Song You

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China

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Publications (32)69.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The sesquiterpenoid curdione is one of the main bioactive components in the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma phaeocaulis, and Curcuma kwangsiensis), which has been clinically used for the treatment of cancer in mainland China. Recently it was reported that natural curdione could be hydroxylated by Aspergillus niger and transferred to its corresponding curcumalactones under acidic conditions. Based on this study, the development of a sesquiterpenoid library through the "mirror-image" manipulation of bioactive (non)natural curdione scaffolds by chemical and biological approaches is presented herein. A. niger induced the hydroxylation of two pairs of curdione enantiomers, yielding the corresponding mirror-image hydroxylated curdiones. Simultaneously, the acid-mediated intramolecular "ene" rearrangements of these curdiones and hydroxylated curdione enantiomers yielded the corresponding mirror-image curcumalactones and hydroxylated curcumalactones. Among the 16 pairs of enantiomers obtained in this study, 23 compounds are new sesquiterpenoids. These curdione and curcumalactone derivatives are of particular interest, as they have the potential to be used as lead compounds and scaffolds in drug discovery.
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    ABSTRACT: 2,4,6,8-(3)-Tetranitrophenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one (B16), a bispidinone analog, was synthesized to investigate its effects on cell viability, the cell cycle, and apoptotic pathways in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. B16 decreased the percentage of viable cells in WST-8 assays, and morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death were observed, including cell shrinkage and disruption. Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining assays showed that B16 significantly increased the early apoptosis of HeLa cells after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, DNA content analysis and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays showed that B16 induced S-phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited DNA replication after 24 h of treatment. Following treatment with 25 µM of B16, an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential were observed by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression levels of caspase cascade and Bcl-2 family proteins determined by western blotting suggested that the induction of apoptosis by B16 was associated with a caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HeLa cells. In conclusion, B16 induced early apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells via a caspase- and mitochondrial‑dependent pathway.
    Oncology Reports 01/2015; 33(3). DOI:10.3892/or.2015.3722 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of different skin permeability of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers. Methods: The percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers through rabbit normal skin and damaged skin (without stratum corneum [SC]) was investigated in vitro using side-by-side diffusion cells. With the melting temperature-membrane transport model, the flux ratio of enantiomer/racemate was calculated from their thermodynamic properties obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) study was performed to evaluate the interaction between the enantiomers and the SC. New fluorescent probes were designed and utilized in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study for visualization of the enantioselective permeation of the enantiomers through the intact rabbit skin. Result: The flux of (S)-ibuprofen through normal skin was significantly higher than that of (RS)-ibuprofen and (R)-ibuprofen (p < 0.05), whereas in damaged skin, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). The predicted flux ratio of (S)-ibuprofen/(RS)-ibuprofen (2.50) was in close agreement with the experimentally determined ratio (2.48). These results were supported by ATR-FTIR and CLSM studies that indicated that a chiral environment of the skin led to the enantioselective permeation of enantiomers. Conclusion: The chiral nature of the SC and the different physicochemical properties of the enantiomers should be taken into account in the assessment of different skin permeability of the racemate and enantiomers. The synthetic fluorescent probes used in this study could visualize the enantioselective permeation of the chiral compounds across the skin.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 06/2014; DOI:10.1517/17425247.2014.929661 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ex vivo instability of bilobalide containing three γ-lactone rings has been paid less attention by researchers who developed bioanalytical methods for bilobalide. In the present study, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma was developed with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability. Several important factors affecting the stability of bilobalide in sampling and handling procedures were investigated. To prevent the ex vivo degradation of bilobalide, EDTA instead of heparin was used as an anticoagulant as well as an esterase inhibitor for blood collection and the separation of plasma was performed at 4°C. 20μL of plasma sample was acidified with 0.1M hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with ethyl ether-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). The extract was chromatographed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column using acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.4, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The analyte and the internal standard (ginkgolide B) were detected by selected reaction monitoring mode via negative electrospray ionization. The method was fully validated and proved to be linear over a concentration range of 5.0-5000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.2% and the accuracy was within 92.5-101%. The extraction recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 86.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bilobalide in rats after intragastric administration of a single dose of bilobalide at 7, 14 and 28mg/kg.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2014; 95C:238-244. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2014.03.003 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curdione (1), a sesquiterpene with a germacrane skeleton from rhizomes of Curcuma wenyujin, has attracted attention due to its important pharmacological properties. Herein, we investigated the chemo-biotransformation of curdione (1) systematically using Aspergillus niger AS 3.739. Regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of curdione with filamentous fungus A. niger AS 3.739 led to seven metabolites including four new compounds 3α-hydroxycurcumalactone, 2β-hydroxycurcumalactone, (10S)-9,10-dihydroxy-curcumalactone and (10R)-9,10-dihydroxy-curcumalactone. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques including two-dimensional NMR and TOF-MS (Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). Based upon the analysis of biological and chemical conversions of curdione, a tentative metabolic pathway via chemo-bio cascade reactions is proposed in A. niger system, which provides an insight into the corresponding metabolism of curdione in animal systems. In addition, experiments with selected monooxygenase inhibitors suggest that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a crucial role in the hydroxylation of curdione.
    Natural product research 01/2014; DOI:10.1080/14786419.2013.873434 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lipase B from Candida antarctica was subjected to directed evolution suggested by its structure. Mutants of the lipase show significantly increased activity and enantioselectivity toward profen esters compared to the wild type, especially for flurbiprofen ester (ee = 93%, E = 37) and ketoprofen ester (ee = 99%, E > 200).
    Catalysis Communications 08/2013; 38:1-5. DOI:10.1016/j.catcom.2013.03.040 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a biologically active 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl piperazin moiety was linked to a 2,2- dimethyl -2H-benzopyran template to generate (3R,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-6-nitro-4-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl) chroman -3-ol (C110g), and the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which C110g exerts cytotoxic effects on the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line were further investigated. C110g suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in both concentration- and time-dependent manner (IC50 of 17 µM) by inducing DNA damage and G1 cell cycle arrest. Characteristic changes in nuclear morphology and Annexin V/PI staining pointed to apoptosis as the mode of cell death. The levels of p53 and p21 were increased in the C110g-treated cells, with a corresponding increase in Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Subsequently, C110g induced the cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria accompanied by a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 and -9. These results confirmed that the C110g transduced the apoptotic signal via the mitochondrial pathway. Caspase-8, typically associated with the initiation of the death receptor pathway, was activated, suggesting the extrinsic pathway might also be involved. However, C110g did not result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Taken together, these findings indicate that the DNA damage-dependent p53-regulated mitochondrial pathway as well as the extrinsic pathway play a crucial role in C110g-induced apoptosis, which provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of trifluoromethyl benzopyrans in cervical cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 05/2013; 43(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1958 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two ketoreductases from Candida glabrata were used for the asymmetric reduction of prochiral substituted acetophenones displayed different enantiopreference toward para-, meta-substituted and ortho-halogen substituted acetophenones with excellent enantioselectivity. Homology modeling and docking analysis were in conformity with this interested enantiopreference obtained from experimental tests. The reduction of a series of other substituted aryl ketones was also investigated using the two ketoreductases.
    Biotechnology Letters 05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10529-013-1228-0 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used 2D-PAGE to isolate a light-induced protein (AL-A) that is expressed abundantly in light-growth alfalfa sprouts. The seven amino acids of the N-terminal region of the protein were identified, and we searched for the protein in GeneBank using the BLAST program. The results of the homology analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of the isolated protein is most similar to one from a pea plastocyanin. To identify the protein, we amplified and sequenced the DNA fragment encoding AL-A from genomic alfalfa DNA. We found that the AL-A gene was highly homologous (90%) to the sequences from the pea plastocyanin via multiple alignments, and the deduced protein precursor was predicted to be chloroplast-specific via the ChloroP computer program. The protein was named alfalfa-plastocyanin (AL-P). It was characterized as being a light-inducible protein, and RT-PCR analysis showed that AL-P mRNA transcription only occurred in the leaves of the alfalfa plant and the alfalfa seedlings growth in lighted conditions. PCR was also used to amplify the DNA fragment encoding the AL-P promoter (AL-Pp) from genomic alfalfa DNA. PlantCARE analysis of the promoter sequence indicated that both a typical TATA box and a CAAT box were located in the promoter sequence, and some of the cis-elements that are responsible for light responsiveness were also identified within this promoter region. The AL-P gene promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene has been examined for expression in transgenic alfalfa seedlings. Our findings have a potential application in plant genetic engineering; the AL-Pp may be used to drive the expression of heterologous genes in transgenic alfalfa plants.
    Gene 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2013.02.030 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpenes such as curcumol (1) and curdione (2) are the major ingredients of Rhizoma curcumae. Compounds (1) and (2) are isomers of one another and play important roles in Chinese Traditional Medicine. Microbial transformations of naturally occurring curcumol and curdione by Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.2028 were studied. In this research, stereoselective epoxidation at the double bond of curcumol led to 10S,14-epoxycurcumol (3) as the major metabolite, with no detectable 10R,14-epoxycurcumol (4). Epoxidation also occurred at the double bond of curdione, generating both (1S,10S)- and (1R,10R)-1,10-epoxycurdione (5) and (6). The diastereomeric excess (de) of the S diastereomer was 27%. The selectivity of the biotransformation is discussed.
    Catalysis Communications 11/2012; 28:191–195. DOI:10.1016/j.catcom.2012.08.013 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High acetate accumulation was produced during glucose fermentation in high cell density cultures, which is harmful to cell growth. In order to reduce the negative impact of acetate accumulation on the fermentation products, we introduced the Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) gene into the marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. TIO1101, generating genetically modified ACS transformants. The results of PCR and blotting analyses showed that the exogenous ACS gene was incorporated into the genome and successfully expressed. The engineered Schizochytrium increased the pH value and reduced the acetate concentration in the final fermentation medium significantly. Furthermore, the ACS transformants exhibited faster growth and glucose consumption rates than the wild-type strain. The biomass and fatty acid proportion of ACS transformants increased by 29.9 and 11.3 %, respectively. Taken together, the data suggest that ACS overexpression in Schizochytrium might improve the utilization of carbon resource and decrease the production of acetate byproduct. These results demonstrate that application of ACS in metabolic genetic engineering could improve the properties of Schizochytrium significantly.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2012; 97(5). DOI:10.1007/s00253-012-4481-6 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clocortolone pivalate is a synthetic corticosteroid that can be used to cure corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. Three previously unknown impurities detected by HPLC were isolated by semi-preparative LC. Based on the NMR and MS spectral data, these were identified as (6R,9R,16R)-9-chloro-6β-fluoro-11β,21-dihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-21-pivalate (Impurity I), (9R,16R)-9-chloro-4-fluoro-11β,21-dihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-21-pivalate (Impurity II) and (9R,16R)-9-chloro-6α-fluoro-11β,21-dihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-11,21-dipivalate (Impurity III). The possible mechanism of the formation of the impurities is discussed.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2012; 62:167-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2011.11.021 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a series of seven synthetic croma-kalim analogues were prepared and evaluated for cytotoxic effect on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells using WST-8 assay. A preliminary screening of these cromakalim analogues showed that 1-[(3S,4R)-4-(2-ethoxy-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-3-hydroxy- 2,2-dimethylchroman-6-yl-3-phenylurea (compound 6) had the highest cytotoxic effect (IC50 of 138 µM) and significantly inhibited HeLa cell proliferation after 36 h. In an effort to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of compound 6, we examined its effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Our results showed that compound 6 induced marked changes in apoptotic morphology and significantly increased early apoptosis of HeLa cells after 48 h by using Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining assay. This apoptotic induction was associated with an increase in Bax expression, a decrease in Bcl-2 expression, release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and -3, which indicated that compound 6 induced apoptosis via caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway. By DNA content analysis and [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, compound 6 was found to induce an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase, accompanied by a decrease in the S phase to prevent DNA synthesis after 24 h of treatment. In addition, compound 6 caused significant DNA damage, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. Taken together, the data demonstrate that compound 6 induces apoptosis in HeLa cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway and this apoptotic effect is associated with cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. These findings provide further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of compound 6 in cervical cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 08/2011; 39(6):1609-17. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2011.1153 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the major water-soluble compounds isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Although much research on the general stability of Sal B has been undertaken and reported, there is still a need for further study of the stability required as a potential drug material. To study the stability of Sal B in the solid state and in normal saline (NS) solution during storage, as required in the ICH guidelines (2003) and Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005). Sal B stability was analysed using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. HPLC coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOFMS) was applied for the separation and identification of the degradation products of Sal B. In the solid state, Sal B packaged in aluminium foil bags was stable for 6 months under 'accelerated conditions' (40°C, 75% relative humidity, RH). However, solid Sal B degradation was observed under open exposure to stress conditions of high temperature (60°C) or high humidity (92.5 or 75% RH). In NS solution, Sal B underwent severe degradation under accelerated conditions. Through HPLC-TOFMS, nine degradation products were identified and the possible degradation pathway was deduced. The results demonstrate that the potential drug material Sal B could be used in a solid formulation, but is not suitable for use as a liquid formulation.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2011; 22(4):378-84. DOI:10.1002/pca.1291 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The compound 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[2-p-tolylethyl]-benzamide (THTEB) is one of the derivatives of tyrosol, which is p-tyrosol combined with gallic acid by an amide bond. In this study, THTEB displayed a significant antiproliferative effect on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that THTEB could arrest HeLa cells in the S phase with a concomitant decrease in the cells' G0/G1 and G2/M phases. According to the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay results, we found that THTEB could inhibit DNA replication, which suggests that THTEB-induced S phase arrest might be the direct result of blocked DNA synthesis. However, THTEB had very weak effect on replication protein A (RPA)'s ssDNA binding activity and the topoisomerase I (topo I)-mediated DNA relaxation activity, signifying that RPA and topo I were not the main target molecules in the inhibition of DNA replication. Furthermore, by using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we found severe DNA damage caused by THTEB. In conclusion, these results suggest that THTEB could induce tumor cell antiproliferation correlated with DNA damage and DNA replication inhibition, but the target molecule of THTEB remains elusive.
    Toxicology in Vitro 05/2011; 25(8):1535-41. DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2011.05.016 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of the combination of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (CPA) extracted from Paeonia radix on radiation and chemotherapy induced myelosuppression in two animal models: mice and rabbits. Mice were exposed to X-ray radiation (400 Roentgen), and both mice and rabbits were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide (100.0 mg/kg) and cytarabine chloride (92.7 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 days to induce myelosuppression. CPA was subsequently administrated intravenously at low (15.0 mg/kg for mice, 6.00 mg/kg for rabbits), intermediate (30.0 mg/kg for mice, 12.0 mg/kg for rabbits) and high (60.0 mg/kg for mice, 24.0 mg/kg for rabbits) doses, as well as orally (60.0 mg/kg for mice, 24.0 mg/kg for rabbits) for 7 days. Shenqi tablets were used as positive controls (oral administration of 936.0 mg/kg for mice, 336.0 mg/kg for rabbits). The administration of CPA significantly ameliorated myelosuppression in all cases. For the X-ray irradiated mice and the chemotherapy treated mice and rabbits, high dosages of CPA resulted in the recovery of, respectively, 94.4%, 95.3% and 97.7% of hemoglobin content; 67.7%, 92.0% and 94.3% of platelet numbers; 26.8%, 137.1% and 107.3% of white blood cell counts; as well as a reversal in the reduction of peripheral differential white blood cell counts. There was also a recovery of 50.9%, 146.1% and 92.3%, respectively, in the animals' relative spleen weight. Additionally, a recovery of 35.7% and 87.2% in the number of bone marrow nucleated cells was observed in the radio- and chemotherapy treated mice, respectively. Bone marrow white blood cell counts also resumed to normal levels. These results substantiate the marked therapeutic effects of CPA to ameliorate myelosuppression induced by radio and chemotherapy.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(8):2031-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of methyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate (J7), an analogue of methyl jasmonate, on the in vitro growth of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Significantly decreased rates of viability (IC50 approximately 15 microM) as well as evidence of apoptosis were observed with J7. Cell morphological changes observed under light microscopy confirmed apoptosis occurrence. Furthermore, the results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the cell cycle arrest assay indicated that J7 induced earlier apoptosis of HeLa cells. J7 also reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and subsequent activation of a protease cascade involving caspase-9 and -3 by Western blot assay was observed. We also found that J7 was able to induce DNA damage. These findings suggest that J7 induces HeLa cell apoptosis by activation of caspase pathway and the apoptotic effect is associated with DNA damage. Therefore, J7 may be a candidate compound to be developed into an anticancer agent.
    Oncology Reports 09/2010; 24(3):771-7. DOI:10.3892/or_00000920 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Hong Guan, Song You, Xu Wang, Li Yang
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A novel reductase has been detected in cell-free extracts from growing/resting cultures of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor D-1, which specifically catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of the γ,δ-double bond of the lactone-conjugated unsaturated system in securinine to form 14,15-dihydrosecurinine. The localization of the reductase has been investigated using differential centrifugation techniques. It was found that the securinine reductase is a cytosolic enzyme. The reductase was highly inducible in growing/resting cultures when securinine was used as the substrate and inducer. Optimal incubation conditions for assay of the securinine reductase were determined by using the enzyme preparation from resting cultures of A. versicolor D-1. The optimum temperature and pH for the reductase activity were in the range of 20–24°C and 8.0–8.5 in 0.05 M Tris–HCl buffer, respectively. The thermal stability of the securinine reductase was poor.
    Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 05/2010; 28(3):185-191. DOI:10.3109/10242421003753787 · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many mitosis inhibitors are powerful anticancer drugs. Tremendous efforts have been made to identify new anti-mitosis compounds for developing more effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs. We have identified LJK-11, a synthetic analog of 5, 8-disubstituted quinazolines, as a novel mitotic blocker. LJK-11 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of many different types of tumor cells. It prevented mitotic spindle formation and arrested cells at early phase of mitosis. Detailed in vitro analysis demonstrated that LJK-11 inhibited microtubule polymerization. In addition, LJK-11 had synergistic effect with another microtubule inhibitor colchicine on blocking mitosis, but not with vinblastine or nocodazole. Therefore, LJK-11 represents a novel anti-microtubule structure. Understanding the function and mechanism of LJK-11 will help us to better understand the action of anti-microtubule agents and to design better anti-cancer drugs.
    PLoS ONE 05/2010; 5(5):e10499. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010499 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus versicolor D-1 was employed to convert dehydrocostuslactone (1) and 3-hydroxy-1(10),3,11(13)-guaiatriene-12,6-olide-2-one (5) stereoselectively. The reactions occurring were specific hydrogenation on the exocyclic alpha,beta-double bond of sesquiterpene lactones with excellent conversion. Products were identified by the analysis of their spectra such as UV, IR, MS, (1)H, (13)C NMR, and NOESY, and the structure of one new compound was elucidated. The characteristic of the stereoselective hydrogenation was also discussed and suggested.
    Journal of Asian natural products research 12/2009; 11(12):991-6. DOI:10.1080/10286020903127258 · 0.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

174 Citations
69.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
      • • School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics
      • • China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • School of Pharmaceutical Engineering
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2009
    • Inje University
      • Department of Biomedical Science and Chemistry
      Kimhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea