Jussi Sutinen

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (33)181.2 Total impact

  • Jussi Sutinen · Matti Ristola
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    ABSTRACT: Combination anti-HIV therapies revolutionized patient life expectancy in the mid-1990's. Afterwards, in the early 2000's, research focused on the adverse effects caused by HIV drugs. Among these, the most serious ones are myocardial infarction at young age, disturbances of kidney function, liver disorders, pancreatitis and osteoporosis. The worsening of prognosis, for instance in respect of cardiac diseases, observed approximately five years ago in patients due to pauses in HIV medication, has changed perspective. Currently it is being discussed whether the overall prognosis will be improved with HIV medication started as early as possible.
    Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2012; 128(1):37-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with lipodystrophy, i.e., loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdomen, limbs, and face and its accumulation intra-abdominally. No fat is lost dorsocervically and it can even accumulate in this region (buffalo hump). It is unknown how preserved dorsocervical fat differs from abdominal subcutaneous fat in HIV-1-infected cART-treated patients with (cART+LD+) and without (cART+LD-) lipodystrophy. We used histology, microarray, PCR, and magnetic resonance imaging to compare dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in cART+LD+ (n=21) and cART+LD- (n=11). Albeit dorsocervical adipose tissue in cART+LD+ seems spared from lipoatrophy, its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; copies/cell) content was significantly lower (by 62%) than that of the corresponding tissue in cART+LD-. Expression of CD68 mRNA, a marker of macrophages, and numerous inflammatory genes in microarray were significantly lower in dorsocervical versus abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Genes with the greatest difference in expression between the two depots were those involved in regulation of transcription and regionalization (homeobox genes), irrespective of lipodystrophy status. There was negligible mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1, a gene characteristic of brown adipose tissue, in either depot. Because mtDNA is depleted even in the nonatrophic dorsocervical adipose tissue, it is unlikely that the cause of lipoatrophy is loss of mtDNA. Dorsocervical adipose tissue is less inflamed than lipoatrophic adipose tissue. It does not resemble brown adipose tissue. The greatest difference in gene expression between dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is in expression of homeobox genes.
    Diabetes 05/2011; 60(7):1894-900. DOI:10.2337/db11-0075 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • American journal of infection control 09/2010; 38(7):579-80. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2010.03.001 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle characterizes antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated lipoatrophy (LA). A cross-sectional study comparing HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated patients with LA (n = 5; LA+) and without LA (n = 5; non-LA) was conducted. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen consumption in quadriceps femoris muscle during rest and aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantified by PCR. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. All data are given as means +/- SEM. Compared with the non-LA group, the LA+ group had significantly less limb fat and more intra-abdominal fat, but similar leg muscle mass. The LA+ group versus the non-LA group had reduced mtDNA content per nucleus in adipose tissue (173 +/- 38 versus 328 +/- 62; P = 0.067), but not in skeletal muscle (2606 +/- 375 versus 2842 +/- 309; P = 0.64). Perfusion in resting muscle (34 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 6 mL/kg/min in the LA+ group versus the non-LA group; P = 0.5), and the mean absolute (277 +/- 30 versus 274 +/- 43 mL/kg/min, respectively; P = 0.95) and relative (10.6 +/- 2.5- versus 11.9 +/- 1.5-fold change, respectively; P = 0.67) increases in perfusion during exercise were similar between the groups. Oxygen consumption at rest (2.2 +/- 0.7 versus 2.1 +/- 0.3 mL/kg/min in the LA+ group versus the non-LA group; P = 0.9), and the mean absolute (14.6 +/- 1.7 versus 24.3 +/- 8.8 mL/kg/min, respectively; P = 0.3) and relative (10.3 +/- 2.8- versus 11.7 +/- 2.4-fold change, respectively; P = 0.73) exercise-induced increases in oxygen consumption were similar between the groups. The oxygen extraction fraction was comparable between the groups, both at rest and during exercise. Plasma lactate concentrations remained unchanged in both groups during exercise. HIV-infected patients with ART-associated LA have similar mtDNA content in skeletal muscle and comparable skeletal muscle aerobic exercise metabolism to antiretroviral-treated non-lipoatrophic patients.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2010; 65(7):1497-504. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkq138 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of thiazolidinediones (TZD) on changes in limb fat mass in HIV-infected individuals, particularly in those not receiving a thymidine analogue. Individual patient data from placebo-controlled, randomized trials of rosiglitazone (n = 5) or pioglitazone (n = 1) were combined. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to estimate the treatment effect on changes in limb fat mass. In the combined dataset of 427 patients, the baseline median age was 45 years, 86% were male, 80% were Caucasian, 63% were receiving stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT), 66% were on protease inhibitors, and median body mass index was 23 kg/m(2). In a univariate GEE model, TZD was associated with an increase in limb fat mass (coeff = 0.14 kg vs placebo, P = .04). In a multivariable GEE model, patients receiving pioglitazone had significantly higher limb fat mass gains (coeff = 0.35 kg, P < or = .01) compared to patients receiving placebo, while patients on rosiglitazone did not (coeff = 0.05 kg, P = .48). Interactions between thymidine analogue use and rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were not significant. In this meta-analysis, pioglitazone therapy was more effective than placebo to increase limb fat mass whereas rosiglitazone was not significantly better than placebo. The effectiveness of these drugs did not vary according to whether the patients were receiving thymidine analogues.
    HIV Clinical Trials 01/2010; 11(1):39-50. DOI:10.1310/hct1101-39 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extent and manner by which HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors contribute to insulin resistance is unclear. We evaluated the effect of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) on glucose metabolism. combination antiretroviral therapy-naive men were randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r, 400/100 mg twice a day) + ZDV/3TC or LPV/r (533/133 mg twice a day) + nevirapine (NVP). Computerized tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps using stable isotopes were performed before and after 3, 12, and 24 months of combination antiretroviral therapy. Insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal decreased by 25% after 3 months in patients on zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir (ZDV/3TC/LPV/r) (P < 0.001) and this decreased rate persisted thereafter, followed by a transient decrease in insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis. In the nevirapine/lopinavir/ritonavir (NVP/LPV/r) group, hepatic insulin sensitivity had improved compared with baseline after 24 months. After the initial 3 months, limb fat decreased in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r arm up to 24 months [-849 +/- 345 g (P = 0.017)], and visceral adipose tissue increased over 2 years [+36.2 +/- 13.3 cm2 (P = 0.009)]. In the NVP/LPV/r group, a generalized increase in fat mass was observed. Treatment with ZDV/3TC/LPV/r versus NVP/LPV/r differentially affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The ZDV/3TC/LPV/r regimen induced peripheral insulin resistance, a transient increase in basal lipolysis and a transient decrease in insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis, whereas hepatic insulin sensitivity improved with the NVP/LPV/r regimen.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2009; 53(2):186-93. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c190f4 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term use of both zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) is associated with lipoatrophy, but it occurs possibly through different mechanisms. Surgical biopsy specimens of subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 18 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected lipoatrophic patients (the LA+ group) who were treated with either zidovudine (the AZT+LA+ group; n = 10) or stavudine (the d4T+LA+ group; n = 8) and from 10 nonlipoatrophic HIV-1-infected patients (the LA- group) who received antiretroviral therapy. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry data were analyzed. mtDNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in the LA+ group, compared with the LA- group, and in the d4T+LA+ group, compared with the AZT+LA+ group. The ratio of mtDNA-encoded cytochrome COX3 to nuclear DNA-encoded COX4 expression was significantly lower in the LA+ group than in the LA- group. Compared with the LA- group, the LA+ group had significantly lower expression of genes involved in adipogenesis (SREBP1c and CEBPB), lipid (fatty acid synthase), and glucose (GLUT4) metabolism. Expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1B), apoptosis (FAS), inflammation (IL1B), oxidative stress (PCNA and SOD1), and lamin B was significantly higher in the LA+ group than in the LA- group. The d4T+LA+ group had significantly lower expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (POLG1), energy metabolism (the COX3/COX4 ratio), adipogenesis (SREBP1c and CEBPA), perilipin, and hexokinase than did the AZT+LA+ group. There were 7-fold more macrophages in adipose tissue specimens obtained from patients in the LA+ group, compared with the LA- group. Lipoatrophy is characterized by mtDNA depletion, inflammation, and signs of apoptosis. Changes were more profound in the d4T+LA+ group than in the AZT+LA+ group.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2009; 200(2):252-62. DOI:10.1086/599986 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the contribution of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) in particular. Randomized clinical trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) + ZDV/3TC with LPV/r + nevirapine (NVP) in 50 cART-naive men. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography scans (QCT) were performed at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 months after cART initiation. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD)/creatinine ratio were measured. BMD decreased rapidly in both femoral neck and lumbar spine after cART initiation. BMD loss during 24 months measured by DXA, but not by QCT, was greater in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group compared to the NVP/LPV/r group [femoral neck: -6.3% +/- 1.0% (P < 0.0001) compared to -2.3% +/- 0.9% (P = 0.01), between-group P = 0.0006); lumbar spine: -5.1% +/- 0.8% (P < 0.0001) compared to -2.6% +/- 0.7% (P = 0.0006), between-group P = 0.07]. Osteocalcin [+1.60 +/- 0.32 (P < 0.0001) and +1.81 +/- 0.29 (P < 0.0001) nmol/l] and the urine DPD/creatinine ratio [+1.35 +/- 0.44 (P = 0.0029) and +1.19 +/- 0.38 nmol/mmol (P = 0.0024)] increased in both groups over 24 months, with no significant difference between groups. PTH increased to a greater degree in the NVP/LPV/r group [+2.0 +/- 0.31 pmol/l (P < 0.0001)] compared to [+0.81 +/- 0.33 pmol/l (P = 0.021) in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group]. BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine decreased rapidly after initiation of cART, in parallel to an increase in bone turnover. The greater bone loss in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group compared to the NVP/LPV/r group suggests that ZDV/3TC contributes to this process. The PTH increase does not explain this greater bone loss.
    AIDS (London, England) 05/2009; 23(11):1367-76. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832c4947 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    Jussi Sutinen
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated metabolic complications include lipoatrophy (loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)) and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones are insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agents which-as an untoward side effect in obese diabetic patients-increase SAT. Furthermore, troglitazone has improved lipoatrophy and glycemic control in non-HIV patients with various forms of lipodystrophy. These data have led to 14 clinical trials to examine whether thiazolidinediones could be useful in the treatment of HAART-associated metabolic complications. The results of these studies indicate very modest, if any, effect on lipoatrophic SAT, probably due to ongoing HAART negating the beneficial effect. The benefit might be more prominent in patients not taking thymidine analoges. Despite the poor effect on lipoatrophy, thiazolidin-ediones improved insulin sensitivity. However, especially rosiglitazone induced harmful effects on blood lipids. Current data do not provide evidence for the use of thiazolidinediones in the treatment of HAART-associated lipoatrophy, but treatment of lipoatrophy-associated diabetes may be warranted. The role of thiazolidinediones for novel indications, such as hepatosteatosis, should be studied in these patients.
    PPAR Research 02/2009; 2009(1687-4757):373524. DOI:10.1155/2009/373524 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this cross-sectional study, we sought to determine whether gene expression of macrophage markers and inflammatory chemokines in lipoatrophic subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat content are increased and interrelated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-positive, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+; n = 27) compared with those without (HAART+LD-; n = 13). The study groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, and body mass index. The HAART+LD+ group had twofold more intra-abdominal (P = 0.01) and 1.5-fold less subcutaneous (P = 0.091) fat than the HAART+LD- group. As we have reported previously, liver fat was 10-fold higher in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group (P = 0.00003). Inflammatory gene expression was increased in HAART-lipodystrophy: CD68 4.5-fold (P = 0.000013), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha 2-fold (P = 0.0094), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 2 2.5-fold (P = 0.0024), CCL3 7-fold (P = 0.0000017), integrin alphaM (ITGAM) 3-fold (P = 0.00067), epidermal growth factor-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like (EMR)1 2.5-fold (P = 0.0038), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAM)8 3.5-fold (P = 0.00057) higher in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. mRNA concentration of CD68 (r = 0.37, P = 0.019), ITGAM (r = 0.35, P = 0.025), CCL2 (r = 0.39, P = 0.012), and CCL3 (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003) correlated with liver fat content. In conclusion, gene expression of markers of macrophage infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation is increased in lipoatrophic subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of patients with HAART-associated lipodystrophy compared with those without. CD68, ITGAM, CCL2, and CCL3 expression is significantly associated with accumulation of liver fat.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2008; 295(1):E85-91. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.90224.2008 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metabolic diseases are frequently observed in HIV-infected persons and, as the risk of contracting these diseases is age-related, their prevalence will increase in the future as a consequence of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES: All HIV-infected persons should be screened at regular intervals for a history of metabolic disease, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and alteration of body composition; cardiovascular risk and renal function should also be assessed. Efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease will vary in intensity depending on an individual's absolute risk of ischaemic heart disease and should be comprehensive in nature. Lifestyle interventions should focus on counselling to stop smoking, modify diet and take regular exercise. A healthy diet, exercise and maintaining normal body weight tend to reduce dyslipidaemia; if not effective, a change of ART should be considered, followed by use of lipid-lowering medication in high-risk patients. A pre-emptive switch from thymidine analogues is recommended to reduce the risk of development or progression of lipoatrophy. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is best managed by exercise and diet. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension follow guidelines used in the general population. When using medical interventions to prevent and/or treat metabolic disease(s), impairment of the efficacy of ART should be avoided by considering the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions and compromised adherence. Specialists in HIV and specialists in metabolic diseases should consult each other, in particular in difficult-to-treat cases. CONCLUSION: Multiple and relatively simple approaches exist to prevent metabolic diseases in HIV-infected persons; priority should be given to patients at high risk of contracting these diseases.
    HIV Medicine 03/2008; 9(2):72-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00534.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated lipodystrophy frequently have disturbances in glucose metabolism associated with insulin resistance. It is not known whether changes in body composition are necessary for the development of these disturbances in ART-naive patients starting treatment with different combination ART regimens. Glucose metabolism and body composition were assessed before and after 3 months of ART in a prospective randomized clinical trial of HIV-1-positive ART-naive men taking lopinavir/ritonavir within either a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-containing regimen (zidovudine/lamivudine; n = 11) or a NRTI-sparing regimen (nevirapine; n = 9). Glucose disposal, glucose production and lipolysis were measured after an overnight fast and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp using stable isotopes. Body composition was assessed by computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the NRTI-containing group, body composition did not change significantly in 3 months; insulin-mediated glucose disposal decreased significantly (25%; P < 0.001); and fasting glycerol turnover increased (22%; P < 0.005). Hyperinsulinaemia suppressed glycerol turnover equally before and after treatment. The disturbances in glucose metabolism were not accompanied by changes in adiponectin or other glucoregulatory hormones. In contrast, glucose metabolism did not change in the NRTI-sparing arm. Glucose disposal significantly differed over time between the arms (P < 0.01). Treatment for 3 months with a NRTI-containing, but not a NRTI-sparing, regimen resulted in a 25% decrease in insulin-mediated glucose disposal and a 22% increase in fasting lipolysis. In the absence of discernable changes in body composition, NRTI may directly affect glucose metabolism, the mechanism by which remains to be elucidated.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2008; 22(2):227-36. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f33557 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether increased expression of macrophage markers and of inflammatory markers in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with liver fat in human obesity. We also determined whether expression of TNF (gene encoding TNF-alpha), HSD11B1 (gene encoding 11beta-HSD-1) and RETN (gene encoding resistin) in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages differs between obese/overweight and non-obese subjects. Cross-sectional comparison of obese/overweight and non-obese subjects with respect to adipose tissue gene expression, gene expression in monocyte-derived macrophages, liver fat content and in vivo insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue gene expression, gene expression in monocyte-derived macrophages, liver fat content and in vivo insulin sensitivity: 10 healthy non-obese (24.2+/-1.0 kg/m(2)) and 10 healthy obese/overweight (33.1+/-1.7 kg/m(2)) women. Gene expression in monocyte-derived macrophages: seven healthy non-obese (22.1+/-0.7 kg/m(2)) and seven healthy obese/overweight (36.9+/-2.2 kg/m(2)) women. Adipose tissue biopsies and blood samples for isolation of peripheral mononuclear cells were taken after an overnight fast. Liver fat content was measured using magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Expression levels of TNF, HSD11B1, RETN and the macrophage markers CD68 and ITGAM were determined by real-time PCR. In adipose tissue, expression of HSD11B1, ITGAM and CD68 was significantly increased in the obese/overweight as compared to the non-obese group. Expression of all these genes was closely positively correlated with liver fat content and inversely correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity. The associations between expression of CD68, ITGAM and HSD11B1 and liver fat were independent of obesity. There were no differences in TNF, HSD11B1, RETN or CD68 gene expression basally or after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide in monocyte-derived macrophages between obese/overweight and non-obese subjects. Accumulation of fat in the liver is associated with increased adipose tissue inflammation independent of obesity.
    International Journal of Obesity 11/2007; 31(10):1617-25. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803635 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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    Jussi Sutinen · Hannele Yki-Järvinen
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2007; 292(3):E687-92. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00219.2006 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with loss of subcutaneous fat (lipoatrophy) presumably due to mitochondrial toxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. In vitro, uridine abrogates thymidine analogue-induced toxicity in adipocytes. A total of 20 patients with HAART-associated lipoatrophy were randomized to receive either a dietary uridine supplement (36 g three times a day for 10 consecutive days/month) or placebo, for 3 months. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging and proton spectroscopy. Data are mean +/- standard error of mean. The mean increases in limb fat (880 +/- 140 versus 230 +/- 270 g; P < 0.05), intra-abdominal fat (210 +/- 80 versus -80 +/- 70 cm3; P < 0.05) and total body fat (1920 +/- 240 versus 240 +/- 520 g; P < 0.01) were significantly greater in the uridine than in the placebo group. Within the uridine group, the changes from baseline to 3 months were statistically significant in total limb fat (P < 0.001), intra-abdominal fat (P < 0.05) and total body fat (P < 0.001). The proportion of limb fat to total fat increased from 18% to 25% (P < 0.05) in the uridine group. Liver fat content and lean body mass remained unchanged in both groups. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations decreased in the uridine and increased in the placebo group, whereas fasting serum insulin concentrations did not change. Uridine supplementation was well tolerated and the virological effect of HAART was not affected. Uridine supplementation significantly and predominantly increased subcutaneous fat mass in lipoatrophic HIV-infected patients during unchanged HAART.
    Antiviral therapy 01/2007; 12(1):97-105. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence for the role of adipokines such as adiponectin in the metabolic toxicities of protease inhibitor (PI)-treated patients, little is known about their role in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-induced lipoatrophy (LA). We analyzed the relations between mitochondrial toxicity, adipokine expression, and clinical LA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and adipose samples from individuals treated with stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (ZDV) in comparison to patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as well as HIV-negative individuals. In this cross-sectional analysis, we studied 18 PI-naive HIV-infected patients with LA treated with d4T (d4T+LA+ [n = 12]) or zidovudine (ZDV+LA+ [n = 6]) in comparison to HAART-treated patients with (HAART+LA+ [n = 8]) and without (HAART+LA- [n = 8]) LA as well as HIV-negative controls (n = 12). Adipose samples were assessed for protein and/or messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1a/c in all groups, whereas adipose and PBMC samples from the d4T+LA+, ZDV+LA+, and HIV-negative subgroups were assessed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and cytochrome c-oxidase (COX) II/COX IV ratios. There was no change in mtDNA levels in adipose or PBMC samples in NRTI-treated patients with LA, although patients treated with d4T had reduced COX II/COX IV ratios in adipose and PBMC samples. Adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA and plasma levels were reduced in the d4T- and ZDV-treated patients regardless of the use of PIs. Tissue SREBP1c mRNA levels were also significantly reduced in both NRTI groups when compared with the HIV-negative controls. Significant reductions in SREBP1c levels were also evident with the HAART+LA+ group when compared with HAART+LA- controls. Patients with LA on d4T-based regimens show evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, whereas the d4T- and ZDV-based regimens also demonstrated reduced SREBP1c and adiponectin levels, findings that have previously been shown with PIs.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 01/2006; 40(5):565-72. DOI:10.1097/01.qai.0000187443.30838.3e · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with increases in liver or intra-abdominal fat or impaired insulin sensitivity by studying monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant and concordant for obesity. We studied nineteen 24- to 27-yr-old MZ twin pairs, with intrapair differences in body weight ranging from 0.1 to 24.7 kg [body mass index (BMI) range 20.0-33.9 kg/m2], identified from a population-based FinnTwin16 sample. Fat distribution was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, percent body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, liver fat by proton spectroscopy, insulin sensitivity by measuring the fasting insulin concentration, and whole body insulin sensitivity by the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. Intrapair differences in BMI were significantly correlated with those in intra-abdominal fat (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) and liver fat (r = 0.57, P = 0.010). Intrapair differences in fasting insulin correlated with those in subcutaneous abdominal (r = 0.60, P = 0.008), intra-abdominal (r = 0.75, P = 0.0001) and liver (r = 0.49, P = 0.048) fat. Intrapair differences in whole body insulin sensitivity correlated with those in subcutaneous abdominal (r = -0.72, P = 0.001) and intra-abdominal (r = -0.55, P = 0.015) but not liver (r = -0.20, P = 0.20) fat. We conclude that acquired obesity is associated with increases in intra-abdominal and liver fat and insulin resistance, independent of genetic factors.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2005; 288(4):E768-74. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00381.2004 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Jussi Sutinen
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data on treatment options for highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy. Modification of antiretroviral therapy, especially replacing stavudine by abacavir, induces a slow but continuous increase in the subcutaneous fat mass in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy. As part of an initial highly active antiretroviral therapy combination, tenofovir and emtricitabine cause less lipodystrophy than stavudine, but no data from controlled studies have yet assessed the effects of switching from older agents to tenofovir or emtricitabine. Novel antidiabetic drugs, glitazones, cause little improvement in highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy, but increase blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations significantly, and thus cannot be recommended for the treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy. Various reconstructive procedures have been used to correct facial lipoatrophy. Bioabsorbable fillers have been used successfully, but treatment with such fillers has to be repeated over time. Permanent fillers have a durable effect, but may be difficult or impossible to remove if complications occur. Furthermore, an optimal volume correction with a permanent filler now may prove to be an over-correction in the future, if the recovery process of adipose tissue continues after the modification of antiretroviral therapy. The optimal choice of antiretroviral combination is of crucial importance for the prevention and treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy. Switching from stavudine to abacavir causes a slow but continuous increase in the subcutaneous fat mass. Bioabsorbable skin fillers are the safest option for the reconstructive treatment of facial lipoatrophy.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 03/2005; 18(1):25-33. DOI:10.1097/00001432-200502000-00005 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Reported non-invasive techniques for assessment of blood pressure in this population have been limited to sphygmomanometry. The present crosssectional study investigated the impact of antiretroviral therapy and the HAART-associated lipodystrophy on aortic blood pressure conditions and arterial stiffness in HAART-treated lipodystrophic (n=42) and non-lipodystrophic (n=17) patients. Pulse wave analysis, novel to this population, was used to evaluate measures of arterial stiffness, including the heart rate corrected augmentation index, AgI(HR). Results indicated no significant difference between the study groups in peripheral or aortic blood pressure and AgI(HR). Significant correlates of AgI(HR) included age (P = 0.003), duration of antiretroviral therapy (P = 0.020), lamivudine therapy (P = 0.015) and ritonavir therapy (P = 0.016) as well as cumulative exposure to protease inhibitors (P = 0.030). Time since HIV diagnosis, severity of immunodeficiency or presence of HAART-associated lipodystrophy bore no relationship to AgI(HR). In multivariate analysis, duration of antiretroviral therapy (P = 0.046), cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (P = 0.032) and to protease inhibitors (P = 0.011) were identified as independent factors predicting AgI(HR). Prolonged antiretroviral treatment, thus, delineates as a risk factor for systemic arterial stiffness and the associated cardiovascular mortality.
    Antiviral therapy 02/2005; 10(8):925-35. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to apply the meta-analysis in the studies of protozoan pathogens in order to obtain a general overview of the prevalence and annual incidence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. infections in asymptomatic and symptomatic human populations in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. In combining the data of 13 clinically and methodologically non-heterogeneous studies published before 2004 using the random effects model with DerSimonian-Laird estimator, we estimated the prevalence (% prevalence: 95% confidence limits) of Giardia cases in the asymptomatic (i.e. no gastroenteric symptoms) general population to be 2.97% (2.64; 3.31) and in the symptomatic population 5.81% (5.34; 6.30). For Cryptosporidium the prevalences were 0.99% (0.81; 1.19) and 2.91% (2.71; 3.12), respectively. In analyzing the data, we estimated that there will be 4670 (4300; 5060) symptomatic cases of Giardia and 3340 (3110; 3580) symptomatic cases of Cryptosporidium annually per 100,000 general population in the Nordic countries. The vast majority of cases will remain unregistered in the national registers of infectious diseases, since for single registered cases there will be 254-867 cases of Giardia undetected/unregistered and 4072 to 15,181 cases of Cryptosporidium, respectively.
    International Journal for Parasitology 12/2004; 34(12):1337-46. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.08.009 · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
181.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2011
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Oral Medicine
      • • Department of Dental Public Health
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland