[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the frequency of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in patients with various inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS and to determine their clinical correlates.
Retrospective case-control study from 2005 to 2014 with the detection of serum IgG antibodies to NMDAR, aquaporin-4, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein by recombinant live cell-based immunofluorescence assays. Fifty-one patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 41 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, 34 with clinically isolated syndrome, and 89 with multiple sclerosis (MS) were included. Due to a known association of NMDAR antibodies with seizures and behavioral symptoms, patients with those clinical manifestations were preferentially included and are therefore overrepresented in our cohort. Nine patients with NMDAR encephalitis, 94 patients with other neurologic diseases, and 48 healthy individuals were used as controls.
NMDAR antibodies were found in all 9 patients with NMDAR encephalitis but in only 1 of 215 (0.5%) patients with inflammatory demyelination and in none of the controls. This patient had relapsing-remitting MS with NMDAR antibodies present at disease onset, with an increase in NMDAR antibody titer with the onset of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits.
In demyelinating disorders, NMDAR antibodies are uncommon, even in those with symptoms seen in NMDAR encephalitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune neurological disease, diagnosed by a specific autoantibody against NMDAR. Antibody testing using commercially available cell-based assays (CBA) or immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue has proven high specificity and sensitivity. Here we compare an immunofluorescence live CBA to a flow cytometry (FACS) based assay to detect NMDAR antibodies by their binding to the surface of HEK293A cells functionally expressing NMDAR. Both assays were first established using a discovery group of 76 individuals and then validated in a group of 32 patients in a blinded manner. In the CBA, 23 of 23 patients with NMDAR encephalitis were positive for NMDAR antibodies and 0 of 85 controls (32 healthy controls and 53 patients with other neurological diseases), resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 85.1-100.0 and 95.7-100.0, respectively). The FACS based assay detected NMDAR antibodies in 20 of 23 patients and in 0 of 85 controls. Therefore, with an equally high specificity (95% CI 95.7-100.0) the sensitivity of the FACS based assay was 87% (95% CI 66.4-97.2). Comparing antibody titers from CBA with delta median fluorescence intensities from FACS showed a high concordance (kappa = 0.943, p<0.0001) and correlation (r = 0.697, p<0.0001). In conclusion, evaluation of the FACS based assay revealed a lower sensitivity and high inter-assay variation, making the CBA a more reliable detection method.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0122037. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122037 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with isolated optic neuritis (ON), the presence of antibodies to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has diagnostic and prognostic value. In the same clinical setting, the significance of antibodies to myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) or the glycine receptor α1 subunit (GlyR) is unclear.
To investigate the frequency of antibodies to AQP4, MOG, and GlyR in patients with unilateral or bilateral, severe, or recurrent isolated ON and to determine their clinical and prognostic correlates.
Retrospective case-control study from November 1, 2005, through May 30, 2014 with the detection of autoantibodies in a neuroimmunology referral center. We included 51 patients with ON but without clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings outside the optic nerves and 142 controls (30 healthy individuals, 48 patients with neuromyelitis optica, and 64 patients with multiple sclerosis).
Clinicoimmunologic analysis. We determined the presence of antibodies to AQP4, MOG, and GlyR using cell-based assays.
The median age of the patients at the onset of ON symptoms was 28 (range, 5-65) years; 36 patients (71%) were female. Antibodies were identified in 23 patients (45%), including MOG in 10 patients, AQP4 in 6 patients, and GlyR in 7 patients (concurrent with MOG in 3 and concurrent with AQP4 in 1). Patients with AQP4 antibodies (median visual score, 3.5 [range, 1-9]) had a worse visual outcome than patients with MOG antibodies alone (median visual score, 0 [range, 0-5]; P = .007), patients with seronegative findings (n = 28) (median visual score, 1.0 [range, 0-14]; P = .08), and patients with GlyR antibodies alone (n = 3) (median visual score, 0 [range, 0-2]; P = .10).The median age of the 7 patients with GlyR antibodies was 27 (range, 11-38) years; 5 (71%) of these were female. Among the 3 patients with GlyR antibodies alone, 1 patient had monophasic ON, 1 had recurrent isolated ON, and 1 had conversion to multiple sclerosis. The 3 patients with GlyR antibodies concurrent with MOG antibodies had recurrent isolated ON, and the patient with concurrent AQP4 antibodies had conversion to neuromyelitis optica. Of the 48 controls with neuromyelitis optica, 37 (77%) had AQP4 antibodies, 4 (8%) had MOG antibodies, 2 (4%) had AQP4 antibodies concurrent with MOG antibodies, and 5 (10%) were seronegative. Of the 64 controls with multiple sclerosis, 5 (8%) had GlyR antibodies.
Forty-five percent of patients with unilateral or bilateral, severe, or recurrent isolated ON had antibodies to MOG, AQP4, or GlyR. Patients with AQP4 antibodies had the poorest visual outcomes, whereas patients with MOG antibodies had a better outcome that was similar to that of patients with seronegative findings. The significance of GlyR antibodies in the setting of ON is unclear and deserves further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune encephalitis affecting mainly young adults and children. The lack of suitable biomarkers of disease activity makes treatment decisions and identification of relapses challenging.
To determine the levels of the B-cell-attracting C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether they can be used as biomarkers of treatment response and outcome.
Retrospective cohort study of 167 patients consecutively diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis between May 1, 2008, and January 31, 2013. Concentration of CXCL13 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all available patients' samples (272 CSF and 55 serum samples). Samples from 25 patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders and 9 with neuroborreliosis served as controls. Expression of CXCL13 in the brain biopsy of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was determined by immunohistochemistry.
Percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and elevated CXCL13 in CSF.
Compared with control individuals, 70% of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CXCL13 in CSF (>7 pg/mL; P < .001) but none in serum samples (>1047 pg/mL; P > .99). High concentration of CSF CXCL13 was associated with the presence of prodromal fever or headache (P = .01), limited response to therapy (P = .003), clinical relapses (P = .03), and intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis (P < .001). Among patients with monophasic disease assessed 2 to 6 months after starting treatment, 10 of 15 with limited treatment response vs 0 of 13 with favorable response had increased CSF CXCL13 (specificity, 100%; 95% CI, 75-100 and sensitivity, 67%; 95% CI, 38-88; P = .02). Six of 12 patients had elevated CSF CXCL13 at relapse including 3 with previously normal levels. In brain, abundant mononuclear cells in perivascular infiltrates and scattered intraparenchymal microglia expressed CXCL13.
Seventy percent of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CSF CXCL13 concentration that correlated with intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis. Prolonged or secondary elevation of CXCL13 was associated with limited response to treatment and relapses. CXCL13 is a potentially useful biomarker of treatment response and outcome in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:
We aimed to report the frequency and implications of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-ab) in adults with demyelinating syndromes suspicious for neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
Samples from 174 patients (48 NMO, 84 longitudinally extensive myelitis (LETM), 39 optic neuritis (ON), and three acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who presented initially with isolated LETM) were retrospectively examined for AQP4-ab and MOG-ab using cell-based assays.
MOG-ab were found in 17 (9.8%) patients, AQP4-ab in 59 (34%), and both antibodies in two (1.1%). Among the 17 patients with MOG-ab alone, seven (41%) had ON, five (29%) LETM, four (24%) NMO, and one (6%) ADEM. Compared with patients with AQP4-ab, those with MOG-ab were significantly younger (median: 27 vs. 40.5 years), without female predominance (53% vs. 90%), and the clinical course was more frequently monophasic (41% vs. 7%) with a benign outcome (median Expanded Disability Status Scale: 1.5 vs. 4.0). In eight patients with paired serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, five had MOG-ab in both samples and three only in serum. Antibody titres did not differ among clinical phenotypes or disease course. MOG-ab remained detectable in 12/14 patients (median follow-up: 23 months) without correlation between titres' evolution and outcome.
MOG-ab identify a subgroup of adult patients with NMO, LETM and ON that have better outcome than those associated with AQP4-ab. MOG-ab are more frequently detected in serum than CSF and the follow-up of titres does not correlate with outcome.
Multiple Sclerosis 10/2014; Oct 24(7). DOI:10.1177/1352458514555785 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serum antibody against the inward rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 (KIR4.1-IgG) was recently discovered, which is found in almost half of adult patients with multiple sclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of KIR4.1-IgG in children with acquired demyelinating disease (ADD) of the CNS. We also compared antibody responses to KIR4.1 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoproteins (MOGs), another potential autoantigen in childhood ADDs.
We measured KIR4.1-IgG by ELISA in children with ADD (n = 47), other neurologic disease (n = 22), and autoimmune disease (n = 22), and in healthy controls (HCs) (n = 18). One hundred six samples were also measured by capture ELISA. Binding of KIR4.1-IgG human subcortical white matter was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Anti-MOG antibodies were measured using a cell-based assay.
KIR4.1-IgG titers were significantly higher in children with ADD compared with all control groups by ELISA and capture ELISA (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall, 27 of 47 patients with ADD (57.45%) but none of the 62 with other neurologic disease or autoimmune disease or the HCs (0%) were KIR4.1-IgG antibody positive by ELISA. Sera containing KIR4.1-IgG stained glial cells in brain tissue sections. No correlation among KIR4.1-IgG, age, or MOG-IgG was observed in the ADD group.
Serum antibodies to KIR4.1 are found in the majority of children with ADD but not in children with other diseases or in HCs. These findings suggest that KIR4.1 is an important target of autoantibodies in childhood ADD.