[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNase (BGLF5) is an alkaline nuclease and has been suggested to be important in the viral life cycle. However, its effect on host cells remains unknown. Serological and histopathological studies implied that EBV DNase seems to be correlated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, we investigate the effect of EBV DNase on epithelial cells. Here, we report that expression of EBV DNase induces increased formation of micronucleus, an indicator of genomic instability, in human epithelial cells. We also demonstrate, using gammaH2AX formation and comet assay, that EBV DNase induces DNA damage. Furthermore, using host cell reactivation assay, we find that EBV DNase expression repressed damaged DNA repair in various epithelial cells. Western blot and quantitative PCR analyses reveal that expression of repair-related genes is reduced significantly in cells expressing EBV DNase. Host shut-off mutants eliminate shut-off expression of repair genes and repress damaged DNA repair, suggesting that shut-off function of BGLF5 contributes to repression of DNA repair. In addition, EBV DNase caused chromosomal aberrations and increased the microsatellite instability (MSI) and frequency of genetic mutation in human epithelial cells. Together, we propose that EBV DNase induces genomic instability in epithelial cells, which may be through induction of DNA damage and also repression of DNA repair, subsequently increases MSI and genetic mutations, and may contribute consequently to the carcinogenesis of human epithelial cells.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(6):1932-49. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkp1169 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein, mimics a constitutively activated tumor necrosis factor receptor and activates various signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation and is sufficient to transform several cell lines. Cellular transformation has been associated strongly with genomic instability, while DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Previously, we have shown that LMP1 represses DNA repair by the C-terminal activating region 1 (CTAR1) in human epithelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt pathway is required for LMP1-mediated repression of DNA repair. Through the LMP1/PI3K/Akt pathway, FOXO3a, which can induce DNA repair, is inactivated because of phosphorylation and relocalization. Expression of a constitutively active FOXO3a mutant can rescue LMP1-mediated repression of DNA repair. Furthermore, LMP1 can decrease the expression of DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1), which functions in nucleotide excision repair, through the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a pathway. LMP1-mediated repression of DNA repair is restored by DDB1, although only partially. These results suggest that LMP1 triggers the PI3K/Akt pathway to inactivate FOXO3a and decrease DDB1, which can lead to repression of DNA repair and may contribute to genomic instability in human epithelial cells.
Journal of Virology 08/2008; 82(16):8124-37. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00430-08 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a viral oncogene, is essential for transformation of resting B cells by the virus. We previously demonstrated that LMP1 could repress DNA repair in p53-wild-type and p53-deficient human epithelial cells. In this study, using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay, we demonstrated that p53-enhanced DNA repair was repressed by LMP1 in p53-deficient cells. Moreover, we found that LMP1 was able to repress p53-dependent transcriptional activity. Regarding the mechanisms of p53 repression by LMP1, we found that LMP1 did not inhibit p53 function through direct interaction, by promoting protein degradation or reducing its DNA-binding ability. Using chimeric proteins in the reporter assay, we demonstrated that LMP1 inhibited p53 transactivation by influencing the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53. Subsequent experiments using various LMP1 deletion mutants indicated that a C-terminus-activating region of LMP1, CTAR1 or CTAR2, is responsible for the repression of p53-mediated DNA repair and p53-dependent transcription, which is correlated with the region responsible for NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, blockage of NF-kappaB signalling by IkappaB-DeltaN was shown to abolish the repression of p53 by LMP1, suggesting that LMP1 likely repressed p53 function through the NF-kappaB pathway. Based on these results, we propose that inhibition of p53-dependent transcriptional activity and DNA repair by LMP1 results in the loss of p53 activity for maintaining genomic stability, which may contribute to the oncogenesis of LMP1 in human epithelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a viral oncogene and it is essential for the transformation of resting B cells by the virus. The protein acts as a ligand-less membrane receptor and triggers numerous cellular signaling pathways. Cellular transformation frequently has been associated with genomic instability. To investigate whether EBV LMP1 induces chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus (MN) formation was examined in LMP1-expressing epithelial cells. The expression of wild-type LMP1 enhanced both spontaneous and bleomycin-induced MN formation. MN formation may be induced by inactivation of DNA repair and, therefore, we investigated the effect of LMP1 on DNA repair, using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay. In the HCR assay, LMP1 reduced the capacity for DNA repair of both NPC-TW01 (p53-wild-type) and H1299 (p53-deficient) cells. As reduction of DNA repair by LMP1 occurs in p53-wild-type and p53-deficient cells, it seems that LMP1 can repress DNA repair in a p53-independent manner. Inactivation of DNA repair may render cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. In this study, H1299 cells harboring LMP1 were shown to be more sensitive to UV and bleomycin than those with a vector control. Using various deletion mutants of EBV LMP1 to determine the regions of LMP1 required to enhance MN formation, inhibit DNA repair and sensitize cells to DNA-damaging agents, we found that the region a. a. 189-222 (located within the CTAR1 domain) was responsible for sensitizing cells to UV and bleomycin, as well as for enhancing MN formation and repressing DNA repair. Based on these results, we suggest that disruption of DNA repair by LMP-1 results in an accumulation of unrepaired DNA and consequent genomic instability, which may contribute to the oncogenesis of LMP1 in human epithelial cells.