Y.M. Luo

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (51)121.37 Total impact

  • S.-Y. Ju · J. Wang · L.-B. Sehn · Z. Li · Y.-H. Chen · L.-H. Wu · Y.-M. Luo ·
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    ABSTRACT: A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effect of Sedum plumbizincicola on metal uptake by an intercropping crop of Triticum aestivum and a following crop of Solanum melongena in the subsequent growing season from heavy mental polluted soil, and to explore potential cropping systems for simultaneous remediation of contaminated soils and production of agricultural crops. The results showed that in the intercropping treatment, there was no difference in biomass of S. melongena or S. plumbizincicola. Intercropping with S. plumbizincicola significantly decreased Cd concentrations in T. aestivum by 52.4% compared to the monoculture treatment, and metal concentrations in the following crop of S. melongena also decreased markedly. Compared to the control, soil total Cd concentration in the intercropping treatment declined by 24.3%, showing highly efficient Cd removal. These results suggest that a cropping system consisting of intercropping S. plumbizincicola and T. aestivum and then rotating with S. melongena might realize the combined benefits of phytoremediation of metal polluted soil and the simultaneous safe production of food. © 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.
    Chinese Journal of Ecology 08/2015; 34(8):2159-2181.
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    ABSTRACT: A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 07/2015; 78(13-14):931–944. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2015.1051205 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • J. Wang · Y.-M. Luo · W.-T. Ma · L.-N. Li · Y. Zhu · Y. Teng ·
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    ABSTRACT: The pollution characteristics, load and health risk assessment of 6 phthalate esters in soils from intensive vegetable fields in Nanjing, China were investigated by ultrasonic extraction combined with GC-MS and CalTOX model. The results showed that phthalate esters were detected in all soil samples, the total concentration of the 6PAEs ranged from 0.15~9.68 mg/kg, with a mean of 2.21 mg/kg. The dominant PAEs were di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) with 88.2%, 100% and 79.8% detection rate, the concentrations of which in soils ranged from n.d.~1.83, 0.02~9.03, n.d.~1.74 mg/kg, respectively. There was no significant correlation among soil organic carbon, pH and PAEs concentrations. Total pollution load of PAEs was about 4.31 kg/hm2 in the study area. Health risk assessment indicated that the risk of DnBP and DEHP was higher, and dermal contact was the primary exposure pathway to growers. Phthalate concentration, pollution load and health risks of intensive vegetable soils were significantly higher than these of surrounding outdoor vegetable soils.
    Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science 12/2013; 33(12):2235-2242.
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    ABSTRACT: Sedum plumbizincicola X.H. Guo et S.B. Zhou ex L.H. Wu (Crassulaceae), a new species restricted to lead–zinc mining areas in Zhejiang Province, China, is described and illustrated. This taxon belongs to sect. Sedum (H. Ohba) S.H. Fu based on the adaxially gibbous carpels and follicles. It superficially resembles S. alfredii Hance and three other Sedum species found in the same area, but differs from these other taxa in bearing 4-merous flowers. Differences in geographical distribution, growth habit, phenology, macromorphology, leaf and stem anatomy, as well as seed micromorphology among S. plumbizincicola, S. alfredii and other related taxa in the genus Sedum are also reported. nrDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences from seven populations of S. plumbizincicola support the recognition of this as a taxonomic entity distinct from S. alfredii.
    Plant Systematics and Evolution 03/2012; 299(3):487–498. DOI:10.1007/s00606-012-0738-x · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    Y. S. Chen · H. B. Zhang · Y. M. Luo · Jing Song ·
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the occurrence of 14 selected antibiotics including five therapeutic classes of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols in manures collected from four swine farms of different sizes in eastern China. Tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline) and sulfadiazine were the most prominent contaminants in the manure samples, with maximum concentrations reaching 98.2 x 10(3), 354.0 x 10(3), 139.4 x 10(3), 37.2x 10(3), and 7.1x 10(3) mu g/kg, respectively. The occurrence of these compounds was dependent on breeding scale, animal type, and breeding season. Manure storage and vermiculture were not able to effectively deplete the heavier contaminants (tetracyclines and sulfadiazine), resulting in high levels of these chemicals remaining in manures. Therefore, the occurrence of these antibiotics in agricultural soils (0.1-205.1 mu g/kg) collected from four types of agricultural land (pear orchard, tea plantation, bamboo forest, and paddy field) near the studied farms, was a reflection of manure application. However, the extremely high concentrations of antibiotics in manures were unlikely from feed consumption, but from other direct forms of medicine application.
    Chinese Science Bulletin 02/2012; 57(6-6):606-614. DOI:10.1007/s11434-011-4830-3 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha(-1) yr(-1) yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.
    Environmental Pollution 12/2008; 156(3):905-14. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.05.029 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • J. Z. Ni · Y. M. Luo · R. Wei · X. H. Li ·
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    ABSTRACT: Soil organic matter can be divided into different organic carbon (C) pools with different turnover rates. The organic pollutants in soils associated with these organic C pools may have different bioavailability and environmental risks during the decomposition of soil organic matter. We studied the distribution patterns of 15 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particle-size separates (clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand and coarse sand) and density fractions (light and heavy fractions) of nine agricultural topsoils (0–20 cm depth) from a contaminated area in the Yangtze River Delta region of east China. There was a decreasing trend in PAH concentration in particle-size separates with decreasing particle size. However, the different particle-size separates had similar PAH composition. The concentration of PAHs in the light fraction ranged from 13 037 to 107 299 μg kg−1, far higher than in the heavy fraction, which ranged from 222 to 298 μg kg−1. Although the light fraction accounted for only 0.4–2.3% of the soils, it was associated with 31.5–69.5% of soil PAHs. The organic matter in coarse silt had the strongest capacity for enrichment with PAHs. Combining the distributions of PAHs and the turnover rates of organic matter in different soil fractions, the environmental risks of PAH-polluted soils may be due mainly to the PAHs associated with sand and the light fraction.
    European Journal of Soil Science 11/2008; 59(6):1020 - 1026. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2389.2008.01066.x · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • YM Luo · P. Christie ·
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical fractions of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the organic-rich particles collected from filtered aqueous extracts (< 20 mu m) of an acid soil were determined. A sequential extraction procedure was used to partition the particulate Cu and Zn into four operationally defined chemical fractions: adsorbed (ADS), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides bound (FeMnOX), organic matter bound (OM) and residual (RESD). Total extractable concentrations of Cu and Zn in the fine particles were higher than their total concentrations in the original bulk soil. The concentration of particulate Cu was usually much higher than that of particulate Zn. Addition of lime stabilized sewage sludge cake and/or inorganic metal salts markedly increased the concentrations of particulate Cu and Zn in aqueous extracts, especially from limed soil. The proportional distributions of particulate Cu and Zn were quite similar. The two particulate metals were present predominantly in the ADS and FeMnOX fractions, with less (about 20%) in the OM and RESD fractions. Some of the ADS metal fraction was associated with dissolved organic substances. The concentrations of particulate Cu and Zn in the various extractable fractions were significantly affected by the application of lime, lime stabilized sewage sludge cake, or inorganic metal salts.
    Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11/2008; 27(18-20):2973-2986. DOI:10.1080/00103629609369755 · 0.39 Impact Factor
  • L H Wu · X F Sun · Y M Luo · X R Xing · P Christie ·
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    ABSTRACT: Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the time course effects of the (S, S)-N, N'-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) addition to contaminated soil on the uptake of Cu and Zn by the Cu accumulator Elsholtzia splendens and on plant Cu and Zn concentrations at different growth stages. EDDS increased the amounts of Cu and Zn soluble in the soil, taken up by plants, concentrated in the xylem sap, and translocated from roots to stems and leaves. The increase in soil-soluble metals, especially Cu, resulted in a corresponding increase in metal concentrations in the xylem sap and leaves. The addition of EDDS to the soil increased plant Cu and Zn concentrations, especially in the leaves, and changed the proportions of Cu and Zn taken up by different plant parts. The proportions of Cu and Zn taken up by the roots were higher than by the leaves of control plants, but EDDS-treated plants showed the opposite trend. EDDS exerted greater effects at the end of the vegetative growth stage than at the start of the flowering or reproductive stages.
    International Journal of Phytoremediation 06/2007; 9(3):227-41. DOI:10.1080/15226510701376091 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • L F Ping · Y.M. Luo · H B Zhang · Q B Li · L H Wu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in 30 soil profiles from the Yangtze River Delta Region, in east China. Relative concentrations of PAH compounds with different benzene rings and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene and benz(a)anthracene to benz(a)anthracene plus chrysene were used to identify the possible sources of soil PAHs. Total concentrations of 15 PAHs in topsoils ranged from 8.6 to 3881 microg kg(-1) with an average of 397 microg kg(-1). Half of the soil samples were considered to be contaminated with PAHs (>200 microg kg(-1)) and two sampling sites were heavily polluted by PAHs with concentrations >1000 microg kg(-1). Phenanthrene was found in soils below a depth of 100 cm in half of the sampling sites, but the detectable ratio of benzo(a)pyrene decreased sharply from 100% in topsoil to 0 in the 4th horizon.
    Environmental Pollution 06/2007; 147(2):358-65. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.05.027 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • H.B. Zhang · Y.M. Luo · M.H. Wong · Q.G. Zhao · G.L. Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Information on carbon (C) storages and the changes under the shifting of land use is of particular interest for estimating the gains and losses of soil C at a regional scale. The present study attempted to quantify the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the Hong Kong soils for the first time as well as to demonstrate the changes of SOC density after the transformations of paddy fields to other land usages due to the decline of agricultural activities. SOC storages were estimated by combining the land-use areas and profile data derived from our recent soil survey (248 samples were collected) and other reports. The results indicated that SOC densities to the upper 100 cm ranged from 25.06 Mg ha− 1 of urban park land to 288.65 Mg ha− 1 of swamp and mangrove, and total SOC storage in the upper 100 cm was 8.8548 × 106 t, approximately 0.51% of that in the soils of Guangdong Province China. Approximately 46.5% to 70.5% of the SOC pool was stored in the upper 40-cm depth, and SOC densities were much consistent in depth distributions under different land uses. Different changes of SOC density were evidenced after the conversion from paddy fields to orchards, vegetable land and grassland. The uncertainties were also discussed for lack of the data from a long term survey at a particular location.
    Geoderma 05/2007; 139(3-4-139):412-419. DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.03.003 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • H. B. Zhang · Y.M. Luo · M. H. Wong · Q. G. Zhao · G. L. Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 66 surface (0–10 cm) soil samples covering the whole territory of Hong Kong were collected for analysis of the seven PCB congeners. The detectable concentrations of PCBs in the soils of Hong Kong ranged from 0.07 to 9.87 μg kg− 1, with a higher concentration in the urban area than in the countryside. PCB patterns were dominated by the low chlorinated congeners. PCB118, a dioxin-like congener, was found in samples from Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin and was assumed to be deposited from local sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the sources of PCBs were mainly associated with Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1248. A significant linear correlation between the concentrations of soil organic matter (SOM) and the sum of 7 PCBs and of SOM and PCB153 was observed. In total, PCBs were not a severe contamination in the soils of Hong Kong from the current results. However, long-term monitoring is still recommended to keeping, especially in the landfill deposits and some urban parks.
    Geoderma 03/2007; 138(3-4-138):244-251. DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.11.016 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • H. B. Zhang · Y. M. Luo · M. H. Wong · Q. G. Zhao · G. L. Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: A geochemical baseline provides the means to distinguish between the pedogenic origin and the anthropogenic origin of the trace element in the environmental compartments. We collected 271 soil samples representative of different parent rocks and soil types from the whole territory of Hong Kong and analyzed the composition of clay mineralogy and the contents of 15 chemical elements (Fe, Cd, As, etc.) for these samples. The baseline was predicted with the method of the normalization procedure combined with the relative cumulative frequency curve. The result indicated that Fe was the best reference element for the normalization procedure among the five potential reference elements (Fe, Al, Sc, Ti, and Mn), followed by Sc and Ti. A poor correlation was found between Sc, Ti, and Cu. The predicted baseline was much lower than the A-value of the Dutch List used usually in screening the polluted soil of Hong Kong, implying that the extent of heavy metal pollution might have been underestimated with respect to local lands. We also applied the cluster analysis to distinguish the geochemical associations of the trace elements due to its importance to the baseline. Approximately three major associations including the Fe–Mn-oxides related, Al oxides or Al-bearing-clay-mineralogy related and sulfide- related associations were observed from the dendrogram.
    Environmental Geology 01/2007; 52(5):843-851. DOI:10.1007/s00254-006-0526-4 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    S C Wu · Y.M. Luo · K C Cheung · M H Wong ·
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    ABSTRACT: A soil column experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculation of bacteria on metal bioavailability, mobility and potential leachability through single chemical extraction, consequential extraction and in situ soil solution extraction technologies. Results showed that bacteria inoculated, including Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus, may pose both positive and negative impacts on bioavailability and mobility of heavy metals in soil, depending on the chemical nature of the metals. The activities of bacteria led to an increase of water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and a decrease of pH value, which enhanced metal mobility and bioavailability (e.g. an increase of water-soluble and HOAc-soluble Zn). On the other hand, bacteria could immobilize metals (e.g. a great reduction of water-soluble Pb) due to the adsorption by bacterial cell walls and possible sedimentation reactions with phosphate or other anions produced through bacterial metabolism.
    Environmental Pollution 01/2007; 144(3):765-73. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.02.022 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • H B Zhang · Y.M. Luo · M H Wong · Q G Zhao · G L Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 microg kg(-1) (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively.
    Environmental Pollution 06/2006; 141(1):107-14. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.031 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • S Tao · X C Jiao · S H Chen · W X Liu · R M Coveney · L Z Zhu · Y.M. Luo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Various tissues of rice plants were sampled from a PAH contaminated site in Tianjin, China at different growth stages of the ripening period and analyzed for PAHs. PAHs were much higher in roots than in the exposed tissues. Grains and internodes accumulated much smaller amounts of PAHs than leaves, hulls or ear axes. No specific gradient trends along roots, stem, ear axes, and grains were observed, suggesting that systematic translocation among them is unlikely. Over the ripening period, PAH concentrations were increased in rice roots and decreased in most above-ground tissues. Significant correlations between PAH and lipid contents can only be observed during full mature stage. The spectra of individual PAH compounds in rice organs including roots were similar to those in air, rather than those in soil. There was also a significant correlation between bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant over air) and octanol/air partitioning coefficient (Koa).
    Environmental Pollution 05/2006; 140(3):406-15. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.004 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Y.H. Sun · Y.M. Luo · L.H. Wu · Z.G. Li · J Song · P Christie ·
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    ABSTRACT: An incubation experiment was conducted to monitor effect of sewage sludge application on changes in numbers of faecal coliforms in soils over time after sludge application and evaluate the hygiene risks. Soil faecal coliform counts were made after 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of incubation. The faecal coliform counts in the sludge-treated soils decreased substantially with time and were similar to those in the untreated controls after incubation for 56 days. Land application of air-dried sludges increased the hygiene risks due to the re-growth of faecal coliforms, and the counts of faecal coliforms in soil treated with air dried sludge from Suzhou (91% DM) were 50 times higher than in soils with fresh dewatered sludge from Suzhou (15% DM) after 7 days of incubation. The main factors affecting the changes in faecal coliform counts were sludge type and incubation time. Sludge type determined the faecal coliform counts and the ability of the faecal coliforms to re-establish, and indigenous microorganisms competed with the faecal coliforms for nutrients during the incubation process.
    Environmental Geochemistry and Health 04/2006; 28(1-2):97-101. DOI:10.1007/s10653-005-9018-9 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • H Li · Y.M. Luo · J Song · L.H. Wu · P Christie ·
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    ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing vetiver grass on the biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under glasshouse conditions. Plant biomass, microbial biomass C and degradation of B[a]P were determined. B[a]P disappeared faster in the plant treatments than in unplanted controls. Disappearance of B[a]P was accompanied by an increase in soil microbial biomass C. Vetiver grass may promote the biodegradation of B[a]P under flooded conditions by plant roots by stimulating the microbial biomass. Microbial biomass was the main factor affecting dissipation of B[a]P under flooded conditions.
    Environmental Geochemistry and Health 04/2006; 28(1-2):183-8. DOI:10.1007/s10653-005-9029-6 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • H.B. Zhang · Y.M. Luo · Q.G. Zhao · M.H. Wong · G.L. Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: It was short of research on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in the soils of Hong Kong. Sixty-six representative soil samples were collected from the 46 sites covering five types of land uses in Hong Kong. Hexachlorohexanes (HCH) and 7 Stockholm Convention OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a Nickel 63 electronic capture detector (muECD). The results presented that HCH and 5 Stockholm Convention pesticides were detected in Hong Kong soils although the detectable ratio varies to a great extent. The concentration sequence of the five detectable OCPs was HCH > dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) > hexachlorobenzene (HCB) approximately = Endrin > alpha-endosulfan. Among the OCPs and their homologues or isomers, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the two predominant substances according to the concentrations and detectable ratios, concentrations of which in soils were averagely 6.12 microg kg(-1) and 0.41 microg kg(-1) respectively. Soil horizon samples of 0-10 cm, 10-30 cm and >30 cm depth were selected from nine soil profiles to demonstrate the depth distributions of DDT and HCH in soil profiles. Concentrations of HCH tended to increase gradually from the topsoil to bottom layer while the lowest concentration of DDT is usually found in the subsoil (10-30 cm) in most sampling sites. In addition, close correlations of pH(KCl) and total organic carbon (TOC) with HCH indicated an effect on the residues of HCH caused by these two soils properties, but such relationships were not found with DDT or other OCPs.
    Chemosphere 04/2006; 63(4):633-41. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.006 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    S C Wu · K C Cheung · Y.M. Luo · M H Wong ·
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    ABSTRACT: A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments.
    Environmental Pollution 04/2006; 140(1):124-35. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.06.023 · 4.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
121.37 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Graduate School
      • • Soil and Environmental Bioremediation Research Center
      • • State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture
      • • Institute of Soil Science
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008
    • Fujian Normal University
      Fujiang, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2006-2007
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2003
    • Zhejiang University
      • Department of Environmental Engineering
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2000-2003
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Statistical Science
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan