Anthony Kinsella

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (201)828.61 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors developed and validated a clozapine-specific side-effects scale capable of eliciting the subjectively unpleasant side-effects of clozapine. Questions from the original Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effects Scale (GASS) were compared to a list of the most commonly reported clozapine side-effects and those with a significant subjective burden were included in the GASS for Clozapine (GASS-C). The original authors of the GASS and a group of mental health professionals from the UK and Ireland were enlisted to comment on the questions in the GASS-C based on their clinical experience. 110 clozapine outpatients from two sites completed the GASS-C, the original GASS and a repeat GASS-C. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 19. The GASS-C was shown to have construct validity, in that Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.816 (p<0.001) with the original GASS, whilst Cohen's kappa coefficient was >0.77 (p<0.001) for one question and >0.81 (p<0.001) for remaining relevant questions. GASS-C was also shown to have strong test-retest reliability, in that Cronbach's alpha coefficient was >0.907 (p<0.001), whilst Cohen's kappa coefficient was >0.81 (p<0.001) for 12 questions and >0.61 (p<0.001) for the remaining four questions. The GASS-C is a valid and reliable clinical tool to enable a systematic assessment of the subjectively unpleasant side-effects of clozapine. Future research should focus on how the scale can be utilised as a clinical tool to improve real-world outcomes such as adherence to clozapine therapy and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.07.052 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core feature of psychosis, however there are gaps in our knowledge about its prevalence and factor structure. We had two aims: first, to establish the factor structure of FTD; second, to explore the clinical utility of dimensions of FTD in order to further the understanding of its nosology. A cross-validation study was undertaken to establish the factor structure of FTD in first episode psychosis (FEP). The relative utility of FTD categories vs. dimensions across diagnostic categories was investigated. The prevalence of clinically significant FTD in this FEP sample was 21%, although 41% showed evidence of disorganised speech, 20% displayed verbosity and 24% displayed impoverished speech. A 3-factor model was identified as the best fit for FTD, with disorganisation, poverty and verbosity dimensions (GFI=0.99, RMR=0.07). These dimensions of FTD accurately distinguished affective from non-affective diagnostic categories. A categorical approach to FTD assessment was useful in identifying markers of clinical acuteness, as identified by short duration of untreated psychosis (OR=2.94, P<0.01) and inpatient treatment status (OR=3.98, P<0.01). FTD is moderately prevalent and multi-dimensional in FEP. Employing both a dimensional and categorical assessment of FTD gives valuable clinical information, however there may be a need to revise our conceptualisation of the nosology of FTD. The prognostic value of FTD, as well as its neural basis, requires elucidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.07.049 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QOL) in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is impaired when compared to non-clinical controls and several clinical factors including symptoms and untreated psychosis have been linked with poorer QOL. Measurement methods are varied, however, resulting in inconsistent findings and there is a need to simultaneously combine subjective and objective measures of QOL. We examined both subjective (n = 128) and objective QOL (n = 178) in a catchment area cohort of individuals with FEP (n = 222) to determine correspondence between patient satisfaction and clinician-rated functional domains. We also examined the contribution of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics to both subjective and objective QOL. There were complex relationships between subjective and objective QOL domains in that patient's assessments of health status (psychological well-being, symptoms/outlook, physical health) were not correlated with clinicians but there were strong correlations between social functioning domains (occupation, social relations, financial status and activities of daily living) assessed by patients and clinicians. Longer duration of untreated psychosis, being treated as an inpatient, higher positive symptoms and poorer social functioning in client-rated QOL domains predicted poorer objective QOL. We found that both subjective and objective assessments of QOL displayed a degree of clinical utility demonstrated by relationships between clinical factors and both QOL perspectives. Moreover, the lack of association between patient characteristics and QOL shows some potential malleability of QOL outcomes through intervention as there were several clinical factors linked with both subjective and objective QOL. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/eip.12255 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Negative symptoms are included in diagnostic manuals as part of criteria for schizophrenia spectrum psychoses only, however some studies have found their presence in other diagnoses. This study sought to clarify negative symptom domain prevalence across diagnostic categories, while investigating whether negative symptoms predicted diagnostic shift over time. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) data were collected at first presentation in 197 individuals presenting with first episode psychosis and again at one year follow-up assessment. Negative symptoms were highest among individuals with schizophrenia and among those whose diagnosis shifted from non-schizophrenia spectrum at baseline to schizophrenia spectrum at follow-up. In a non-schizophrenia spectrum group negative symptoms at baseline were not a significant predictor of diagnostic shift to schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. The study suggests negative symptoms can present among individuals with non-schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, although this is most relevant for individuals following diagnostic shift from non-schizophrenia spectrum to schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. The findings support introduction of a negative symptom dimension when describing a range of psychotic illnesses, and indicate that further research investigating the evolution of negative symptoms in non-schizophrenia diagnoses is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.086 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Caragh Behan · Cullinan J · Kennelly B · Turner N · Owens E · Lau A · Kinsella A · Clarke M
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: Early intervention in psychosis is an accepted policy internationally. When 'A Vision for Change', the national blueprint for mental health policy in Ireland, was published in 2007 there was one Irish pilot service for early intervention in psychosis. The National Clinical Mental Health Programme Plan (2011) identified early intervention in psychosis as one of three areas for roll out nationally. There is limited economic evaluation in the field of mental health in Ireland to guide service development. This is in part due to lack of robust patient level data. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the introduction of an early intervention service in psychosis resulted in any change to the number and duration of admissions in people with first-episode psychosis. METHODS: We examined two prospective epidemiological cohorts of individuals presenting with first-episode psychosis to an urban community mental health service (population 172,000). The historical cohort comprised of individuals presenting from 1995 to 1998 and received treatment as usual (n=132). The early intervention cohort presented to the same catchment area between 2008 and 2011 (n=97) following the introduction of an early intervention service in 2005. RESULTS: We found significant reductions in the rates admitted for treatment across the two time periods. Reduction in the rate of admission was larger in this catchment than the reduction in the rate of admission in the country as a whole. There were significant reductions in the duration of untreated psychosis arising from the early intervention programme. Significant reductions in length of stay were accounted for by differences in baseline age and marital status. The average cost of admission declined from 15,821 to 9,398 in the early intervention cohort. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS: The comparison pre and post early intervention service showed cost savings consistent with other studies internationally. Key issues are whether changes in the admission pattern were due to the implementation of early intervention or were explained by other factors. Examination of local and national factors showed that the dominant effect was from the implementation of early intervention. Limitations are that this is a comparison with a historical cohort and analysis is limited to in-patient costs only. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: While there are cost savings, these represent opportunity cost savings, as the majority of costs associated with in-patient care are fixed. Studies such as this provide evidence that it is feasible to consider disinvestment strategies such as home care in the community. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: It is difficult to generalize interventions shown to work in one country to other countries, as health service structures differ and there are both local and national variations in service structure and delivery. It remains important to evaluate whether a policy is applicable within its local context. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Further research in this area is required to evaluate contemporaneous services and to examine whether increased costs in the community incurred through implementation of early intervention negate the savings made through reduction of admissions.
    The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 06/2015; 18(2):57-62. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with psychotic disorders are represented more in the lower social classes, yet there is conflicting evidence to whether these individuals drift into the lower social classes or whether lower social class is a risk factor for developing psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the social class at birth is a risk factor for developing psychosis. We included individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) whose social class at birth was determined from birth records. We employed a case-control study design and also compared the distribution of the social classes at birth of the cases to that of the general population. A total of 380 individuals with an FEP and 760 controls were included in the case-control study. The odds ratio for developing an FEP associated with social class (low vs high) was .62 (95% confidence interval (CI): .46-.85, p < .001), indicating that individuals from a lower social class at birth have a reduced risk of psychosis. Individuals born between 1961 and 1980 with an FEP were more likely to be from a higher social class at birth compared to the general population (60.8% vs 36.7%, χ(2) = 60.85, df = 1, p < .001). However, this association was not observed for those born between 1981 and 1990. A higher social class at birth is associated with a greater risk for developing a psychotic disorder; however, this effect may show temporal variation. © The Author(s) 2015.
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/0020764015581434 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Psychotic disorders are associated with a significant impairment in occupational functioning that can begin in the prodromal phase of the disorder. As a result, individuals with a psychotic disorder may not maintain their social class at birth. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of the social classes of individuals presenting with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared to the general population and to their family of origin. We evaluated whether social drift was associated with depression, hopelessness and suicidality at first presentation. Methods All individuals with a FEP presenting to a community mental health service between 1995 and 1999 and to an early intervention service between 2005 and 2011were included. Diagnosis was established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV diagnoses and clinical evaluations included the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Suicidal Intent Scale. Results 330 individuals were included in the study and by the time of presentation, individuals with a FEP were more likely to be represented in the lower social classes compared to the general population. 43% experienced a social drift and this was associated with a diagnosis of a non-affective disorder, co-morbid cannabis abuse and a longer DUP. Individuals who did not experience a social drift had a higher risk of hopelessness. Conclusions Social drift is common in psychotic disorders; however, individuals who either maintain their social class or experience upward social class mobility are more susceptible to hopelessness.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; 157(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.05.022 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; 153:S286. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(14)70811-4 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research; 04/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early intervention in psychosis is an accepted policy internationally. When 'A Vision for Change', the national blueprint for mental health policy in Ireland, was published in 2007 there was one Irish pilot service for early intervention in psychosis. The National Clinical Mental Health Programme Plan (2011) identified early intervention in psychosis as one of three areas for roll out nationally. There is limited economic evaluation in the field of mental health in Ireland to guide service development. This is in part due to lack of robust patient level data. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the introduction of an early intervention service in psychosis resulted in any change to the number and duration of admissions in people with first-episode psychosis. We examined two prospective epidemiological cohorts of individuals presenting with first-episode psychosis to an urban community mental health service (population 172,000). The historical cohort comprised of individuals presenting from 1995 to 1998 and received treatment as usual (n=132). The early intervention cohort presented to the same catchment area between 2008 and 2011 (n=97) following the introduction of an early intervention service in 2005. We found significant reductions in the rates admitted for treatment across the two time periods. Reduction in the rate of admission was larger in this catchment than the reduction in the rate of admission in the country as a whole. There were significant reductions in the duration of untreated psychosis arising from the early intervention programme. Significant reductions in length of stay were accounted for by differences in baseline age and marital status. The average cost of admission declined from 15,821 to 9,398 in the early intervention cohort. The comparison pre and post early intervention service showed cost savings consistent with other studies internationally. Key issues are whether changes in the admission pattern were due to the implementation of early intervention or were explained by other factors. Examination of local and national factors showed that the dominant effect was from the implementation of early intervention. Limitations are that this is a comparison with a historical cohort and analysis is limited to in-patient costs only. While there are cost savings, these represent opportunity cost savings, as the majority of costs associated with in-patient care are fixed. Studies such as this provide evidence that it is feasible to consider disinvestment strategies such as home care in the community. It is difficult to generalize interventions shown to work in one country to other countries, as health service structures differ and there are both local and national variations in service structure and delivery. It remains important to evaluate whether a policy is applicable within its local context. Further research in this area is required to evaluate contemporaneous services and to examine whether increased costs in the community incurred through implementation of early intervention negate the savings made through reduction of admissions.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; 153(2):S295-S296. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(14)70835-7 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research; 04/2014
  • Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; 153:S231-S232. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(14)70666-8 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research; 04/2014
  • Stephen McWilliams · Anthony Kinsella · Eadbhard O'Callaghan
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables-namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature-influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 03/2014; 58(10). DOI:10.1007/s00484-014-0805-9 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in schizophrenia samples suggest negative symptoms can be categorized as expressivity or experiential. This study examines the structure of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) at two separate interviews in a first episode psychosis (FEP) sample. SANS structure was determined with principal components analysis in a schizophrenia spectrum (SSD, N=191) and non-schizophrenia spectrum (NSSD, N=246) sample at first presentation. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in the entire FEP sample (N=197) at a follow-up assessment. A three factor model solution was extracted in both SSD and NSSD at first presentation. The three components, consisting of expressivity, experiential and alogia/inattention components, explained 26.1%, 16.6% and 13.6% of the variance respectively in SSD. In NSSD the same three components explained 24.2%, 17.9% and 13.1% of the variance respectively. CFA at follow-up showed similar model fit for both the original SANS five factor and for a three factor model solution. The results indicate that either a three or five factor SANS model solution may be appropriate in a psychosis sample inclusive of both SSD and NSSD. The findings also provide initial support for expressivity and experiential domain research in NSSD.
    10/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.09.008
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of glutamate receptor subtypes and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in orofacial function, six individual topographies of orofacial movement, both spontaneous and induced by the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF 83959, were quantified in mutant mice with deletion of (a) GluN2A, B or D receptors, and (b) the GABA synthesising enzyme, 65-kD isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65). In GluN2A mutants, habituation of head movements was disrupted and vibrissae movements were reduced, with an overall increase in locomotion; responsivity to SKF 83959 was unaltered. In GluN2B mutants, vertical and horizontal jaw movements and incisor chattering were increased, with an overall decrease in locomotion; under challenge with SKF 83959, head and vibrissae movements were reduced. In GluN2D mutants, horizontal jaw movements, incisor chattering and vibrissae movements were increased, with reduced tongue protrusions and no overall change in locomotion; under challenge with SKF 83959, horizontal jaw movements were increased. In GAD65 mutants, vertical jaw movements were increased, with disruption to habituation of locomotion; under challenge with SKF 83959, vertical and horizontal jaw movements and incisor chattering were decreased. Effects on orofacial movements differed from their effects on regulation of overall locomotor behaviour. These findings (a) indicate novel, differential roles for GluN2A, B and D receptors and for GAD65-mediated GABA in the regulation of individual topographies of orofacial movement and (b) reveal how these roles differ from and/or interact with the established role of D1-like receptors in pattern generators and effectors for such movements.
    Neuroscience 07/2013; 250. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.07.038 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QOL) is now recognised as an important measure of outcome that could potentially influence clinical decision-making for those with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). A number of QOL instruments are available however; many differ in their conceptual orientation which may have serious implications for the outcome of QOL studies, interpretation of findings and clinical utility. We aimed to compare two commonly used tools representing both generic and disease-specific constructs to examine whether both tools appraise the same underlying QOL traits and also whether disease-specific tools retain their psychometric properties when used in FEP groups. We assessed 159 consecutive individuals presenting with FEP in a defined catchment area with two commonly used QOL tools and examined the findings using the multi-trait multi-method matrix. Similarly named domains of QOL between both tools (Psychological Wellbeing, Physical Health, Social Relations) showed good convergent validity using confirmatory factor analysis. However, discriminant validity was not established given that domains loading onto their indicated latent factors were more strongly correlated with their non-corresponding latent factors. A major consideration in undertaking the present study was to assess the extent to which the outcome of QOL studies in FEP were valid and that systematic error did not provide another plausible explanation for findings. Establishing convergent validity demonstrates that either tool could be used satisfactorily to measure the QOL construct identified however; we did not establish discriminant validity. Doing so would have demonstrated that QOL domains are substantively different in that they contain some unique piece of information determining clinical utility. These findings are important for our understanding of multi-dimensional models of QOL.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 07/2013; 47(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.06.001 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early intervention (EI) services for psychosis aim to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with intensive large-scale multi-focus initiatives, including public awareness campaigns. As a consequence of this approach, individuals with a very long DUP who might have otherwise remained undiagnosed may come to medical attention. The aim of this study was to investigate if an EI service detected additional cases of individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP) with a very long DUP and identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with a very long DUP. We compared the distribution of the DUP in cases with FEP in a cohort from an EI service in a geographically defined catchment area with a historical control group. Participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) diagnoses and the Beiser scale to determine the DUP. A total of 172 individuals were included in the EI service and 151 were included from the historical control. There was no difference in the distribution of the DUP in the EI service compared with the historical control group (χ(2) = 3.77, degrees of freedom (d.f.) = 3, P = 0.29). In the EI service, 7.6% of cases had a DUP between 24 and 35.9 months compared to 3.3% in the historical control, and 13.4% of cases in the EI service had a DUP of greater than three years compared to 10.6% in the historical control. A very long DUP was associated with unemployment, less insight and involuntary treatment. Further examination of the pathways to care in cases with a long DUP may clarify the contribution of help-seeking and health system delays for these individuals.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 06/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1111/eip.12063 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: We examined whether it is possible to use a television programme to improve mental health literacy about schizophrenia by investigating the impact of the introduction of a realistic portrayal of schizophrenia into a popular television soap opera. METHOD: A population level omnibus survey method was used. A market research company conducted face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of the Irish population (n = 993). A specifically developed questionnaire was used which included a question on the extent to which the relevant television programme was watched. A grouping variable 'viewers/non-viewers' was then created. Groups were subsequently compared for differences in demographic characteristics, mental health literacy and attitudes towards schizophrenia. RESULTS: Of the sample, 370 were regarded as viewers. When compared, viewers and non-viewers did not differ on demographic characteristics but there were significant differences between the groups in both knowledge and attitudes regarding schizophrenia. Viewers were better informed on where to go for help and were more optimistic regarding the likelihood of recovery. However, on a question regarding willingness to have an intimate relationship with someone with a previous history of mental illness, viewers had greater concerns than non-viewers. CONCLUSION: It is possible to use television dramas to educate the public about mental illnesses. Piloting of the educational material may offer an opportunity to refine the storyline so that the relevant messages are clearly communicated.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 06/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1111/eip.12056 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 05/2013; 39(4). DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt075 · 8.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
828.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2013
    • Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
      • • Department of Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2011
    • Ireland's Health Services
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2006–2011
    • University College Dublin
      • School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Saint John of God Hospitaller Services
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • St John of God Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1989–2006
    • Dublin Institute of Technology
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2004
    • The Rockefeller University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • St. James's Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1998–2000
    • Cavan Monaghan Hospital
      Monaghan, Ulster, Ireland
  • 1991
    • Trinity College Dublin
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1987
    • St. Loman’s Hospital, Mullingar
      Tulach Mhór, Leinster, Ireland