[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human beta-hexosaminidase A (HexA) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein composed of alpha- and beta-subunits that degrades GM2 gangliosides in lysosomes. GM2 gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease in which an inherited deficiency of HexA causes the accumulation of GM2 gangliosides. In order to prepare a large amount of HexA for a treatment based on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), recombinant HexA was produced in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta instead of in mammalian cells, which are commonly used to produce recombinant enzymes for ERT. The problem of antigenicity due to differences in N-glycan structures between mammalian and yeast glycoproteins was potentially resolved by using alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase-deficient (och1Delta) yeast as the host. Genes encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of HexA were integrated into the yeast cell, and the heterodimer was expressed together with its isozymes HexS (alphaalpha) and HexB (betabeta). A total of 57 mg of beta-hexosaminidase isozymes, of which 13 mg was HexA (alphabeta), was produced per liter of medium. HexA was purified with immobilized metal affinity column for the His tag attached to the beta-subunit. The purified HexA was treated with alpha-mannosidase to expose mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) residues on the N-glycans. The specific activities of HexA and M6P-exposed HexA (M6PHexA) for the artificial substrate 4MU-GlcNAc were 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/h/mg, respectively. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern suggested a C-terminal truncation in the beta-subunit of the recombinant protein. M6PHexA was incorporated dose dependently into GM2 gangliosidosis patient-derived fibroblasts via M6P receptors on the cell surface, and degradation of accumulated GM2 ganglioside was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cultured fibroblasts from I-cell disease patients the transport of many lysosomal enzymes is defective, and affected cells contain inclusion bodies filled with undegraded substrates. However, the contents of these inclusion bodies have not been well characterized yet. We attempted to identify accumulated substances in cultured I-cell disease fibroblasts cytochemically.
Cultured fibroblasts from I-cell disease patients were double-stained with a monoclonal antibody to lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and that to GM2 ganglioside, or a series of lectins that specifically bind to sugar moieties.
The patients' cells were granularly stained with the antibody to GM2 ganglioside and the lectins including Maakia amurensis, Datura stramonium, and concanavalin A. Their localization was coincident with that of LAMP-1.
GM2 ganglioside and various kinds of glycoconjugates having sialic acidalpha2-3galactose, galactosebeta1-4N-acetylglucosamine and mannose residues accumulate in enlarged lysosomes in I-cell disease fibroblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique adult male patient who developed cardiomyopathy was first suspected to have cardiac Fabry disease based on the pathological findings in heart tissues obtained on biopsy, but the alpha-galactosidase activity in his leukocytes was normal and no mutation was detected in the coding region of the alpha-galactosidase gene. We identified accumulated materials in the myocardium of this patient.
Pathological and biochemical analyses were performed using the autopsied heart tissues as samples.
Although numerous lamellar and concentric inclusion bodies were ultrastructurally found in the autopsied myocardium, the alpha-galactosidase activity in the heart tissues was not decreased. Lipid analysis revealed the accumulation of phospholipids including phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol, but not globotriaosylcereamide or gangliosides.
We found that a large amount of phospholipids accumulated in the myocardium of a patient with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, and electron microscopic findings of lamellar and concentric inclusion bodies in cardiomyocytes. A cardiac phospholipid storage disorder should be considered as an important candidate disease on differential diagnosis of myocardiac disorders including cardiac Fabry disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome is a connective tissue disorder associated with sparse, thin, and fragmented elastic fibers in tissues. In this study we demonstrated a significant decrease in the expression of tropoelastin mRNA in fibroblasts derived from a Japanese Costello syndrome patient with impaired elastogenesis and enhanced proliferation. In contrast, there were no changes in expression of the Harvey ras (HRAS), fibrillin-1, fibulin-5, microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), or 67-kDa non-integrin elastin-binding protein (EBP) gene. The proliferative activity of the Costello fibroblasts was about 4-fold higher than that of the normal and pathological control ones. However, no mutations were detected in the coding region of HRAS mRNA. Transduction of the bovine tropoelastin (bTE) gene with the lentiviral vector restored the elastic fiber formation and decreased the growth rate in the Costello fibroblasts. These results strongly suggest that the defect of human tropoelastin (hTE) gene expression should induce the impaired elastogenesis and enhanced proliferation of Costello fibroblasts, and that a primary cause other than the HRAS gene mutation should contribute to the pathogenesis in the present Costello case.
Journal of Biochemistry 09/2006; 140(2):193-200. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvj146 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the production of a recombinant alpha-galactosidase with engineered N-linked sugar chains facilitating uptake and transport to lysosomes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. In this study, we improved the purification procedure, allowing us to obtain a large amount of highly purified enzyme protein with mannose-6-phosphate residues at the non-reducing ends of sugar chains. The products were incorporated into cultured fibroblasts derived from a patient with Fabry disease via mannose-6-phosphate receptors. The ceramide trihexoside (CTH) accumulated in lysosomes was cleaved dose-dependently, and the disappearance of deposited CTH was maintained for at least 7 days after administration. We next examined the effect of the recombinant alpha-galactosidase on Fabry mice. Repeated intravascular administration of the enzyme led to successful degradation of CTH accumulated in the liver, kidneys, heart, and spleen. However, cleavage of the accumulated CTH in the dorsal root ganglia was insufficient. As the culture of yeast cells is easy and economical, and does not require fetal calf serum, the recombinant alpha-galactosidase produced in yeast cells is highly promising as an enzyme source for enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(4):341-52. DOI:10.1007/s10038-006-0369-6 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have established spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines from dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves of Sandhoff mice. One of the cell lines exhibited genetically and biochemically distinct features of Sandhoff Schwann cells. The enzyme activities toward 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (beta-hexosaminidases A, B, and S) and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine-6-sulfate (beta-hexosaminidases A and S) were decreased, and GM2 ganglioside accumulated in lysosomes of the cells. Incorporation of recombinant human beta-hexosaminidase isozymes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells into the cultured Sandhoff Schwann cells via cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors was found, and the incorporated beta-hexosaminidase A degraded the accumulated GM2 ganglioside. The established Sandhoff Schwann cell line is useful for investigation and development of therapies for Sandhoff disease.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2005; 50(9):460-7. DOI:10.1007/s10038-005-0278-0 · 2.46 Impact Factor