[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) release from the coronary endothelium facilitates myocardial relaxation via a cGMP-dependent reduction in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Recent evidence suggests that NO released by a neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the myocardium can also hasten left ventricular relaxation; however, the mechanism underlying these findings is uncertain. Here we show that both relaxation (TR50) and the rate of [Ca2+]i transient decay (tau) are significantly prolonged in field-stimulated or voltage-clamped left ventricular myocytes from nNOS-/- mice and in wild-type myocytes (nNOS+/+) after acute nNOS inhibition. Disabling the sarcoplasmic reticulum abolished the differences in TR50 and tau, suggesting that impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake may account for the slower relaxation in nNOS-/- mice. In line with these findings, disruption of nNOS (but not of endothelial NOS) decreased phospholamban phosphorylation (P-Ser16 PLN), whereas nNOS inhibition had no effect on TR50 or tau in PLN-/- myocytes. Inhibition of cGMP signaling had no effect on relaxation in either group whereas protein kinase A inhibition abolished the difference in relaxation and PLN phosphorylation by decreasing P-Ser16 PLN and prolonging TR50 in nNOS+/+ myocytes. Conversely, inhibition of type 1 or 2A protein phosphatases shortened TR50 and increased P-Ser16 PLN in nNOS-/- but not in nNOS+/+ myocytes, in agreement with data showing increased protein phosphatase activity in nNOS-/- hearts. Taken together, our findings identify a novel mechanism by which myocardial nNOS promotes left ventricular relaxation by regulating the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of PLN and the rate of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake via a cGMP-independent effect on protein phosphatase activity.
Circulation Research 03/2008; 102(2):242-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of constitutive nitric oxide (NO) production in the regulation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic responses remains controversial. Conflicting data in left ventricular (LV) myocytes from eNOS knockout mice (eNOS-/-) have been ascribed to inconsistent experimental conditions (i.e., differences in the choice of controls, age of the mice, myocytes' stimulation frequency, and in the level of beta-adrenergic stimulation); however, the recent identification of a neuronal-like NO synthase (nNOS) in the LV myocardium has raised the possibility that this isoform may be involved in the modulation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic responses.
To address these issues we recorded sarcomere shortening at 35 degrees C under basal conditions, in the presence of isoproterenol (ISO, 10-100 nmol/L) and of ISO plus carbamylcholine (CCh, 1 micromol/L) in LV myocytes isolated from eNOS-/- and nNOS-/- mice, their wild type littermates (eNOS+/+ and nNOS+/+) or C57BL/6J mice. eNOS-/- and control myocytes were studied at 1 and 3 Hz, in the presence of 10 and 100 nmol/L ISO, and responses were compared between young (3 months) and old (> or =12 months) mice.
Contraction did not differ between young eNOS-/- and eNOS+/+ mice at all stages of the experimental protocol, either at 1 or 3 Hz or in response to 10 or 100 nmol/L ISO. However, myocytes from old eNOS-/- mice showed a reduced inotropic response to ISO compared with age-matched eNOS+/+ mice (P = 0.02). Similarly, there was a significant difference in the ISO response between eNOS+/+ and C57BL/6J myocytes (P < 0.01), suggesting that experimental variables such as age and the choice of control animals may have contributed to the inconsistency in the results reported in the literature. In contrast, nNOS-/- myocytes showed greater contraction and slower relaxation at all stages of the experimental protocol (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.01 vs. nNOS+/+ myocytes).
Constitutive eNOS expression in murine LV myocytes is not essential for the muscarinic-mediated inhibition of beta-adrenergic signalling and does not appear to play a significant role in the regulation of basal and beta-adrenergic myocardial contraction. Our data suggest that nNOS is the myocardial constitutive isoform responsible for the NO-mediated autocrine regulation of myocardial inotropy and relaxation.
Cardiovascular Research 04/2006; 70(1):97-106. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity is reduced in most cardiovascular disease states, and this may contribute to enhanced cardiac sympathetic responsiveness. Disruption of inhibitory G-proteins (Gi) ablates the cholinergic pathway and increases cardiac endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression, suggesting that NO may offset the impaired attenuation of beta-adrenergic regulation of supraventricular excitability. To test this, we investigated the role of endogenous NO production on beta-adrenergic regulation of rate (HR), contraction (CR) and calcium (Ca2+) handling in atria following blockade of Gi-coupled muscarinic receptors.
Mice were administered pertussis toxin (PTx, n=105) or saline (C, n=100) intraperitoneally. After 3 days, we measured CR, HR, and NOS protein levels in isolated atria. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients and Ca2+ current density (I(Ca)) were also measured in atrial myocytes.
PTx treatment increased atrial myocyte eNOS protein levels compared to C (P<0.05). This did not affect basal atrial function but was associated with a significant reduction in the CR and HR response to isoprenaline (ISO) compared with C. NOS inhibition normalized responses in PTx atria with respect to responses in C atria (P<0.05), which were unaffected. Furthermore, PTx did not affect ISO-stimulated HR and CR in eNOS gene knockout mice (n=40). In agreement with these findings, the ISO-mediated increase in Ca2+ transient was suppressed in PTx-treated myocytes (P<0.05), whereas I(Ca) did not differ between groups.
eNOS-derived NO inhibits beta-adrenergic responses following disruption of Gi signaling. This suggests that increased eNOS expression may be a compensatory mechanism which reduces beta-adrenergic regulation of heart rate when cardiac parasympathetic control is impaired.
Cardiovascular Research 10/2005; 67(4):613-23. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate cardiac function, both in physiological conditions and in disease states. However, several aspects of NO signalling in the myocardium remain poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the disparate functions ascribed to NO result from its generation by different isoforms of the NO synthase (NOS) enzyme, the varying subcellular localization and regulation of NOS isoforms and their effector proteins. Some apparently contrasting findings may have arisen from the use of non-isoform-specific inhibitors of NOS, and from the assumption that NO donors may be able to mimic the actions of endogenously produced NO. In recent years an at least partial explanation for some of the disagreements, although by no means all, may be found from studies that have focused on the role of the neuronal NOS (nNOS) isoform. These data have shown a key role for nNOS in the control of basal and adrenergically stimulated cardiac contractility and in the autonomic control of heart rate. Whether or not the role of nNOS carries implications for cardiovascular disease remains an intriguing possibility requiring future study.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/2004; 359(1446):1021-44. · 6.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been located to the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Subcellular localization of a constitutive NOS in the proximity of an activating source of Ca2+ suggests that cardiac nNOS-derived NO may regulate contraction by exerting a highly specific and localized action on ion channels/transporters involved in Ca2+ cycling. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated myocardial Ca2+ handling and contractility in nNOS knockout mice (nNOS-/-) and in control mice (C) after acute nNOS inhibition with 100 micromol/L L-VNIO. nNOS gene disruption or L-VNIO increased basal contraction both in left ventricular (LV) myocytes (steady-state cell shortening 10.3+/-0.6% in nNOS-/- versus 8.1+/-0.5% in C; P<0.05) and in vivo (LV ejection fraction 53.5+/-2.7 in nNOS-/- versus 44.9+/-1.5% in C; P<0.05). nNOS disruption increased ICa density (in pA/pF, at 0 mV, -11.4+/-0.5 in nNOS-/- versus -9.1+/-0.5 in C; P<0.05) and prolonged the slow time constant of inactivation of ICa by 38% (P<0.05), leading to an increased Ca2+ influx and a greater SR load in nNOS-/- myocytes (in pC/pF, 0.78+/-0.04 in nNOS-/- versus 0.64+/-0.03 in C; P<0.05). Consistent with these data, [Ca2+]i transient (indo-1) peak amplitude was greater in nNOS-/- myocytes (410/495 ratio 0.34+/-0.01 in nNOS-/- versus 0.31+/-0.01 in C; P<0.05). These findings have uncovered a novel mechanism by which intracellular Ca2+ is regulated in LV myocytes and indicate that nNOS is an important determinant of basal contractility in the mammalian myocardium. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
Circulation Research 03/2003; 92(5):e52-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the heart, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced by the vascular and endocardial endothelium, the cardiomyocytes and the autonomic nerves. Whereas stimulation of NO release from the vascular endothelium has consistently been shown to quicken the onset of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and cause a small reduction in peak contraction, the role of myocardial NO production in regulating cardiac function appears to be more complex and controversial. Some studies have shown that non-isoform-specific inhibition of NO synthesis with L-arginine analogues has no effect on basal contraction in LV myocytes. However, others have demonstrated that stimulation of myocardial NO production can offset the increase in contraction in response to a rise in intracellular Ca(2+). Cardiac NO production is also activated by stretch and under these conditions NO has been shown to facilitate the Frank-Starling response and to contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) transients that mediates the slow increase in contraction in response to stretch (i.e., the Anrep effect). These findings suggest that NO can mediate diverse and even contrasting actions within the myocardium, a notion that is difficult to reconcile with the early description of NO as a highly reactive and diffusible molecule possessing minimal specificity in its interactions. The purpose of this short review is to revisit some of the 'controversial' aspects of NO-mediated regulation of myocardial function, taking into account our current understanding of how mammalian cells may target and regulate the synthesis of NO in such a way that NO can serve diverse physiological functions.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 01/2003; 82(1-3):67-80. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that myocardial NO production can modulate contractility, but the source of NO remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the role of a type 1 NO synthase isoform (NOS1), which has been recently localized to the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, in the regulation of basal and beta-adrenergic myocardial contraction.
Contraction was assessed in left ventricular myocytes isolated from mice with NOS1 gene disruption (NOS1(-/-) mice) and their littermate controls (NOS1(+/+) mice) at 3 stimulation frequencies (1, 3, and 6 Hz) in basal conditions and during beta-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol (2 nmol/L). In addition, we examined the effects of acute specific inhibition of NOS1 with vinyl-L-N-5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (L-VNIO, 500 micromol/L). NOS1((-/-)) myocytes exhibited greater contraction at all frequencies (percent cell shortening at 6 Hz, 10.7+/-0.92% in NOS1(-/-) myocytes versus 7.21+/-0.8% in NOS1(+/+) myocytes; P<0.05) with a flat frequency-contraction relationship. Time to 50% relaxation was increased in NOS1(-/-) myocytes at all frequencies (at 6 Hz, 26.53+/-1.4 ms in NOS1(-/-) myocytes versus 21.27+/-1.3 ms in NOS1(+/+) myocytes; P<0.05). L-VNIO prolonged time to 50% relaxation at all frequencies (at 6 Hz, 21.28+/-1.7 ms in NOS1(+/+) myocytes versus 26.45+/-1.4 ms in NOS1(+/+)+L-VNIO myocytes; P<0.05) but did not significantly increase basal contraction. However, both NOS1(-/-) myocytes and NOS1(+/+) myocytes treated with L-VNIO showed a greatly enhanced contraction in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation (percent increase in contraction at 6 Hz, 25.2+/-10.8 in NOS1(+/+) myocytes, 68.2+/-11.2 in NOS1(-/-) myocytes, and 65.1+/-13.2 in NOS1(+/+)+L-VNIO myocytes; P<0.05).
NOS1 disruption enhances basal contraction and the inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation in murine ventricular myocytes. These findings indicate that cardiac NOS1-derived NO plays a significant role in the autocrine regulation of myocardial contractility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key word to consider when thinking about the control of blood flow and arterial blood pressure (ABP) is ‘integration’. The body has developed a large number of integrated homeostatic mechanisms in order to keep ABP and flow at around constant levels, with the aim of maintaining adequate perfusion of the vital organs both at rest and in situations where there is a change in environment or workload. Maintenance of normal ABP is mainly dependent on the balance between cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), related by the equation:
Mean ABP = Cardiac output × PVR
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : In sinoatrial (SA) node cells, nitric oxide (NO) exerts a dual effect on the hyperpolarization-activated current, I(f), i.e. in basal conditions NO enhances I(f) whereas in the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation it decreases it. Recent studies have shown that I(f) is present in ventricular myocytes from hypertrophied or failing hearts where it may promote abnormal automaticity. Since these pathological conditions are associated with increased sympathetic tone and upregulation of myocardial NO production, we set out to investigate whether I(f) is similarly modulated by NO in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes.
Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from 18-20-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Membrane current was measured under whole-cell or amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp conditions, at 35 degrees C.
Application of diethylamine-NO (DEA-NO, 1-100 microM) did not alter the amplitude or voltage dependence of activation of I(f) under basal conditions (half-activation voltage, V(h): control -82.9+/-2.6, DEA-NO -84.0+/-2.6 mV). Similarly, I(f) was not affected by the inhibition of endogenous NO production (L-NMMA, 500 microM) or guanylate cyclase (ODQ, 10 microM). Forskolin (10 microM) or isoprenaline (100 nM) elicited a positive shift in V(h) but subsequent application of DEA-NO did not further affect the properties of I(f).
Our results show that, unlike in SA node cells, in SHR ventricular myocytes basal and adrenergically stimulated I(f) is not modulated by exogenous NO or by constitutive NO or cGMP production.
Cardiovascular Research 08/2001; 51(1):51-8. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the epicardial activation sequence during a norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular arrhythmia in anesthetized pigs and studied factors that modulated it. Subepicardial NE infusion caused the QRS complex to invert within a single beat (n = 35 animals, 101 observations), and the earliest epicardial activation consistently shifted to the randomly located infusion site (n = 14). This preceded right atrial activation, whereas the total ventricular epicardial activation time increased from 20 +/- 4 to 50 +/- 9 ms (P < 0.01). These events were accompanied by a ventricular tachycardia and a drop in left ventricular pressure, which were fully reversed after the infusion was stopped. Epicardial pacing at the infusion site mimicked all electrical and hemodynamic changes induced by NE. The arrhythmia was prevented by propranolol and abolished by cardiac sympathetic or vagal nerve stimulation. Focal automaticity was computationally reconstructed using a two-dimensional sheet of 256 x 256 resistively coupled ventricular cells, where calcium handling was abnormally high in the central region. We conclude that adrenergic stimulation to a small region of the ventricle elicits triggered automaticity and that computational reconstruction implicates calcium overload. Interventions that reduce spatial inhomogeneities of intracellular calcium may prevent this type of arrhythmia.
Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2001; 90(1):287-98. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart rate (HR) recovery from heavy exercise is associated with a shift in cardiac sympatho-vagal balance and a transient hypokalaemia. Since changes in extracellular potassium ([K+]0) affect membrane currents in the sino-atrial node, in particular the acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IK,ACh), the hyperpolarization-activated current (If) and the L-type calcium current (ICa,L), we investigated whether mimicking [K+]0 concentrations seen during and immediately after exercise could directly modulate the HR response to vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in the isolated guinea-pig atria preparation pre-stimulated with noradrenaline (NA, 1 μM). Lowering [K+]0 from 4 to 3 mM significantly enhanced the HR response to VNS (5 Hz, 5 V, 30 s, ΔHR 84.5±14.1 bpm and 119.3±18.2 bpm, respectively). Increasing [K+]0 to 8 or 10 mM significantly decreased the drop in HR with VNS in comparison to the response to 3 mM K+ Tyrode (ΔHR 56.4±9.1 bpm and 52.1±8.7 bpm, respectively). These results could be simulated using the OXSOFT heart sino-atrial node computer model by activating IK,ACh during changes in [K+]0. However, changing [K+]0 in the model had no significant effect on the decrease in beating frequency brought about by decreasing If or ICa,L. We conclude that the magnitude of the decrease in HR with VNS is enhanced in low [K+]0 and reduced in high [K+]0. The increased efficacy of cardiac vagal activation in low [K+]0 might therefore facilitate the drop in HR after heavy exercise where there is a transient hypokalaemia. Modelling suggests this result may be explained by the effects of changes in [K+]0 on the current–voltage relationship for IK,ACh.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the cardiac muscarinic-receptor-coupled nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the cholinergic control of heart rate (HR) is controversial. We investigated whether adding excessive NO or its intracellular messenger cGMP could significantly modulate the HR response to vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in the anesthetized rabbit and isolated guinea pig atria. The NO donor molsidomine (0.2 mg/kg iv) significantly enhanced the decrease in HR seen with right VNS (5 Hz, 5 V, 30 s) in vivo. A qualitatively similar effect was seen with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 and 100 microM) during VNS in vitro. This effect was still present when the baseline shift in HR caused by SNP was eliminated by using the specific hyperpolarization-activated current antagonist 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino)-pyrimidinium chloride (ZD-7288, 1 microM). The accentuated decrease in HR with SNP during VNS was mimicked by the stable analog of cyclic GMP, 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (0.5 mM). This, however, was not seen with bath application of the stable analog of acetylcholine, carbamylcholine chloride (100 nM). We conclude that excessive NO enhances the magnitude of the decrease in HR caused by VNS. This effect appears to involve a presynaptic action via a cGMP-dependent pathway because it was not mimicked by bath-applied carbamylcholine chloride.
Journal of Applied Physiology 03/1999; 86(2):510-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the sympatho-vagal control of heart rate was investigated in the cardiac sympathectomized and vagotomized anaesthetised rabbit and in the isolated guinea-pig atria with intact vagus nerve. Specific inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with 1-(2-trimethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM, 50 mg kg(-1) i.v. in vivo) significantly enhanced the magnitude of the change in heart rate (HR) with sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS, 31.6+/-4.5 bpm control vs. 49.7+/-6.0 bpm in TRIM, P < 0.05, 10 Hz). This effect was reversed by L-arginine (deltaHR 37.2+/-4.1 bpm, 50 mg kg(-1) i.v.). An enhanced HR response to SNS was also seen with the non-isoform specific inhibitor, N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, 50 mg kg(-1) i.v.). Infusing isoprenaline (0.2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) did not mimic the change in HR response to SNS with TRIM. There was, however, no significant effect of inhibition of NOS with TRIM L-NA or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 20 mg kg(-1) i.v.) on the magnitude of the change in HR with vagal nerve stimulation (5 Hz) in vivo. There was also no significant effect of NOS inhibition on the change in HR with vagal nerve stimulation in vivo in the presence of pre-adrenergic stimulation or in the presence of propranolol (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.v., 2, 5 and 10 Hz stimulation). This result was confirmed in the isolated guinea-pig atria with the specific nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NiNa, 100 microM) at 1, 2, 3 or 5 Hz stimulation frequency. Our data suggest that endogenous NO plays an inhibitory role in cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission, but there was no convincing evidence from our results for a major role for endogenous NO in vagal control of heart rate, with or without prior adrenergic stimulation.
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 08/1998; 73(1):63-73.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the cholinergic regulation of heart rate (HR) recovery from an aspect of simulated exercise was investigated in atria isolated from guinea pig to test the hypothesis that NO may be involved in the cholinergic antagonism of the positive chronotropic response to adrenergic stimulation. Inhibition of NO synthesis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 100 micro M) significantly slowed the time course of the reduction in HR without affecting the magnitude of the response elicited by bath-applied ACh (100 nM) or vagal nerve stimulation (2 Hz). The half-times (t1/2) of responses were 3.99 +/- 0.41 s in control vs. 7. 49 +/- 0.68 s in L-NMMA (P < 0.05). This was dependent on prior adrenergic stimulation (norepinephrine, 1 micro M). The effect of L-NMMA was reversed by L-arginine (1 mM; t1/2 4.62 +/- 0.39 s). The calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine (0.2 micro M) also slowed the kinetics of the reduction in HR caused by vagal nerve stimulation. However, the t1/2 for the reduction in HR with antagonists (2 mM Cs+ and 1 micro M ZD-7288) of the hyperpolarization-activated current were significantly faster compared with control. There was no additional effect of L-NMMA or L-NMMA+L-arginine on vagal stimulation in groups treated with nifedipine, Cs+, or ZD-7288. We conclude that NO contributes to the cholinergic antagonism of the positive cardiac chronotropic effects of adrenergic stimulation by accelerating the HR response to vagal stimulation. This may involve an interplay between two pacemaking currents (L-type calcium channel current and hyperpolarization-activated current). Whether NO modulates the vagal control of HR recovery from actual exercise remains to be determined.
Journal of Applied Physiology 05/1998; 84(5):1596-603. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that cardiac ischemia uncouples the beneficial interaction among hyperkalemia, acidosis, and raised plasma catecholamines when these chemicals are changed to mimic their exercise levels. Potassium chloride, lactic acid, and norepinephrine (NE) were infused intravenously for 2 min into anesthetized, artificially ventilated, thoracotomized rabbits during either occlusion of the left circumflex artery (3 min; n = 10) or after a period of prolonged ischemia (20 min; n = 7) that led to a small infarction. NE (1 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) iv) offset the negative cardiac effects of hyperkalemia (up to 8.7 +/- 0.7 mM) and acidosis (arterial pH 7.09 +/- 0.03) in normal hearts. Cardiac performance was not significantly depressed by either acute or chronic ischemia before any infusions. However, the protective effect of NE during acute ischemia or after prolonged ischemia with hyperkalemia and acidosis was substantially reduced. These results show that cardiac ischemia attenuates the protective action of NE and increases the depressive effects of hyperkalemia and acidosis. Whether myocardial ischemia amplifies the cardiotoxic effects of hyperkalemia and acidosis during vigorous exercise by attenuating the beneficial effect of catecholamines remains to be determined.
Journal of Applied Physiology 05/1997; 82(4):1046-52. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 2 mM cesium (Cs+) and a novel selective bradycardic agent ZD7288 (0.64 microM) on sinoatrial Node (SAN) pacing rate were investigated in an isolated guinea pig SAN/atrial preparation, rabbit SAN preparation, and isolated working rabbit heart preparation. The effect of Cs+ and ZD7288 on the response of the preparations to increased extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) was also studied. Cs+ reduced beating frequency by 24% in isolated rabbit SAN (n = 16, p < 0.01) and by 21% in isolated working rabbit heart (n = 9, p < 0.01). ZD7288 decreased beating rate by 53% in guinea pig SAN (n = 7, p < 0.01) and by 38% in isolated working rabbit heart (n = 6, p < 0.01). In all three preparations, increased [K+]o significantly decreased the rate (p < 0.01) in normal Tyrode's solution but had no effect in the presence of Cs+ and caused tachycardia (p < 0.01) in the presence of ZD7288. We conclude that Cs+ and ZD7288 decrease pacing rate in rabbits and guinea pigs, possibly through modulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)). ZD7288 is a more effective bradycardic agent than Cs+.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 03/1995; 25(2):300-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor