal cord imaging provided additional value to the 2010 McDonald criteria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging scans from 52 children with a clinically isolated syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the magnetic resonance criteria were assessed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The 2010 McDonald dissemination in space criteria were more sensitive (85% versus 74%) but less specific (80% versus 100%) compared to the 2005 McDonald criteria. The Callen criteria were more accurate (89%) compared to the 2010 McDonald (85%), the 2005 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space (81%), the KIDMUS criteria (46%) and the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network criteria (76%). The 2010 McDonald criteria for dissemination in time were more accurate (93%) than the dissemination in space criteria (85%). Inclusion of the spinal cord did not increase the accuracy of the McDonald criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 19 are rarely found by conventional cytogenetic techniques. This region has a high gene density and this is likely the reason why deletions in this region are associated with a severe phenotype. Since the implementation of modern high-resolution SNP- and CGH-array techniques more cases have been reported. Here, we present an almost 5-year-old boy with intellectual disability, minor dysmorphisms, febrile seizures, and a de novo deletion of 834.2 kb on 19p13.2 encompassing 32 genes. The deletion was found by the Illumina Infinium HD Human1M-Duo v1 BeadChip SNP-array and confirmed by the NimbleGen Human CGH 2.1M Whole Genome Tiling v2.0D oligonucleotide array. PCR amplification of the junction fragment and subsequent sequencing defined the breakpoints and indicated that formation was mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). The phenotype of our patient shows that microrearrangements even at gene-dense chromosomes may result in mild clinical consequences.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2012; 158A(5):1190-4. · 2.30 Impact Factor