Hideki Mochizuki

Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan

Are you Hideki Mochizuki?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)36.76 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with irreversible loss of central vision in the elderly. Disruption of the homeostatic function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is thought to be fundamental to AMD pathogenesis, and oxidative stress is implicated in the associated RPE damage. We examined the effects of oxidative stress on the expression of junctional proteins in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot analyses revealed that expression of the tight-junction protein claudin-1 was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels 8 to 12 h after exposure of ARPE-19 cells to H2O2, whereas that of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 or the adherens-junction protein N-cadherin was unaffected. Expression of both claudin-1 and N-cadherin was down-regulated by exposure of the cells to H2O2 for longer periods (24 to 48 h). Oxidative stress also induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) with a time course similar to that apparent for the up-regulation of claudin-1 expression. Furthermore, the increase in the abundance of claudin-1 induced by H2O2 was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK and JNK was not affected by H2O2. Our results suggest that modulation of claudin-1 expression in the RPE by oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.
    Central European Journal of Biology 05/2014; 9(5). · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence of glaucoma increases with age, as does age-related macular degeneration (AMD), with the reported incidence of glaucoma among AMD subjects being 5.4 %. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can detect glaucomatous changes in the inner retina with high sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to compare ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters and the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal eyes to that observed in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eyes with both AMD and glaucoma. The GCC components [GCC thickness, focal loss volume (FLV), and global loss volume (GLV)] and peripapillary RNFL thickness were measured using RTVue spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). The GCC and RNFL parameters of normal eyes, AMD eyes treated with different types of therapy, and AMD eyes with and without glaucoma were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine whether the GCC and RNFL parameters could be used to differentiate AMD eyes with glaucoma from those without glaucoma. Seventy-one normal eyes, 120 eyes with AMD, and 23 eyes with AMD and glaucoma were studied. The values of all GCC components were significantly different in the normal eyes from those observed in the eyes with AMD, except for the RNFL thicknesses. The GCC and RNFL parameters were not significantly different between the eyes receiving different types of therapy among the AMD groups. The RNFL thickness was significantly correlated with glaucoma diagnosis in AMD eyes. These findings indicate that there is damage to the inner retinal layers in eyes with AMD. The RNFL thickness can be a useful parameter for differentiating eyes with AMD from eyes with both AMD and glaucoma.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 10/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the extent of corneal displacement and factors associated with the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) during the early and late phases of noncontact tonometry. METHODS: One eye in each of 61 healthy volunteers was studied. In each case, the cornea was photographed in profile using a high-speed camera during noncontact tonometry. The extent of displacement at the corneal center and at the mid-peripheral corneal areas at 13.2 ms and 30.0 ms after the application of an air puff was recorded. For each measurement point, multiple regression analyses were performed against age, sex, axial length, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) to determine the independent predictors of corneal displacement. Multiple comparison tests were used to determine whether the displacement differences were associated with age or sex. RESULTS: Our results showed that the factors most associated with corneal displacement were: the IOP (P<0.001) and CCT (P=0.02) at the corneal center at 13.2 ms, the CCT (P=0.041) at the corneal mid-periphery at 13.2 ms, age (P<0.01) at the corneal center at 30.0 ms and age (P=0.04) and IOP (P=0.04) at the corneal mid-periphery at 30.0 ms. Young females had the smallest amounts of corneal displacement at all measurement points, and elderly females had largest amounts of displacement at the late phase of tonometry. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of corneal displacement is affected by an individual's IOP, age and CCT. Our findings indicate that the corneas of females may be more susceptible to aging than those of males.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Journal of glaucoma 03/2013; 22(3):267-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab on the uveal capillaries of rabbit eyes. Materials and methods: Nine eyes of nine rabbits that received single intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB) constituted the single IVB group, while nine eyes of nine rabbits that received three injections of IVB, with an interval of 28 days between injections, constituted the repeat IVB group. Seven eyes of seven rabbits constituted the control group. The rabbits in the single and repeat IVB groups were sacrificed 7 and 28 d after the single and third IVB injection, respectively. Uveal specimens were compared between groups after immunohistochemical staining. Ultrastructural findings were evaluated by electron microscopy. Control group rabbits were sacrificed 7 d after saline injection. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed at baseline, 7 d after the first injection, and after the last injection. Results: Differences in the CD31-positive areas of the iris, ciliary body and choroid 7 d after IVB were not statistically significant among the single IVB, repeat IVB and control groups (p = 0.0749, p = 0.7237 and p = 0.7346, respectively; analysis of variance). Endothelial cell fenestrations (ECFs) in the choriocapillaris and ciliary body observed by electron microscopy on day 7 in the single and repeat IVB groups were decreased by 50% (p < 0.0001) and 33% (p < 0.0001), respectively, in both IVB groups compared with those in the control group. However, ECFs observed on day 28 in both groups were comparable to those observed in the control group. Conclusions: Single IVB and repeated IVB did not have any effect on normal vessel endothelium density as per immunohistochemical findings. Ultrastructural findings revealed that IVB transiently decreased the ECFs in the choriocapillaris and ciliary body.
    Current eye research 02/2013; · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To measure the extent of corneal displacement during the early phase of tonometry using a noncontact tonometer and to determine the factors that affect the extent of the displacement. The cornea was photographed in profile by use of a high-speed camera during tonometry with a noncontact tonometer. The frame rate of the camera was 5,000 frames/s. The extent of the displacement of the central corneal area at 13.2 ms after application of the air puff was measured in 115 healthy volunteers. The factors that affected the extent of the corneal displacement were determined by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The subjects' age, sex, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and axial length were selected by the stepwise method. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that subjects with low IOP, of older age, and of male sex had significantly greater displacement of the central cornea. High-speed photography can be used to evaluate the degree of corneal displacement during tonometry with a noncontact tonometer. The amount of corneal displacement is affected by the individual's IOP, age, and sex.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2012; 56(3):273-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to determine if oxidative stress on human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells influences the stability of key mRNAs containing AU rich elements (AREs) known to be associated with glaucoma progression, and if the presence of topographic cue alters the stability of these mRNAs. HTM cells were treated with 300 μM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for 1 hour in the presence of 5 μg/mL actinomycin D and compared with untreated cells. The selected mRNAs (IL-6, IL-8, myocilin, SPARC [secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine], matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-3, and MMP-9) from the cells were analyzed by using relative quantitative PCR. Immunohistochemistry for Hu antigen R (HuR) was performed in addition to Western blots of HuR. HTM cells were also grown on topographically patterned surfaces, and IL-6 mRNA was analyzed by quantitative PCR. H(2)O(2) increased IL-6 mRNA stability 0.145 (0.095-0.27) to 0.345 (0.2-0.48) (normalized ratio, median [interquartile range]) (n = 5), while IL-8 mRNA was increased from 0.565 (0.408-0.6) to 0.775 (0.486-0.873) (n = 5). These differences were statistically significant (P = 0.0313, for both IL-6 and IL-8; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mRNAs of myocilin, SPARC, and MMP-3, which do not have AREs, were more stable after actinomycin D treatment and were not altered with oxidation. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that H(2)O(2) treatment induces the translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Nanopatterned surfaces did not alter IL-6 mRNA stability. Oxidative stress stabilizes IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs significantly. The decay of certain mRNAs associated with glaucoma may be altered in the trabecular meshwork of glaucoma patients.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2012; 53(4):1734-41. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Journal of glaucoma 02/2012; 21(4):274-5. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of positional deviations on rebound tonometer measurement of intraocular pressure in humans. Intraocular pressure was measured using the Icare rebound tonometer on the right eyes of 53 subjects in various conditions as follows: first, at a distance of 4, 6, or 8 mm from the center of the cornea with the probe perpendicular to the corneal plane; then, at 2 mm from the limbus in the nasal and temporal regions with the probe perpendicular to the corneal plane or along the visual axis; and lastly, with the angled probe touching the central cornea at angles of 10° or 20°. Bland-Altman plots between the Goldmann applanation tonometer and rebound tonometer at various conditions revealed 95% limits of agreement ranging from ±4.5 to ±5.6 mm Hg. Intraocular pressures measured using the rebound tonometer were significantly lower than those measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer when the rebound tonometer probe was placed 2 mm from the limbus in the temporal or nasal regions with the probe along the visual axis or when the probe was angled to touch the central cornea at an angle of 10° or 20°. In other positions, the intraocular pressures measured using the rebound tonometer were not significantly different. The rebound tonometer, noncontact tonometer, and Tonopen XL showed good agreement with the Goldmann applanation tonometer for intraocular pressure readings under optimal conditions. The intraocular pressures determined using the rebound tonometer were approximately equal to those obtained using the Goldmann applanation tonometer when the rebound tonometer measurements were made with the probe perpendicular to the corneal plane, irrespective of the location, that is, at the central cornea or 2 mm from the limbus.
    Current eye research 02/2012; 37(2):109-14. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Hideki Mochizuki, Kiyoshi Kusanagi
    11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-591-4
  • Hideki Mochizuki, Ashley G Lesley, James D Brandt
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of cupping reversal seen after lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in pediatric glaucoma is unknown. Theories include forward movement of the lamina cribrosa or shrinkage of a stretched scleral canal. Our study aimed to quantify changes in optic disc size occurring in children who had undergone glaucoma surgery. Retrospective, single-center, observational case series. Children undergoing incisional surgery for pediatric glaucoma at the University of California, Davis. The electronic charts of all patients with pediatric glaucoma were reviewed for the presence of RetCam digital optic nerve photographs (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Cases in which the photographs (baseline and follow-up after surgical intervention) were of sufficient quality were analyzed. The optic disc margin was outlined manually using ImageJ software. Inter-session changes in magnification were accounted for by drawing a control polygon joining 4 or 5 fixed landmarks (e.g., vessel crossings) to include a second larger area containing the optic nerve. The optic disc area (in pixels adjusted with the control polygon) was compared between baseline and follow-up images. Change in disc area between baseline and follow-up after surgery. We identified 29 eyes for which baseline and follow-up images were available for analysis. Fifteen eyes of 9 children showed clinically obvious cupping reversal. Fourteen eyes of 12 children showed no cupping reversal. Disc area decreased by 6.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.0 to -3.3) in the obvious reversal group and increased by 4.3% (95% CI, +1.0 to +7.6) in the no reversal group after surgery (P < 0.0001; Student t test). Percent change in disc area is correlated to percent change in IOP (r=0.540; P=0.0025) and axial length (r=0.534; P=0.0028). When cupping reversal is clinically apparent after successful IOP-lowering surgery for congenital glaucoma, the scleral canal shrinks in area. In contrast, when cupping reversal is not observed, the scleral ring continues to enlarge, indicating ongoing stress on the optic nerve. Clinically obvious cupping reversal is less frequently observed in adults after surgery, which may reflect a lower elasticity of the scleral ring in adults compared with children. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 06/2011; 118(10):2008-13. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of positional deviations on the rebound tonometer measurement. Ten white rabbits were used. A bottle of balanced salt solution was connected to the anterior chamber, and the IOP was altered by changing the height of the bottle. A pressure transducer was also connected to the anterior chamber. The IOP was measured by the rebound tonometer (RBT), the Tonopen XL, and the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer at optimal conditions and compared each tonometer. Then, the effect of placing the RBT probe at different distances, different lateral positions, and different angles to the cornea on the IOP was determined. The RBT had the lowest variance in all three tonometers. The IOP measured with the RBT was not significantly altered when the distance from the cornea was 4 to 8 mm, or when the probe was displaced 2 mm to the central cornea, or when the probe was placed at an angle of 20° from the central axis. The low variance of the RBT measurements and the non-significant changes in the IOP when the probe of the RBT was not on the central axis indicate that the RBT is useful for animal models of glaucoma. Further studies examining its use (repeatability and reliability) in human infants whose eyes and head are usually moving are required.
    Current eye research 05/2011; 36(5):422-8. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the effects of a single 1-mg injection of intravitreal bevacizumab on iris vessels in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) patients. Twenty-two surgically resected irises from glaucoma patients were obtained during trabeculectomy. Eight were from patients with NVG who received a 1-mg injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) before glaucoma surgery, eight were from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and six were from patients with NVG who were not administered IVB. The collected iris specimens were compared after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibodies and anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of CD34-positive and VEGF-positive regions in the total area of the specimens from the three groups was compared. The difference in the CD34-positive area between all groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0061, Kruskal-Wallis test). There was no significant difference in the CD34-positive area between the NVG with IVB group and the POAG group (p = 0.3017, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction). The POAG group had significantly fewer CD34-positive regions than the NVG without IVB group (p = 0.0019, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction). Many vessels remained in the iris stroma, and there was no significant difference in the CD34-positive area between the NVG with IVB and NVG without IVB groups (p = 0.0357, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction). The ratio of the length of CD34 expression on the iris surface in the NVG without IVB group was significantly longer than that in the NVG with IVB group (p = 0.0002, Mann-Whitney U test). The difference in VEGF expression between all groups was statistically significant (p = 0.04, Kruskal-Wallis test). There was no significant difference between the NVG with IVB group and the NVG without IVB group (p = 0.7963 Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction). The frequency of hyphema and fibrin formation in the anterior chamber 1 day after surgery between the two NVG groups was not statistically significant. A single intravitreal dose of IVB at 1 mg/0.04 ml to eyes with rubeotic glaucoma reduced the neovascularization in the human iris surface, but could not eliminate completely neovascularization in iris stroma. This finding implies that the prevention of hyphema and fibrin formation based on the slit-lamp examination can not be predicted, even if neovascularization in iris surface seems to be eliminated by a single dose of IVB.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 11/2010; 248(11):1601-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the pterygium recurrence rates after treatment with two different β-radiation doses. A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 63.0±10.3 years (men, 48 eyes, and women, 47 eyes) and initially treated with β-radiation after pterygium excision were recruited. The mean follow-up period was 49.9±51.3 months. The patients were assigned to two dose groups: a high-dose (40 Gy) or a low-dose (20 Gy) group. The statistical significance of differences in patient age, pterygium size, and interval between surgery and radiotherapy were analyzed in the 20-Gy group using the Cox proportional hazard model at p<.05. The high- and low-dose groups included 28 and 67 eyes, respectively. Pterygia recurred in 11 eyes, all in the low-dose group. The interval between surgery and radiotherapy was not a significant predictor of recurrence. Smaller pterygia had a lower risk of recurrence than pterygia that had encroached the pupillary area (pterygium located within one-third of the corneal radius from the limbus, corrected hazard ratio [HR], 0.069; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.006-0.766; p=.030; pterygium extending beyond one-third of the corneal radius, corrected HR, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.018-0.696; p=0.019; and pterygium reaching the pupillary area, corrected HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.036-0.929; p=.040). Older age was marginally significant as a negative predictor of recurrence (HR, 0.943; 95% CI, 0.887-1.003; p=.061). No scleromalacia developed during the follow-up period. β-Radiation at 40 Gy was more efficacious than at 20 Gy in preventing pterygium recurrence without scleromalacia development, particularly for large-size pterygia and those in young patients.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2010; 81(5):1394-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction over 24 h achieved with tafluprost (0.0015%) with that achieved with latanoprost (0.005%). Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were studied. After a 24-h IOP baseline measurement was taken, one ophthalmic solution was applied to the right eye daily for 7 days. The drug was then withdrawn for 2 weeks. The other agent was then applied to the left eye in the same manner. IOP was measured every 3 h for 24 h on the seventh day of treatment. The 24-h IOP after 7 days' treatment with latanoprost decreased from 11.5 mmHg at baseline to 9.7 mmHg (-1.8 mmHg) and that with tafluprost from 11.8 to 9.8 mmHg (-1.9 mmHg). Tafluprost was statistically more effective after 24 h (P = 0.007; paired t test). The number of subjects with a 24-h mean IOP reduction of <10% was 8/27 (29.6%) with latanoprost versus 4/27 (14.8%) with tafluprost. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia with latanoprost was 4/27 (14.8%) and that with tafluprost was 8/27 (29.6%). The overall efficacies of the two agents were not different, but tafluprost was associated with a greater reduction in IOP at 24 h after administration. Tafluprost showed a higher rate of conjunctival hyperemia.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2010; 54(4):286-90. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2010; 54(1):94-6. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of plateau iris configurations in acute primary angle-closure (APAC), chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG), and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) eyes using ultrasound biomicroscopy. The study included fellow eyes of 27 APAC patients, 26 OAG patients, and 26 CACG patients with no history of APAC. Patients with a history of earlier intraocular surgery or argon laser peripheral iridoplasty were excluded from the study. Eyes that had not undergone laser peripheral iridotomy were excluded from APAC and CACG groups. Radial scans were carried out using ultrasound biomicroscopy in all 4 quadrants. A plateau iris configuration within a quadrant was defined by the presence of an anteriorly positioned ciliary process, a narrow ciliary sulcus, a steeply rising peripheral iris, followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall and the presence of a flat iris plane. Eyes with plateau iris configurations were defined as those having at least 2 quadrants fulfilling these criteria. Plateau iris configurations were found in fellow eyes of 10 of 27 patients with (37.0%) APAC, 9 of 26 (34.6%) patients with CACG, and 5 of 26 (19.2%) patients with OAG. No significant difference in the prevalence of plateau iris configurations was observed among the 3 groups (P=0.314, χ2 test). Eyes with OAG had a higher rate of plateau iris configurations than expected. Longitudinal studies to evaluate plateau iris height are required to determine its significance in the pathogenesis of angle-closure glaucoma.
    Journal of glaucoma 01/2010; 20(5):315-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess and explore the effectiveness of phacoemulsification and trabeculotomy combined with goniosynechialysis in lowering intraocular pressure in eyes with uncontrollable chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The medical charts of 24 eyes of 22 patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma were reviewed retrospectively. The probability of successful treatment in 12 eyes that had earlier glaucoma attacks and 12 that did not have an attack were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis with the target pressure set at 15 mm Hg. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure for all eyes was 33.3 +/- 12.0 mm Hg and decreased to 11.8 +/- 2.3 mm Hg. The success rate was 86.6% at 1 year after surgery. Life-table analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the two groups. Phacoemulsification and trabeculotomy combined with goniosynechialysis is an effective surgical treatment for chronic angle-closure glaucoma in eyes with or without a previous glaucoma attack.
    Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging 01/2010; 41(3):348-54. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We compared the ocular hypotensive effect for 24 hours and the tolerability of latanoprost stored at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Seventeen healthy volunteers were included in this crossover trial. Latanoprost 0.005% (Xalatan) was stored at 4 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 4 weeks in the dark. The subjects enrolled to the study were randomly assigned to receive either latanoprost stored at 4 degrees C or that stored at 30 degrees C. The eye drop was applied to the right eye of each subject for 3 days. The left eye served as a control without administration. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and circadian intra ocular pressure (IOP) curve was performed at Day 3, every 3 hours from 6 pm. This procedure was repeated 7 days after changing the drug from 4 degrees C to 30 degrees C or vice versa, and application to the left eye for 3 days. Eyes treated with latanoprost, stored both at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, achieved statistically significantly lower mean IOPs than untreated eyes at all time points, except at 21 hours treated by the drug stored at 30 degrees C. We subtracted the IOP of eyes receiving latanoprost from the IOP of untreated eyes for each time point to evaluate the efficacy of the eye drops (delta IOP). There were no statistically significant differences between the delta IOPs with the drug stored at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C. During the study, no subject developed a serious adverse event. These results suggest that latanoprost stored at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks after opening the bottle remains as effective and safe as latanoprost stored under cold conditions.
    Hiroshima journal of medical sciences 07/2008; 57(2):69-72.

Publication Stats

31 Citations
1 Download
1k Views
36.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Hiroshima University
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science
      Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan
  • 2011–2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Davis, CA, United States