[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is one of the most frequently used anticalcineurinic drugs for preventing graft rejection and autoimmune disease. Its use is hampered by nephrotoxic effects, namely an impairment of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and hypertension. Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in the nephrotoxicity. The present study aims to investigate in vivo the effects of a new recombinant mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD), a strong antioxidant, on the CsA-induced nephotoxicity. METHODS: Rats were treated with CsA (25 mg/kg/day) alone or in combination with rMnSOD (10 µg/kg/day) for 7 days. At the end of the treatment, GFR was estimated by inulin clearance (mL/min/100 g b.w.) and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded through a catheter inserted in the carotid artery. Superoxide concentration within the cells of the abdominal aorta was quantified from the oxidation of dihydroethidium (DHE). In kidney tissues, ROS levels were measured by the 2'7' dichloroflurescin diacetate assay. Renal morphology was examined at the histochemistry level. RESULTS: CsA-treated rats showed a severe decrease in GFR (0.34 ± 0.17 versus 0.94 ± 0.10 in control, P < 0.001) which was prevented by rMnSOD co-administration (0.77 ± 0.10). CsA-injected animals presented with higher blood pressure which was unaffected by rMnSOD. ROS levels both in the aorta and in renal tissue were significantly increased by CsA treatment, and normalized by the co-administration with rMnSOD. This effect was, partly, paralleled by the recovery from CsA-induced morphological lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of rMnSOD prevents CsA-mediated impairment of the GFR along with morphological alteration. This effect could be related to the inhibition of ROS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS) is a genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation. It is commonly characterized by seizures, mental retardation and cutaneous angiofibromas. Renal manifestations frequently include angiomyolipomas and cysts which lead to chronic kidney disease. We report a case of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in a dialysis patient affected by TCS. The case demonstrates the importance of assessing antiepileptic drug treatment in dialysis patients.
Journal of nephrology 02/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies indicate that indices of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as serum creatinine or creatinine clearance can predict the risk of death in congestive heart failure (CHF) and in heart transplantation. The study reports data on creatinine clearance before and after heart transplantation in 160 patients followed-up for 5 years at our Unit. Pre-transplant creatinine clearance averaged 83.5+/-32 mL/min x 1.73 m(2) and was not significantly associated with 5-year mortality. Creatinine clearance significantly decreased after heart transplantation with a linear trend up to 3 years for patients with complete follow-up. Data suggest that the relation between kidney function and mortality after heart transplantation is affected by several confounders with inclusion of cause of heart disease, co-morbidity, anemia, and post-transplant decrease in kidney function.
Seminars in Nephrology 12/2005; 25(6):413-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is a constant feature of congestive heart failure and is a stronger predictor of mortality than left ventricular ejection fraction or New York Heart Association classification. In heart failure, a reduction of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow occurs, although the filtration fraction increases. There are many reason for this pattern. A reduction in effective circulating volume stimulates sympathetic activity and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and it is associated with increased concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Because in chronic kidney disease heart dysfunction commonly is present, an efficient cardiologist-nephrologist interaction should be promoted.
Seminars in Nephrology 12/2005; 25(6):404-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown conflicting data on accuracy of equations for kidney function prediction. The present work analysed the relationship of gender, age and body mass index (BMI) to error of predictions by the Cockcroft-Gault equation (CG(eq)), the simplified equation of the Modification of Renal Diseases Study (MDRD(eq)) and the Mayo Clinic equation (Mayo(eq)).
Inulin clearance (glomerular filtration rate; GFR) and other variables were measured in 380 subjects of both sexes, aged 18-88 years, with and without kidney disease. GFR was defined as low when <60 ml/min x 1.73 m2. BMI was used for definition of underweight/overweight. Relative error of predictions was used as an index of bias. It was calculated as prediction minus GFR (positive values =overestimates, negative values = underestimates) and expressed as a percentage of the GFR. Absolute error was used as an index of imprecision and was calculated as the absolute value of relative error.
CG(eq) relative error was inversely associated with age and directly associated with BMI (P<0.001), but not with gender or GFR. MDRD(eq) relative error was inversely associated with female gender and GFR (P<0.001), but not with age or BMI. Mayo(eq) relative error was directly associated with male gender, BMI and GFR (P<0.01), but not with age. Absolute error was higher for CG(eq) than for MDRD(eq) but only at low GFR (P<0.001). Mayo(eq) had a higher absolute error than CG(eq) and MDRD(eq) (P<0.01).
Errors of predictions varied not only with GFR but also with gender, age and BMI. Without using creatinine assay calibration, Mayo(eq) was less accurate than both MDRD(eq) and CG(eq), whereas MDRD(eq) was slightly more precise than CG(eq) but only at low GFR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews bone adaptation to microgravity, during manned space missions, in humans undergoing Head Down Tilt (HDT) and in Hind-Limb-Suspended Rats. Under microgravity conditions, bone loss occurs in association with hypercalciuria, which in turn modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) excretion in urine, thus avoiding stone forming in space. This report discloses the need to prevent bone loss in order to prepare for long stays at lunar bases or voyages to Mars.
Journal of Renal Nutrition 02/2005; 15(1):183-8. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition, there was a reduction of factor XII during the treatment. It is possible to assume in the TC group and, to a lesser extent, also in the NTC group that endothelial cells liberate PAI-1 in the vascular lumen, which causes hypofibrinolysis. In addition, an excess of factor VIII is activated by endothelial dysfunction with subsequent activation of the coagulation cascade as shown by increased F1+2 and fibrinogen. ACA-IgM, in turn, is capable of interfering with the system of protein C, a potent anticoagulant factor that inactivates cofactors Va and VIIIa. They also induce the expression of procoagulant factors on the surface of the endothelial cells. In conclusion, the hypercoagulable state caused by alterations of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors is a cause of vascular access dysfunction and thrombosis of other vessels.
Seminars in Nephrology 10/2004; 24(5):495-501. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Causes include those usually found in the general population, those related to the uremic status, and those related to dialytic treatment. Hypertension, hypotension, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, malnutrition, dyslipidemia, reactive C protein, calcium-phosphate product, dialysis modalities, and hyperhomocysteinemia are discussed extensively. Special emphasis is put on hyperparathyroidism as a traditional toxin. The emergent role of sleep apnea has been confirmed in animal models as well as in humans studied using polysomnography. There are difficulties in diagnosing coronary disease, because angiography is not risk-free, is expensive, and should be reserved for patients having symptoms of heart failure and/or patients having diabetes mellitus, and/or patients entering a transplantation list. This allows patients with coronary disease to undergo coronary artery bypass (preferably) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Patients for whom surgery is not appropriate should be treated using more traditional medical procedures.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2001; 38(4 Suppl 1):S38-46. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal absceeses in childhood are rare and require hospitalization, antibiotic therapy and drainage.
Two cases of renal abscess in childhood are described. In both cases there was no history of either antecedent skin infection or urinary tract infection or reflux. Flank pain and fever had a sudden onset.
The diagnosis was made in the first case by ultrasound and gadolinium-enhnaced magnetic resonance, in the second case ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were used. The patients were successfully treated at home with antibiotic therapy but without drainage.
Renal abscesses must be suspected in children with loin pain, fever and leukocytosis. They may heal even without hospitalization and drainage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High hydration is commonly used in renal studies to improve the completeness of urine collection. The renal effects of hydration are not well defined.
Renal function was studied under fasting conditions (baseline) and after a meat meal (2 g of protein/kg body weight) in 12 healthy adults on a low and high hydration regimen of 0.5 and 4 mL of oral water per kg body weight/30 min, respectively.
Urine flow, urinary and plasma Na, K, urea, and osmolality were stably different on low and high hydration regimens. At baseline, there were significant or borderline significant correlations of plasma and urine osmolality with glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance) only in the low hydration regimen. GFR was higher in the low than the high hydration regimen at all time points. The difference was significant at baseline (19.2%) and at 90 to 180 minutes after the meal (14.4%). After the meal, GFR increased significantly over baseline values only in the high hydration regimen (30.0% at peak time). Urinary excretion of Na, urea, and osmoles was lower in the low than the high hydration regimen at all time points: The difference was significant for Na (at baseline) and osmoles (all time points). Urinary K excretion was not different in the two regimens. After the meal, there were significant increases in urinary excretion of Na (in the low hydration regimen) and urea (90 to 180 min after the meal).
In fasting adults, high hydration lowered GFR and increased natriuresis. After a meat meal, GFR increased only in the high hydration regimen and natriuresis only in the low hydration regimen. Hydration affects GFR and natriuresis under fasting conditions and after a meat meal.
Kidney International 09/2001; 60(2):748-56. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Level of hydration and renal function in healthy humans.Background High hydration is commonly used in renal studies to improve the completeness of urine collection. The renal effects of hydration are not well defined.
Kidney International 07/2001; 60(2):748-756. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to perform bioelectrical impedance analysis before and after heart transplantation with comparison to healthy subjects. Eight patients (7 men, 1 woman) before (day 0) and after transplantation (day 3, 7, 12, 15, and 180) and 24 healthy controls, matched for sex, age, and body mass were studied. Data collection included bioelectrical impedance analysis (resistance, reactance, and estimates of body water), clinical, and laboratory measurements. Compared with controls, patients had at baseline significantly higher reactance, not significantly different resistance, body weight, total body water, and intra- to extracellular water ratio. After surgery, for reactance, there was an acute decrease followed by a slow, progressive increase up to normal level by day 15. Resistance and body weight did not significantly change; the intra- to extracellular water ratio significantly decreased with stable total body water. Changes in reactance are the main effects induced on bioelectrical impedance by heart transplantation. Acutely, there is a large decrease which likely reflects changes both in water distribution and in cell membrane function. The late changes more likely reflect the shift of body water from the extra- to the intracellular space with stable total body water.
Seminars in Nephrology 06/2001; 21(3):282-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article starts with a concise synopsis of the history of edema. The role of underfilling, overflow, antidiuretic hormone, and acquaporins is subsequently discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of diuretics in edematous patients. The role and risks of albumin infusion are illustrated. The new hypothesis of pulse reverse osmosis is discussed. The final section deals with the measurement of colloid osmotic pressure in the clinical setting.
Seminars in Nephrology 06/2001; 21(3):262-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased tubule sodium reabsorption has been largely suspected in liver cirrhosis (LC), however studies in humans have produced contrasting results. Therefore to ascertain the entity of renal sodium handling in LC this study was devised. A total of 13 patients with child A LC were studied along with 26 age-sex matched healthy controls (HC). Patients and controls were kept on daily Na-intake of 100 mmol for at last 1 week, by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin) and lithium clearance. We have calculated (1) C(Li); (2) the absolute reabsorption of isotonic fluid in the proximal tubule (APR) as GFR - C(LI); (3) the fractional proximal sodium reabsorption (FPRNa) as 1 - (C(Li)/GFR); (4) the absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADRNa) as (C(LI) - C(Na)) x P(Na;) and (5) the fractional distal sodium reabsorption (FDRNa) as (C(LI) - C(Na))/C(Li). GFR was significantly lower in LC (P<.001), C(Li) was significantly higher in LC than in HC (P<.001). APRNa and FPRNa were reduced in LC (P<.0001). ADRNa was higher in LC than in HC (P<.001). No difference was found for FDRNa. In conclusion, lithium clearance discloses an increase sodium reabsorption in distal tubule in humans with LC.
Seminars in Nephrology 05/2001; 21(3):323-6. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study examined whether indexing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for body surface area is appropriate for people who are severely overweight. Twenty normotensive adult men who were severely overweight but without microalbuminuria were enrolled into this study. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and height. GFR was determined by measuring insulin with the continuous-infusion method. The clearance of endogenous creatinine was also measured after two daily urine collections. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was measured by p-aminohippurate clearance using the continuous-infusion method. Lean body weight was measured by impedentiometry. Adjusting for body surface area (in 1.73 m(2)) caused a significant reduction in GFR (P < 0.0001) in overweight humans (84.1 +/- 2.32 versus 109.6 +/- 3.07 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). The difference disappeared when GFR/height criteria were adopted. No difference between obese and healthy controls occurred after adjusting for lean body weight. Data for creatinine clearance paralleled those with insulin clearance; a significant reduction (P < 0.001) occurred after indexing for basal surface area, which disappeared after correction for height, as well as for lean body weight.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2000; 35(6):1144-8. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis was performed in 5 patients with end stage heart failure in whom a left ventricular assist device (Novacor) was successfully implanted. Whole body measurements of bioelectrical indices resistance and reactance were taken before surgery and 3, 7, 12, and 15 days after it. After surgery there was a significant decrease in reactance, indicating a shift of body fluids from intra- to extra-cellular space.
The International journal of artificial organs 04/1999; 22(3):151-4. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The work was devised to compare measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renogram to those by creatinine clearance (measured and predicted by Cockroft and Gault) and by inulin clearance. A total number of 65 individuals were enrolled: 15 healthy controls and 50 patients with renal disease. Compared to inulin clearance used as the gold standard, 99mTc-DTPA overestimated at low and underestimated at high GFRs. 99mTc-DTPA measurements were less precise than creatinine clearance except for individuals with GFR >100 ml/min x 1.73 m2. Measured creatinine clearance had the highest correlation coefficient with inulin clearance, 99mTc-DTPA clearance the lowest. In correlation analyses, 81.5% of the interindividual variability for measured creatinine clearance could be explained by true differences in inulin clearance; this value dropped to 59.1 and 57.4% for predicted creatinine clearance and 99mTc-DTPA, respectively. In patients with GFR <25 ml/min x 1.73 m2, all 99mTc-DTPA measurements were out of the 95% confidence interval for the inulin measurement. It can be inferred that 99mTc-DTPA clearance from the renogram is less precise than measured and predicted creatinine clearance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal reserve was explored by means of an oral protein load (2 g/kg body weight) under the form of cooked red meat in a group of 9 patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF), class III of the New York Heart Association receiving loop diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and in a group of 18 healthy controls (HC) matched for age, gender, and height under an identical dietary regimen providing 40 cal/kg per day, 1 g/kg body weight of protein per day, Na 120 mmol/day, and K 50 mmol/day. Baseline glomerular filtration rate averaged 109.5+/-9.89 ml/min x 1.73 m2 in HC and 71.9+/-8.8 ml/min x 1.73 m2 in ESHF. Renal plasma flow averaged 540+/-27 ml/min x 1.73 m2 in HC and 235+/-47 ml/min x 1.73 m2 in ESHF. The filtration fraction was significantly higher in ESHF (p<0.01). Renal reserve averaged 26.03+/-3.28 ml/min x 1.73 m2 in HC and 27.2+/-7.12 ml/min x 1.73 m2 (not significant). Renal reserve averaged 123.9+/-2.9% in HC and 137.3+/-6.68% in ESHF (not significant). The filtration capacity was significantly higher in HC (p<0.001). The data point to a normalcy of renal reserve in ESHF which may depend on the chronic use of ACE inhibitors.
Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 01/1999; 25(1-2):24-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The work was devised to compare measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renogram to those by creatinine clearance (measured and predicted by Cockroft and Gault) and by inulin clearance. A total number of 65 individuals were enrolled: 15 healthy controls and 50 patients with renal disease. Compared to inulin clearance used as the gold standard, 99mTc-DTPA overestimated at low and underestimated at high GFRs. 99mTc-DTPA measurements were less precise than creatinine clearance except for individuals with GFR >100 ml/min × 1.73 m2. Measured creatinine clearance had the highest correlation coefficient with inulin clearance, 99mTc-DTPA clearance the lowest. In correlation analyses, 81.5% of the interindividual variability for measured creatinine clearance could be explained by true differences in inulin clearance; this value dropped to 59.1 and 57.4% for predicted creatinine clearance and 99mTc-DTPA, respectively. In patients with GFR