Camilo J Ruggero

University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, United States

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Publications (56)193.89 Total impact

  • Adriel Boals · Camilo Ruggero
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that event centrality has a prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Rubin, Boals, & Hoyle, 2014). However, evidence for this notion thus far has been mostly correlational. We report two studies that prospectively examined the relationship between event centrality and PTSD symptoms. Study 1 Methods: Participants (N = 1438) reported their most stressful event ('prior event'), along with event centrality, PTSD symptoms, and neuroticism. At Time 2 participants reported their most stressful event since Time 1 ('critical event'), along with measures of event centrality and PTSD symptoms. Study 1 Results: Event centrality for the critical event predicted PTSD symptoms, after controlling for event centrality and PTSD symptoms of the prior event and neuroticism. Study 2 Methods: In the second study (N = 161) we examined changes in event centrality and PTSD symptoms over a month. Study 2 Results: Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed event centrality at Time 1 significantly predicted PTSD symptoms at Time 2, but the reverse was not significant. In two studies, a prospective association between event centrality and PTSD symptoms, but not the reverse, emerged. This evidence implicates event centrality in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of PTSD symptoms.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/10615806.2015.1080822 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate a robust association between depression, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents, but longitudinal evidence that can better parse the direction of these effects is scarce and conflicting, and no such studies in adolescents have considered the importance of fitness (as opposed to physical activity per se) for preventing depression. Therefore, the present study sought to determine if cardiorespiratory fitness in the first year of middle school (sixth grade) would protect against developing depression a year later (seventh grade), even after controlling for other risk factors (i.e., preexisting depression levels and weight status). Participants (N = 437 with 54.9% female) were recruited from six different middle schools during their sixth-grade year and reassessed during the seventh grade. At each assessment, participants completed self-report measures of depression and fitness. Participants were also weighed and were asked to complete a shuttle-run at both points. A cross-lagged panel model indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness in the sixth grade was associated with significantly less depression by the seventh grade in girls, even after controlling for preexisting depression and weight. The effect was in the same direction for boys, but was nonsignificant. In both cases, effects were modest to small. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a small, but significant protective effect against developing depression in middle school girls, and may have a similar but smaller effect in boys. Promotion of cardiorespiratory fitness can be an important strategy for preventing depression in middle school adolescents, but needs to be coupled with interventions that more directly address symptom treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 07/2015; 57(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.03.016 · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Kendal Maxwell · Jennifer L. Callahan · Camilo J. Ruggero · Beth Janis
    Journal of Family Violence 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10896-015-9765-z · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with high medical morbidity, but the nature of this association remains unclear. Among responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, PTSD is highly comorbid with lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), which cannot be explained by exposure alone. We sought to examine this association longitudinally to establish the direction of the effects and evaluate potential pathways to comorbidity. 18,896 responders (8466 police and 10,430 nontraditional responders) participating in the WTC-Health Program were first evaluated between 2002 and 2010 and assessed again 2.5 years later. LRS were ascertained by medical staff, abnormal pulmonary function by spirometry, and probable WTC-related PTSD with a symptom inventory. In both groups of responders, initial PTSD (standardized regression coefficient: β = 0.20 and 0.23) and abnormal pulmonary function (β = 0.12 and 0.12) predicted LRS 2.5 years later after controlling for initial LRS and covariates. At follow-up, LRS onset was 2.0 times more likely and remission 1.8 times less likely in responders with initial PTSD than in responders without. Moreover, PTSD mediated, in part, the association between WTC exposures and development of LRS (p < .0001). Initial LRS and abnormal pulmonary function did not consistently predict PTSD onset. These analyses provide further evidence that PTSD is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms and are consistent with evidence implicating physiological dysregulation associated with PTSD in the development of medical conditions. If these effects are verified experimentally, treatment of PTSD may prove helpful in managing physical and mental health of disaster responders.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 04/2015; 77(4). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000179 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Camilo Ruggero · Andrew Shelton · Jennifer Callahan
    04/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.5872/psiencia/7.1.040611
  • Daniel H Romero · Shelley A Riggs · Camilo Ruggero
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    ABSTRACT: With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Counseling Psychology 02/2015; 62(2). DOI:10.1037/cou0000061 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to assisting with the development of essential competencies for professional practice, growing evidence indicates that supervision may also significantly contribute to client outcomes. However, to date, there have been no explorations of specific supervisor variables that may help us to understand the supervision-client outcome relationship. The current study sought to address this gap in the emerging literature by drawing archival data associated with discharged clients (N = 310) from a large training clinic. Given the available data, we were able to explore 2 supervisor variables in terms of their relationships with client outcomes: 1 categorical variable (faculty status: adjunct vs. tenured/tenure track) and 1 continuous variable (time elapsed since the supervisor attained his or her doctoral degree). The results replicate earlier findings demonstrating that supervisors contribute significantly to client outcomes. Exploration of specific supervisor variables indicates that faculty status is not meaningfully associated with client outcomes. However, the length of time that has elapsed since the supervisor attained his or her doctoral degree is salient, with more recent graduates associated with better client outcomes. Additional research is strongly encouraged in this understudied area, with particular attention to examining the role of supervisor training and supervisory competence.
    Training and Education in Professional Psychology 02/2015; 9(1):35-43. DOI:10.1037/tep0000014 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Camilo J. Ruggero · Roman Kotov · David Watson · Jared N. Kilmer · Greg Perlman · Keke Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Background DSM-5 portrays mania as unitary despite evidence of distinct symptom clusters. Studies investigating the structure of mania have been inconsistent, in part because many relied on instruments not designed for this question. The present work used a clinical interview designed for structural analysis in order to identify and validate subdimensions specific to mania symptoms. Methods Psychiatric outpatients (N=422) and undergraduates with a history of mental health treatment (N=306) were interviewed with a comprehensive measure of mood and anxiety that included 24 manic symptoms. Patients completed additional measures of symptoms and functioning, and a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Results A 4-factor model of mania replicated across independent samples and was superior in fit to competing models, including the unidimensional model implied whenever researchers or clinicians use only a total score for mania. The factors were only moderately correlated, and three of the four (“Irritability” was the exception) showed a strong criterion, convergent and discriminant validity, suggesting they are specific to mania. Subdimensions showed distinct and meaningful associations with functioning. Limitations Symptoms of psychosis and depression are important features of manic episodes, but were not included in the present study since they lack specificity to mania. Conclusions Mania is multifaceted. At least three subdimensions specific to mania were identified (“Euphoric Activation,” “Hyperactive Cognition” and “Reckless Overconfidence”). Use of subdimensions, in addition to overall mania severity, may enhance the ability of studies to detect meaningful biological correlates of bipolar disorder. Moreover, their different associations with functioning suggest assessing subdimensions has clinical utility as well.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2014; 161:8–15. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.044 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing research is promoting the need for innovative, holistic, and sustainable ways to foster resiliency and recovery in war-affected children. The Shropshire Music Foundation seeks to promote a culture of peace and unity, as well as development and recovery for children living in postconflict Kosovo. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this program, by independent investigators, in promoting resiliency and diminishing distress in program participants. The study evaluated groups of students with no program participation, new program participants, 12 months of participation, and program graduates (N = 74). Overall, children who participated in the program at least 1 year evidenced fewer affective and cognitive disturbances than children recently enrolled. Furthermore, the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology and conduct problems was mediated by attention problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
    Traumatology 06/2014; 20(2):112. DOI:10.1037/h0099396
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to pilot test if cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective intervention for insomnia and daytime functioning in college students. College students' developmental stage and lifestyle are significantly different than the general adult population, yet there have been no studies of CBT-I in this age group. Thirty-four college students (ages 18-27; M=19.71, SD=2.10) were randomly assigned to and completed either six sessions of CBT-I or a 6-week wait list control (WLC). All participants completed 1-week sleep diaries and actigraphy, as well as sleep and daytime functioning questionnaires at baseline and posttreatment. The treatment group repeated all measures at 3-month follow-up. Students who received CBT-I showed greater baseline to posttreatment improvements in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, time awake after sleep onset, sleep quality, insomnia severity, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, general fatigue, and global sleep quality than the WLC group. These improvements were durable at 3-month follow-up. Ninety-four percent of participants in the CBT-I condition completed at least 4 sessions of treatment. Significantly more participants in the CBT-I group than the WLC group responded (68.8% vs 7.7%, respectively) and remitted (68.8% vs 15.4%, respectively). CBT-I is an effective treatment for insomnia in college students. This study found that treatment responses were similar to results from studies in the general population. The treatment appeared to be well tolerated based on very low attrition rates.
    Behavior therapy 05/2014; 45(3):376-89. DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2013.12.010 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fear of sleep may play a significant role in sleep disturbances in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report describes a psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory (FoSI), which was developed to measure this construct. The psychometric properties of the FoSI were examined in a non-clinical sample of 292 college students (Study I) and in a clinical sample of 67 trauma-exposed adults experiencing chronic nightmares (Study II). Data on the 23 items of the FoSI were subjected to exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify items uniquely assessing fear of sleep. Next, reliability and validity of a 13-item version of the FoSI was examined in both samples. A 13-item Short-Form version (FoSI-SF) was identified as having a clear 2-factor structure with high internal consistency in both the non-clinical (α = 0.76-0.94) and clinical (α = 0.88-0.91) samples. Both studies demonstrated good convergent validity with measures of PTSD (0.48-0.61) and insomnia (0.39-0.48) and discriminant validity with a measure of sleep hygiene (0.19-0.27). The total score on the FoSI-SF was significantly higher in the clinical sample (mean = 17.90, SD = 12.56) than in the non-clinical sample (mean = 4.80, SD = 7.72); t 357 = 8.85 p < 0.001. Although all items are recommended for clinical purposes, the data support the use of the 13-item FoSI-SF for research purposes. Replication of the factor structure in clinical samples is needed. Results are discussed in terms of limitations of this study and directions for further research. Pruiksma KE, Taylor DJ, Ruggero C, Boals A, Davis JL, Cranston C, DeViva JC, Zayfert C. A psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory-short form (FoSI-SF). J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):551-558.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):551-8. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3710 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) was recently developed to assess a broad range of experiential avoidance (EA) content. However, practical clinical and research considerations made a briefer measure of EA desirable. Using items from the original 62-item MEAQ, a 15-item scale was created that tapped content from each of the MEAQ's six dimensions. Items were selected on the basis of their performance in 3 samples: undergraduates (n = 363), psychiatric outpatients (n = 265), and community adults (n = 215). These items were then evaluated using 2 additional samples (314 undergraduates and 201 psychiatric outpatients) and cross-validated in 2 new, independent samples (283 undergraduates and 295 community adults). The resulting measure (Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire; BEAQ) demonstrated good internal consistency. It also exhibited strong convergence with respect to each of the MEAQ's 6 dimensions. The BEAQ demonstrated expected associations with measures of avoidance, psychopathology, and quality of life and was distinguishable from negative affectivity and neuroticism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 03/2014; 26(1):35-45. DOI:10.1037/a0034473 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Mark Zimmerman · Camilo J Ruggero · Iwona Chelminski · Diane Young
  • Erin K. Crandall · Camilo J. Ruggero · Kathleen Bain · Jared Kilmer
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    ABSTRACT: College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their parents’ illness. Participants (N = 89) were undergraduate students at a large public university in the South (27 had a parent with bipolar disorder; 30 had a parent with major depressive disorder [MDD]; 32 had no parent history of a mood disorder). Semistructured interviews were used to assess student symptoms of mood disorders and mood disorder symptoms within their immediate family. Self-report measures were used to assess college adjustment and levels of caregiving burden faced by the students. We found that students with a family history of bipolar disorder and MDD had significantly greater difficulty adjusting to college. These difficulties persisted even after controlling for whether the student themselves had been affected by a mood disorder. The students of a parent with either bipolar disorder or MDD also reported significantly more burden associated with caring for their parents. College campus mental health professionals need to be aware that students with a parent with bipolar disorder or MDD face unique challenges adjusting to college that are only partially related to an increased risk for mood disorders.
    Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 01/2014; 28(1):47-58. DOI:10.1080/87568225.2014.854678
  • Camilo J Ruggero · Kathleen M Bain · Patrick M Smith · Jared N Kilmer
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Individuals with bipolar disorder often endorse dysfunctional beliefs consistent with cognitive models of bipolar disorder (Beck, 1976; Mansell, 2007). Aims: The present study sought to assess whether young adult offspring of those with bipolar disorder would also endorse these beliefs, independent of their own mood episode history. Method: Participants (N = 89) were young adult college students with a parent with bipolar disorder (n = 27), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30), or no mood disorder (n = 32). Semi-structured interviews of the offspring were used to assess diagnoses. Dysfunctional beliefs related to Beck and colleagues' (2006) and Mansell's (2007) cognitive models were assessed. Results: Unlike offspring of parents with MDD or no mood disorder, those with a parent with bipolar disorder endorsed significantly more dysfunctional cognitions associated with extreme appraisal of mood states, even after controlling for their own mood diagnosis. Once affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder, offspring endorsed dysfunctional cognitions across measures. Conclusions: Dysfunctional cognitions, particularly those related to appraisals of mood states and their potential consequences, are evident in young adults with a parent who has bipolar disorder and may represent targets for psychotherapeutic intervention.
    Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 12/2013; 43(04):1-16. DOI:10.1017/S1352465813001057 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment (TOPA) is a theoretical model, based on a large body of empirical research establishing key variables that consistently are associated with a range of outcomes following traumatic events. Although most who experience a traumatic event will initially experience symptoms of distress, most will subsequently recover without intervention. Those responding to the needs of trauma survivors are unable currently to predict at early stages who might benefit from assistance and where to devote resources. In this model, individual variables (e.g., personality) are considered within the context of ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain mental health outcomes (e.g., recovery, various forms of distress) following traumatic stressor exposure. Analyses in this study revealed the expected relationships among study measures and found that the measures mapped well onto the hypothesized latent constructs of the TOPA model. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) the TOPA performed well, suggesting that the TOPA has utility as a theoretical basis for the identification and treatment of differential mental health outcomes following exposure to a traumatic stressor and lend support to key variables that might be considered to better understand trajectories of recovery and illness.
    Traumatology 12/2013; 19(4):268-279. DOI:10.1177/1534765613476098
  • Jennifer L Callahan · Camilo J Ruggero · Michael C. Parent
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    ABSTRACT: As a result of CoA-mandated program disclosure being initiated in 2006, there is now sufficient data available to allow for analyses that compare clinical psychology programs on a range of variables, including student outcomes. This standardized data, in concert with other sources of publically available data (i.e., APPIC and ASPPB), allows for programs to be compared empirically in new ways. Using SEM, in this study 80.6% of the variance in clinical psychology training programs’ outcomes (i.e., internship match and licensure exam performances) was accounted for by pre-doctoral characteristics (measured by GPA and GRE scores). Analyses then identified programs that produced exceptionally better outcomes than expected, given their pre-doctoral characteristics. The identified top programs were next compared on a range of department level training-relevant variables to similar programs, but whose outcomes were equal to or worse than expected. Findings are discussed and future directions for research and policy are suggested.
    Training and Education in Professional Psychology 11/2013; 7:278-284. DOI:10.1037/a0034233 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are common among responders to the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and can lead to impairment, yet it is unclear which symptom dimensions are responsible for poorer functioning. Moreover, how best to classify PTSD symptoms remains a topic of controversy. The present study tested competing models of PTSD dimensions and then assessed which were most strongly associated with social/occupational impairment, depression, and alcohol abuse. World Trade Center responders (n=954) enrolled in the Long Island site of the World Trade Center Health Program between 2005 and 2006 were administered standard self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the superiority of four-factor models of PTSD over the DSM-IV three-factor model. In selecting between four-factor models, evidence was mixed, but some support emerged for a broad dysphoria dimension mapping closely onto depression and contributing strongly to functional impairment. This study confirmed in a new population the need to revise PTSD symptom classification to reflect four dimensions, but raises questions about how symptoms are categorized. Results suggest that targeted treatment of symptoms may provide the most benefit, and that treatment of dysphoria-related symptoms in disaster relief workers may have the most benefit for social and occupational functioning.
    09/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.052
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To determine whether or not different therapies have distinct patterns of change, it is useful to investigate not only the end result of psychotherapy (outcome) but also the processes by which outcomes are attained. The present study subjected data from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program to survival analyses to examine whether the process of psychotherapy, as conceptualized by the phase model, differed between psychotherapy treatment approaches. Few differences in terms of progression through phases of psychotherapy were identified between cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy. Additionally, results indicate that phases of psychotherapy may not represent discrete, sequentially invariant processes.
    Psychotherapy Research 08/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1080/10503307.2013.800949 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.) Section III will include an alternative hybrid system for the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). This alternative system defines PD types partly through specific combinations of maladaptive traits, rather than by using a set of polythetic diagnostic criteria. The current report utilizes a large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,159) to examine three dimensional methods for comparing an individual's trait profile to each PD type. We found that the sum of an individual's scores on the assigned traits obtained large convergent correlations (Mdn r =.61) and best reproduced the patterns of PD discriminant correlations observed within the DSM-IV measure. We also tested the DSM-5 Section III model algorithms and compared them with different thresholds for assigning categorical diagnoses. Frequency rates using the algorithms were greatly reduced, whereas requiring half of the assigned traits produced rates that more closely approximated current prevalence estimates. Our research suggests that DSM-5 Section III trait model can reproduce the DSM-IV-TR PD constructs and identifies effective methods of doing so.
    Assessment 04/2013; 20(3). DOI:10.1177/1073191113486182 · 3.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

897 Citations
193.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2015
    • University of North Texas
      • Department of Psychology
      Denton, Texas, United States
  • 2011
    • Stony Brook University
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Psychology
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States