[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure-based design approach was successfully used to guide the evolution of imidazopyridine scaffold yielding new structural class of highly selective inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases that were able to form a new interaction with an identified residue of the protein, Lys89. Compounds from this series have shown no detectable effect when tested against a representative set of other serine/threonine kinases such as GSK3beta, CAMKII, PKA, PKC-alpha,beta,epsilon,gamma. Compound 2i inhibits proliferation in HCT 116 cells in tissue culture. Synthesis, co-crystal structure of CDK2 in complex with compound 2i, and preliminary SAR study are disclosed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a novel structural class of protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors comprised of an aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus. Compounds from this family are shown to potently inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases by competing with ATP for binding to a catalytic subunit of the protein. Structure-based design approach was used to direct this chemical scaffold toward generating potent and selective CDK2 inhibitors. The discovery of this new class of ATP-site directed protein kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, provides the basis of new medicinal chemistry tool in search for an effective treatment of cancer and other diseases that involve protein kinase signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of novel aza-1,7-annulated indoles was achieved and these were converted to indolocarbazoles that proved to be potent kinase inhibitors. These compounds were also evaluated in a human colon carcinoma cell line and proved to be good antiproliferative agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathological activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of fibrotic diseases and also enhances tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Due to its central role in TGFbeta signaling, the TGFbeta type I receptor (TbetaRI) is emerging as an exciting target for blockade of the TGFbeta pathway. In this review we will discuss how three independent drug discovery strategies, ie, target-hopping, high-throughput screening and virtual screening, have converged in the identification of inhibitors of TalphaRI kinase. Structural studies have provided insight into the potency and selectivity of these inhibitors and form the basis for structure-based design optimization strategies. These efforts have enabled the production of potent, selective inhibitors for dissecting the TGFalpha pathway and assessing the usefulness of TalphaRI blockade in the treatment of fibrotic diseases and cancer.
Current opinion in drug discovery & development 08/2004; 7(4):437-45. · 5.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have expanded our previously reported series of pyrazole-based inhibitors of the TGF-beta type I receptor kinase domain (TbetaR-I) to now include new 5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole analogues. Limited examination of the SAR of this new series in both enzyme and cell based in vitro assays has revealed selectivity differences with respect to p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) depending on the nature of the 'warhead' group on the dihydropyrrolopyrazole ring. As with our original pyrazole series, phenyl substituents tended to show greater selectivity against p38 MAPK than those comprised of the quinoline-4-yl moiety. We have also achieved co-crystallization and X-ray analysis of compounds 3 and 15, two potent examples of this new series, with the TbetaR-I receptor kinase domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein kinase family represents an enormous opportunity for drug development. However, the current limitation in structural diversity of kinase inhibitors has complicated efforts to identify effective treatments of diseases that involve protein kinase signaling pathways. We have identified a new structural class of protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors comprising an aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus. In this report, we describe the first successful use of this class of aza-heterocycles to generate potent inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases that compete with ATP for binding to a catalytic subunit of the protein. Co-crystal structures of CDK2 in complex with lead compounds reveal a unique mode of binding. Using this knowledge, a structure-based design approach directed this chemical scaffold toward generating potent and selective CDK2 inhibitors, which selectively inhibited the CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of Rb and induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in HCT 116 tumor cells. The discovery of this new class of ATP-site-directed protein kinase inhibitors, aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, provides the basis for a new medicinal chemistry tool to be used in the search for effective treatments of cancer and other diseases that involve protein kinase signaling pathways.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2004; 3(1):1-9. · 6.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of indolo[2,3-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles and their bis-indolylmaleimides precursors have been prepared in order to compare their activity as D1-CDK4 inhibitors. Both enzymatic and antiproliferative assays have shown that the structurally more constrained indolo[2,3-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles are consistently more active (8-42-fold) in head-to-head comparison with their bis-indolylmaleimides counterparts. Cell-cycle analysis using flow cytometry have also shown that the indolocarbazoles are selective G1 blockers while the bis-indolylmaleimides arrest cells in the G2/M phase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrazole-based inhibitors of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor kinase domain (TbetaR-I) are described. Examination of the SAR in both enzyme- and cell-based in vitro assays resulted in the emergence of two subseries featuring differing selectivity versus p38 MAP kinase. A common binding mode at the active site has been established by successful cocrystallization and X-ray analysis of potent inhibitors with the TbetaR-I receptor kinase domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase encoded by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a key component of the viral replicase. Reported here is the three-dimensional structure of HCV NS5B polymerase, with the highlight on its C-terminal folding, determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1-A resolution. Structural analysis revealed that a stretch of C-terminal residues of HCV NS5B inserted into the putative RNA binding cleft, where they formed a hydrophobic pocket and interacted with several important structural elements. This region was found to be conserved and unique to the RNA polymerases encoded by HCV and related viruses. Through biochemical analyses, we confirmed that this region interfered with the binding of HCV NS5B to RNA. Deletion of this fragment from HCV NS5B enhanced the RNA synthesis rate up to approximately 50-fold. These results provide not only direct experimental insights into the role of the C-terminal tail of HCV NS5B polymerase but also a working model for the RNA synthesis mechanism employed by HCV and related viruses.
Journal of Virology 09/2003; 77(16):9020-8. DOI:10.1128/JVI.77.16.9020-9028.2003 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) plays a key role in viral replication. Reported here is evidence that HCV NS5B polymerase acts as a functional oligomer. Oligomerization of HCV NS5B protein was demonstrated by gel filtration, chemical cross-linking, temperature sensitivity, and yeast cell two-hybrid analysis. Mutagenesis studies showed that the C-terminal hydrophobic region of the protein was not essential for its oligomerization. Importantly, HCV NS5B polymerase exhibited cooperative RNA synthesis activity with a dissociation constant, K(d), of approximately 22 nM, suggesting a role for the polymerase-polymerase interaction in the regulation of HCV replicase activity. Further functional evidence includes the inhibition of the wild-type NS5B polymerase activity by a catalytically inactive form of NS5B. Finally, the X-ray crystal structure of HCV NS5B polymerase was solved at 2.9 A. Two extensive interfaces have been identified from the packing of the NS5B molecules in the crystal lattice, suggesting a higher-order structure that is consistent with the biochemical data.
Journal of Virology 05/2002; 76(8):3865-72. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.8.3865-3872.2002 · 4.65 Impact Factor