Chikara Masuta

Tohoku University, Sendai, Kagoshima-ken, Japan

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Publications (98)347.69 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota associate with most land plants and supply mineral nutrients to the host plants. One of the four viral segments found by deep-sequencing of dsRNA in the AM fungus Rhizophagus clarus strain RF1 showed similarity to mitoviruses and is characterized in this report. The genome segment is 2,895 nucleotides in length, and the largest ORF was predicted by applying either the mold mitochondrial or the universal genetic code. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 820 amino acids with a molecular mass of 91.2 kDa and conserves the domain of the mitovirus RdRp superfamily. Accordingly, the dsRNA was designated as R. clarus mitovirus 1 strain RF1 (RcMV1-RF1). Mitoviruses are localized exclusively in mitochondria and thus generally employ the mold mitochondrial genetic code. The distinct codon usage of RcMV1-RF1, however, suggests that the virus is potentially able to replicate not only in mitochondria but also in the cytoplasm. RcMV1-RF1 RdRp showed the highest similarity to the putative RdRp of a mitovirus-like ssRNA found in another AM fungus, followed by RdRp of a mitovirus in an ascomycotan ectomycorrhizal fungus. The three mitoviruses found in the three mycorrhizal fungi formed a deeply branching clade that is distinct from the two major clades in the genus Mitovirus.
    Archives of Virology 02/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean expressing the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene manifests seed coat pigmentation due to suppression of endogenous RNA silencing but no other morphological abnormality. This gene may help prevent transgene silencing. RNA silencing is an important mechanism for gene regulation and antiviral defense in plants. It is also responsible for transgene silencing, however, and thus hinders the establishment of transgenic plants. The 2b protein of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing and therefore might prove beneficial for stabilization of transgene expression. We have now generated transgenic soybean that harbors the 2b gene of a CMV-soybean strain under the control of a constitutive promoter to investigate the effects of 2b expression. No growth abnormality was apparent in 2b transgenic plants, although the seed coat was pigmented in several of the transgenic lines. Genes for chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme of the flavonoid pathway, are posttranscriptionally silenced by the inhibitor (I) locus in nonpigmented (yellow) soybean seeds. The levels of CHS mRNA and CHS small interfering RNA in strongly pigmented 2b transgenic seed coats were higher and lower, respectively, than those in the seed coat of a control transgenic line. The expression level of 2b also correlated with the extent of seed coat pigmentation. On the other hand, introduction of the 2b gene together with the DsRed2 gene into somatic embryos prevented the time-dependent decrease in transient DsRed2 expression. Our results indicate that the 2b gene alone is able to suppress RNA silencing of endogenous CHS genes regulated by the I locus, and that 2b is of potential utility for stabilization of transgene expression in soybean without detrimental effects other than seed coat pigmentation.
    Plant Cell Reports 09/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus in the family Bromoviridae. We cloned the coat protein (CP) and the 2b protein (2b) genes of AV-2 isolates from asparagus plants from various regions and found that the sequence for CP and for 2b was highly conserved among the isolates, suggesting that AV-2 from around the world is almost identical. We then made an AV-2 infectious clone by simultaneous inoculation with in vitro transcripts of RNAs 1-3 of AV-2 and in vitro-synthesized CP, which is necessary for initial infection. Because 2b of cucumoviruses in Bromoviridae can suppress systemic silencing as well as local silencing, we analyzed whether there is functional synteny of 2b between AV-2 and cucumovirus. Using the AV-2 infectious clone, we here provided first evidence that Ilarvirus 2b functions as an RNA silencing suppressor; AV-2 2b has suppressor activity against systemic silencing but not local silencing.
    Virology 05/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytosine methylation can be induced by double-stranded RNAs through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. A DNA glycosylase REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) participates in DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis and may possibly counteract RdDM. Here, we isolated an ortholog of ROS1 (NbROS1) from Nicotiana benthamiana and examined the antagonistic activity of NbROS1 against virus-induced RdDM by simultaneously inducing RdDM and NbROS1 knockdown using a vector based on Cucumber mosaic virus. Plants were inoculated with a virus that contained a portion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, which induced RdDM of the promoter integrated in the plant genome and transcriptional silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene driven by the promoter. Plants were also inoculated with a virus that contained a portion of NbROS1, which induced downregulation of NbROS1. Simultaneous induction of RdDM and NbROS1 knockdown resulted in an increase in the level of cytosine methylation of the target promoter. These results provide evidence for the presence of antagonistic activity of NbROS1 against virus-induced RdDM and suggest that the simultaneous induction of promoter-targeting RdDM and NbROS1 knockdown by a virus vector is useful as a tool to enhance targeted DNA methylation.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2013; 4:44.
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    ABSTRACT: Plants and animals can recognize the invasion of pathogens through their perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Plant PRRs identified have been exclusively receptor-like kinases/proteins (RLK/Ps), and no RLK/P that can detect viruses has been identified to date. RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) is regarded as an antiviral basal immunity because the majority of plant viruses has RNA as their genomes and encode RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to counterattack antiviral RNAi. Many RSSs were reported to bind to double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are regarded as viral PAMPs. We have recently identified a tobacco calmodulin (CaM)-like protein, rgs-CaM, as a PRR that binds to diverse viral RSSs through its affinity for the dsRNA-binding domains. Because rgs-CaM seems to target RSSs for autophagic degradation with self-sacrifice, the expression level of rgs-CaM is important for antiviral activity. Here, we found that the rgs-CaM expression was induced immediately (within 1 h) after wounding at a wound site on tobacco leaves. Since the invasion of plant viruses is usually associated with wounding, and several hours are required for viruses to replicate to a detectable level in invaded cells, the wound-induced expression of rgs-CaM seems to be linked to its antiviral function, which should be ready before the virus establishes infection. CaMs and CaM-like proteins usually transduce calcium signals through their binding to endogenous targets. Therefore, rgs-CaM is a unique CaM-like protein in terms of binding to exogenous targets and functioning as an antiviral PRR.
    Plant signaling & behavior 10/2012; 7(12).
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    ABSTRACT: RCY1, which encodes a coiled coil nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class R protein, confers the hypersensitive response (HR) to a yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV[Y]) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged RCY1 (RCY1-HA) also exhibited a defense response accompanied by HR cell death and induction of defense-related gene expression in response to CMV(Y). Following transient expression of RCY1-HA by agroinfiltration, the defense reaction was induced in N. benthamiana leaves infected with CMV(Y) but not in virulent CMV(B2)-infected N. benthamiana leaves transiently expressing RCY1-HA or CMV(Y)-infected N. benthamiana leaves transiently expressing HA-tagged RPP8 (RPP8-HA), which is allelic to RCY1. This result suggests that Arabidopsis RCY1-conferred resistance to CMV(Y) could be reproduced in N. benthamiana leaves in a gene-for-gene manner. Expression of a series of chimeric constructs between RCY1-HA and RPP8-HA in CMV(Y)-infected N. benthamiana indicated that induction of defense responses to CMV(Y) is regulated by the LRR domain of RCY1. Interestingly, in CMV(Y)-infected N. benthamiana manifesting the defense response, the levels of both RCY1 and chimeric proteins harboring the RCY1 LRR domain were significantly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that the RCY1-conferred resistance response to CMV(Y) is regulated by an LRR domain-mediated interaction with CMV(Y) and seems to be tightly associated with the degradation of RCY1 in response to CMV(Y).
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 09/2012; 25(9):1171-85. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives are thought to be involved in mobile forms of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the distal transport of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) that is synthesized de novo in response to leaf wounding in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was investigated. JA-[(13)C(6)]Ile was recovered in distal untreated leaves after wounded leaves were treated with [(13)C(6)]Ile. However, as [(13)C(6)]Ile was also recovered in the distal untreated leaves, whether JA-Ile was synthesized in the wounded or in the untreated leaves was unclear. Hence, stem exudates were analyzed to obtain more detailed information. When [(13)C(6)]Ile and [(2)H(6)]JA were applied separately into the wounds on two different leaves, JA-[(13)C(6)]Ile and [(2)H(6)]JA-Ile were detected in the stem exudates but [(2)H(6)]JA-[(13)C(6)]Ile was not, indicating that JA was conjugated with Ile in the wounded leaf and that the resulting JA-Ile was then transported into systemic tissues. The [(2)H(3)]JA-Ile that was applied exogenously to the wounded tissues reached distal untreated leaves within 10min. Additionally, applying [(2)H(3)]JA-Ile to the wounded leaves at concentrations of 10 and 60nmol/two leaves induced the accumulation of PIN II, LAP A, and JAZ3 mRNA in the distal untreated leaves of the spr2 mutant S. lycopersicum plants. These results demonstrate the transportation of de novo synthesized JA-Ile and suggest that JA-Ile may be a mobile signal.
    Phytochemistry 08/2012; 83:25-33. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA silencing plays a critical role in plant resistance against viruses, with multiple silencing factors participating in antiviral defense. Both RNA and DNA viruses are targeted by the small RNA-directed RNA degradation pathway, with DNA viruses being also targeted by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To evade RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved a variety of counter-defense mechanisms such as expressing RNA-silencing suppressors or adopting silencing-resistant RNA structures. This constant defense-counter defense arms race is likely to have played a major role in defining viral host specificity and in shaping viral and possibly host genomes. Recent studies have provided evidence that RNA silencing also plays a direct role in viral disease induction in plants, with viral RNA-silencing suppressors and viral siRNAs as potentially the dominant players in viral pathogenicity. However, questions remain as to whether RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity or if other RNA-silencing-independent mechanisms also account for viral disease induction. RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals. Further understanding of the role of RNA silencing in plant-virus interactions and viral symptom induction is likely to result in novel anti-viral strategies in both plants and animals.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 06/2012; 25(10):1275-85. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA silencing (RNAi) induced by virus-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is in a sense regarded as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of viruses, is a general plant defense mechanism. To counteract this defense, plant viruses express RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), many of which bind to dsRNA and attenuate RNAi. We showed that the tobacco calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM, counterattacked viral RSSs by binding to their dsRNA-binding domains and sequestering them from inhibiting RNAi. Autophagy-like protein degradation seemed to operate to degrade RSSs with the sacrifice of rgs-CaM. These RSSs could thus be regarded as secondary viral PAMPs. This study uncovered a unique defense system in which an rgs-CaM-mediated countermeasure against viral RSSs enhanced host antiviral RNAi in tobacco.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(25):10113-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Hanako Shimura, Chikara Masuta
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    ABSTRACT: RNA silencing plays an important role in plant resistance against viruses. As a counter-defense against RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs). RNA silencing is likely to play a major role in disease development. For example, RSSs have been found to disturb the gene expression controlled by miRNAs in plant tissue and organ development, resulting in plant malformation. Mosaic symptoms, which are typical in virus-infected plants, are actually a consequence of local arms race between host RNA silencing and viral RSSs. In addition, recent studies revealed that viral siRNAs could induce RNA silencing even against a certain host gene and thus a disease symptom through a complementary (homologous) sequence coincidentally found between virus and host gene. RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity and disease induction and therefore should be exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals.
    Uirusu 06/2012; 62(1):19-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic associations with most land plants and enhance phosphorus uptake of the host plants. Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) that possess a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome often affect plant-fungal interactions via altering phenotypic expression of their host fungi. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of dsRNAs, which are highly likely to be mycoviruses, in AM fungi. dsRNA was extracted from mycelia of Glomus sp. strain RF1, purified, and subjected to electrophoresis. The fungus was found to harbor various dsRNA segments that differed in size. Among them, a 4.5-kbp segment was termed Glomus sp. strain RF1 virus-like medium dsRNA (GRF1V-M) and characterized in detail. The GRF1V-M genome segment was 4,557 nucleotides in length and encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and a structural protein. GRF1V-M was phylogenetically distinct and could not be assigned to known genera of mycovirus. The GRF1V-M-free culture line of Glomus sp. strain RF1, which was raised by single-spore isolation, produced twofold greater number of spores and promoted plant growth more efficiently than the GRF1V-M-positive lines. These observations suggest that mycoviruses in AM fungi, at least some of them, have evolved under unique selection pressures and are a biologically active component in the symbiosis.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 03/2012; 25(7):1005-12. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many plant viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing, including the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses. Our previous studies showed that a D-to-Y mutation at amino acid position 193 in HC-Pro (HC-Pro-D193Y) drastically attenuated the virulence of clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) in legume plants. Furthermore, RNA-silencing suppression (RSS) activity of HC-Pro-D193Y was significantly reduced in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we examine the effect of expression of heterologous suppressors of RNA silencing, i.e., tomato bushy stunt virus p19, cucumber mosaic virus 2b, and their mutants, on the virulence of the ClYVV point mutant with D193Y (Cl-D193Y) in pea. P19 and 2b fully and partially complemented Cl-D193Y multiplication and virulence, including lethal systemic HR in pea, respectively, but the P19 and 2b mutants with defects in their RSS activity did not. Our findings strongly suggest that the D193Y mutation exclusively affects RSS activity of HC-Pro and that RSS activity is necessary for ClYVV multiplication and virulence in pea.
    Archives of Virology 03/2012; 157(6):1019-28. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    Chikara Masuta, Jun-ichi Inaba, Hanako Shimura
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    ABSTRACT: Plant viral symptoms are rarely explained by direct molecular interaction between a viral protein and a host factor, but rather understood as a consequence of arms race between host RNA silencing and viral silencing suppressors. However, we have recently demonstrated that the 2b protein (2b) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) HL strain could bind to Arabidopsis catalase that is important in scavenging cellular hydrogen peroxide, leading to the induction of distinct necrosis on Arabidopsis. Because we previously used virulent strains of subgroup I CMV in the study, we here further analyzed mild strains of subgroup II CMV, which share 70 to 80% sequence homology with subgroup I, to understand whether the necrosis induction is a general phenomenon to compromise host defense system mediated by catalase in the pathosystem of any CMV strains and Arabidopsis. Based on the results, we concluded that 2bs of subgroup II could also bind to catalase, resulting in decrease in catalase activity and weak necrosis on Arabidopsis. Because the 2b-catalase interaction did not prevent CMVs from spreading, it may eventually operate in favor of CMV.
    Plant signaling & behavior 01/2012; 7(1):43-5.
  • Hanako Shimura, Chikara Masuta
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    ABSTRACT: Viroids and satellite RNAs, which are the smallest infectious agents in plants, have noncoding RNA genomes and characteristic secondary structures. Some satellite RNAs (satRNAs) cause disease symptoms that are different from those induced by their helper virus. This phenomenon has been implicated in RNA silencing of host gene(s) as a result of sequence identity or complementarity between satRNAs and host RNAs. To investigate the effects of satRNA sequence on direct coincident interference with host gene expression, we developed a transient RNA silencing assay using protoplasts. With this protoplast system, we can induce various forms and lengths of silencing inducers at various concentrations to uniform cells without viral infection, and then we can use the satRNA-treated protoplasts in further analyses such as real-time RT-PCR and northern blot hybridization analyses to investigate whether the satRNA-induced symptoms are due to down-regulation of the target gene expression.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 894:273-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently we reported that rice salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase (OsSGT) is active toward 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (tuberonic acid, TA) and that OsSGT gene expression is induced by wounding stress. Here we report that tobacco SA glucosyltransferase (NtSGT), which is thought to be an ortholog of OsSGT, is also active toward TA. Although NtSGT expression is known to be induced by biotrophic stress, it was also induced by wounding stress in the same manner as OsSGT. These results indicate that this glucosyltransferase is important not only in biotrophic stress but also for wounding stress. It was found that this enzyme is dually functional, with activity both toward TA and SA.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 12/2011; 75(12):2316-20. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of transgenes in plant genomes can be inhibited by either transcriptional gene silencing or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Overexpression of the chalcone synthase-A (CHS-A) transgene triggers PTGS of CHS-A and thus results in loss of flower pigmentation in petunia. We previously demonstrated that epigenetic inactivation of CHS-A transgene transcription leads to a reversion of the PTGS phenotype. Although neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII), a marker gene co-introduced into the genome with the CHS-A transgene, is not normally silenced in petunia, even when CHS-A is silenced, here we found that nptII was silenced in a petunia line in which CHS-A PTGS was induced, but not in the revertant plants that had no PTGS of CHS-A. Transcriptional activity, accumulation of short interfering RNAs, and restoration of mRNA level after infection with viruses that had suppressor proteins of gene silencing indicated that the mechanism for nptII silencing was posttranscriptional. Read-through transcripts of the CHS-A gene toward the nptII gene were detected. Deep-sequencing analysis revealed a striking difference between the predominant size class of small RNAs produced from the read-through transcripts (22 nt) and that from the CHS-A RNAs (21 nt). These results implicate the involvement of read-through transcription and distinct phases of RNA degradation in the coincident PTGS of linked transgenes and provide new insights into the destabilization of transgene expression.
    Plant Molecular Biology 12/2011; 78(3):259-73. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide sequences from the P1 gene and the 5' untranslated region of leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), collected from several locations, were used to refine the phylogenetic relationships among the isolates. Multiple alignments revealed three distinct regions of insertions and deletions to classify LYSVs. In our phylogenetic analyses, the LYSV isolates separated into two major groups (N-type and S-type). S-type viruses had two large deletions compared to N-type viruses. Considering that the outgroup, onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) also has the sequences corresponding to the deletions in the S-type viruses, our study shows that the sequences missing in the S-type were present in the common ancestor of the N-type and S-type. In the phylogenetic trees, we found three distinct clades of isolates, from Uruguay (U), Okinawa (O) and Spain (Sp), suggesting that LYSVs have unique evolutionary histories depending on their garlic origins. The P1 gene of LYSV is thus quite suited to reflecting viral evolution, as recently suggested for other potyviruses.
    Archives of Virology 10/2011; 157(1):147-53. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed infection of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) induced more severe symptoms on Nicotiana benthamiana than single infection. To dissect the relationships between spatial infection patterns and the 2b protein (2b) of CMV in single or mixed infections, the CMV vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent or Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins (EGFP [EG] or DsRed2 [Ds], respectively were constructed from the same wild-type CMV-Y and used for inoculation onto N. benthamiana. CMV2-A1 vector (C2-A1 [A1]) has a functional 2b while CMV-H1 vector (C2-H1 [H1]) is 2b deficient. As we expected from the 2b function as an RNA silencing suppressor (RSS), in a single infection, A1Ds retained a high level of accumulation at initial infection sites and showed extensive fluorescence in upper, noninoculated leaves, whereas H1Ds disappeared rapidly at initial infection sites and could not spread efficiently in upper, noninoculated leaf tissues. In various mixed infections, we found two phenomena providing novel insights into the relationships among RSS, viral synergism, and interference. First, H1Ds could not spread efficiently from vasculature into nonvascular tissues with or without TuMV, suggesting that RNA silencing was not involved in CMV unloading from vasculature. These results indicated that 2b could promote CMV to unload from vasculature into nonvascular tissues, and that this 2b function might be independent of its RSS activity. Second, we detected spatial interference (local interference) between A1Ds and A1EG in mixed infection with TuMV, between A1Ds (or H1Ds) and TuMV, and between H1Ds and H1EG. This observation suggested that local interference between two viruses was established even in the synergism between CMV and TuMV and, again, RNA silencing did not seem to contribute greatly to this phenomenon.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 09/2011; 25(1):18-27. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-sequence-specific interactions mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can induce gene silencing. Gene silencing through transcriptional repression can be induced by dsRNA targeted to a gene promoter. However, until recently, no plant has been produced that harbors an endogenous gene that remains silenced in the absence of promoter-targeting dsRNA. We have reported for the first time that transcriptional gene silencing can be induced by targeting dsRNA to the endogenous gene promoters in petunia and tomato plants, using a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-based vector and that the induced gene silencing is heritable. Efficient silencing depended on the function of the 2b protein encoded in the vector, which facilitates epigenetic modifications through the transport of short interfering RNA (siRNA) to the nucleus. Here we show that gene silencing that is mediated by targeting dsRNA to a gene promoter via the CMV vector can be as strong as co-suppression in terms of both the extent of mRNA decrease and phenotypic changes. We also show that the expression of genes involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation and in demethylation are upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in Arabidopsis plants infected with CMV. Thus, along with the function of the 2b protein, that transports siRNA to the nucleus, the promoter-targeted silencing system using the CMV vector has some property that facilitates heritable epigenetic changes on endogenous genes, enabling the production of a novel class of modified plants that do not have a transgene.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2011; 6(8):1090-3.
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation at a gene promoter can be triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway and induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Although genes involved in the RdDM pathway have been identified, whether dsRNAs of different promoter regions have different extent of effects on RdDM and/or TGS is unknown. Here, we addressed this question by targeting the CaMV 35S promoter in the plant genome using a recombinant Cucumber mosaic virus that contained various portions of the promoter. The efficiency of the induction of TGS depended on the length of the promoter segment triggering the RdDM; the lower size limit for TGS induction was 81-91 nt. TGS was induced when 70-nt fragments were connected in tandem, none of which solely induced TGS. TGS induction did not simply depend on the production of small interfering RNAs corresponding to the promoter. Along with the induction of RdDM, spreading of DNA methylation from the originally targeted site toward the adjacent regions was detected. The maintenance of TGS in the progeny that lacks an RNA trigger depended on the promoter segments triggering the RdDM in the former generation and was correlated with the number of cytosines at symmetrical sites in the targeted region. These results indicate that both the length of dsRNA above the threshold and the frequency of cytosines at symmetric sites in the region targeted by dsRNA are the major factors that allow induction of heritable TGS via RdDM.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 06/2011; 6(6):681-91. · 4.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
347.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Tohoku University
      • Division of Life Sciences
      Sendai, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
  • 1998–2012
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Graduate School of Agriculture
      • • Research Faculty of Agriculture
      • • School of Agriculture
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2011
    • Kyushu University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2007–2011
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2007–2010
    • National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences in Japan
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2003
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1988–1995
    • Japan Tobacco Inc.
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1991
    • Ghent University
      • VIB Department of Plant Systems Biology
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium