Christian Weyer

Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (103)490.14 Total impact

  • Endocrine Practice 01/2013; 19(1):107-16. DOI:10.4158/endp.19.1.v767575m65p5mr06 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of treatment with metreleptin (an analogue of human leptin) on glycemic and lipid abnormalities and markers of hepatic steatosis in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. Fifty-five patients (36 with generalized lipodystrophy and 19 with partial lipodystrophy) with at least 1 of 3 metabolic abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, fasting triglyceride level ≥200 mg/dL, and insulin resistance) and low leptin levels received subcutaneous injections of metreleptin once or twice daily in an ongoing clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. At baseline, hemoglobin A1c-8.5% ± 2.1% (mean ± standard deviation [SD])-and triglycerides-479 ± 80 mg/dL (geometric mean ± standard error [SE])-were substantially elevated. Robust and sustained reductions in both variables were evident for the observed patient population during a 3-year metreleptin treatment period (-2.1% ± 0.5% [mean ± SE] and -35.4% ± 13.7% [mean ± SE], respectively). Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were elevated at baseline (100 ± 120 U/L and 71 ± 77 U/L [mean ± SD], respectively) and decreased by -45 ± 19 U/L and -33 ± 14 U/L (mean ± SE), respectively, during the 3-year metreleptin treatment period. Improvements in hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, ALT, and AST were more pronounced in the subsets of patients having elevated levels at baseline. The most notable adverse events observed in this patient population were likely attributable to underlying metabolic abnormalities or comorbidities. Metreleptin treatment substantially reduced glycemic variables, triglycerides, and liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and demonstrated durability of response throughout a 3-year treatment period. These results support metreleptin as a potential treatment for certain metabolic disorders (for example, diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia) associated with lipodystrophy.
    Endocrine Practice 11/2011; 17(6):922-32. DOI:10.4158/EP11229.OR · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Jean L Chan · Jonathan D Roth · Christian Weyer ·
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of leptin in 1994 was a seminal event in obesity research. It helped to establish that body weight is tightly regulated by a complex neurohormonal feedback system and that obesity should be viewed as a disorder with a strong biological basis rather than simply the result of poor lifestyle choices and lack of willpower.Leptin, secreted from adipocytes, acts as a prototypic long-term (tonic) adiposity signal. Although nonclinical and clinical studies have provided unequivocal evidence that leptin plays a unique, pivotal role in body weight regulation, efforts to develop recombinant leptin (metreleptin) as a monotherapy for obesity have proven unsuccessful. Amylin, secreted from pancreatic beta-cells, fulfills the criteria for a short-term (episodic) satiety signal. The amylin analog pramlintide elicits sustained reductions in food intake and body weight in obese rodents and humans.A translational research program aimed at elucidating the interaction between different islet-, gut-, and adipocyte-derived hormones led to the discovery that combined amylin/leptin agonism induces marked, synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant diet-induced obese rodents. In obese humans, combination treatment with pramlintide/metreleptin led to an approximately 13% weight loss after 24 weeks, significantly more than after treatment with pramlintide or metreleptin alone.Collectively, these findings suggest that combined amylin/leptin agonism may have therapeutic utility as part of an integrated, neurohormonal approach to obesity pharmacotherapy.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 10/2009; 57(7):777-83. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that combined amylin + leptin agonism elicits synergistic weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Here, we assessed the comparative efficacy of amylin, leptin, or amylin + leptin in the maintenance of amylin + leptin-mediated weight loss. DIO rats pretreated with the combination of rat amylin (50 microg/kg/day) and murine leptin (125 microg/kg/day) for 4 weeks were subsequently infused with either vehicle, amylin, leptin, or amylin + leptin for an additional 4 weeks. Food intake, body weight, body composition, plasma parameters, and the expression of key metabolic genes in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) were assessed. Amylin + leptin treatment (weeks 0-4) reduced body weight to 87.5% of baseline. Rats subsequently maintained on vehicle or leptin regained all weight (to 104.2 and 101.2% of baseline, respectively), those maintained on amylin had partial weight regain (97.0%). By contrast, weight loss was largely maintained with continued amylin + leptin treatment (91.4%), associated with a 10% decrease in adiposity. Cumulative food intake (weeks 5-8) was reduced by amylin and amylin + leptin, but not by leptin alone. Amylin + leptin, but not amylin or leptin alone, reduced plasma triglycerides (by 55%), total cholesterol (by 19%), and insulin (by 57%) compared to vehicle. Amylin + leptin also reduced hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) mRNA, and increased WAT mRNA levels of adiponectin, fatty acid synthase (Fasn), and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl). We conclude that, in DIO rats, maintenance of amylin + leptin-mediated weight loss requires continued treatment with both agonists, and is accompanied by sustained improvements in body composition, and indices of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
    Obesity 07/2009; 18(1):21-6. DOI:10.1038/oby.2009.187 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neurohormonal control of body weight involves a complex interplay between long-term adiposity signals (e.g., leptin), and short-term satiation signals (e.g., amylin). In diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, amylin/leptin combination treatment led to marked, synergistic, fat-specific weight loss. To evaluate the weight-lowering effect of combined amylin/leptin agonism (with pramlintide/metreleptin) in human obesity, a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, active-drug-controlled, proof-of-concept study was conducted in obese or overweight subjects (N = 177; 63% female; 39 +/- 8 years; BMI 32.0 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2); 93.3 +/- 13.2 kg; mean +/- s.d.). After a 4-week lead-in period with pramlintide (180 microg b.i.d. for 2 weeks, 360 microg b.i.d. thereafter) and diet (40% calorie deficit), subjects achieving 2-8% weight loss were randomized 1:2:2 to 20 weeks of treatment with metreleptin (5 mg b.i.d.), pramlintide (360 microg b.i.d.), or pramlintide/metreleptin (360 microg/5 mg b.i.d.). Combination treatment with pramlintide/metreleptin led to significantly greater weight loss from enrollment to week 20 (-12.7 +/- 0.9%; least squares mean +/- s.e.) than treatment with pramlintide (-8.4 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.001) or metreleptin (-8.2 +/- 1.3%; P < 0.01) alone (evaluable, N = 93). The greater reduction in body weight was significant as early as week 4, and weight loss continued throughout the study, without evidence of a plateau. The most common adverse events with pramlintide/metreleptin were injection site events and nausea, which were mostly mild to moderate and decreased over time. These results support further development of pramlintide/metreleptin as a novel, integrated neurohormonal approach to obesity pharmacotherapy.
    Obesity 06/2009; 17(9):1736-43. DOI:10.1038/oby.2009.184 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess long-term weight loss efficacy and safety of pramlintide used at different dosing regimens and in conjunction with lifestyle intervention (LSI). In a 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, 411 obese subjects were randomized to receive pramlintide (six arms: 120, 240, and 360 microg b.i.d. and t.i.d.) or placebo in conjunction with a structured LSI program geared toward weight loss. Of the 4-month evaluable subjects (n = 270), 77% opted to continue preexisting treatment during an 8-month single-blind extension (LSI geared toward weight maintenance). At month 4, mean weight loss from baseline in the pramlintide arms ranged from 3.8 +/- 0.7 to 6.1 +/- 0.8 kg (2.8 +/- 0.8 kg with placebo). By month 12, initial 4-month weight loss was regained in the placebo group but was maintained in all but the 120-microg b.i.d. group. Placebo-corrected weight loss with 120 microg t.i.d. and 360 microg b.i.d. averaged 3.2 +/- 1.2 kg (3.1 +/- 1.1% body wt) and 3.3 +/- 1.1 kg (3.1 +/- 1.0% body wt), respectively, at month 4 (both P < 0.01; 4-month evaluable n = 270) and 6.1 +/- 2.1 kg (5.6 +/- 2.1% body wt) and 7.2 +/- 2.3 kg (6.8 +/- 2.3% body wt), respectively, at month 12 (both P < 0.01; 12-month evaluable n = 146). At month 12, 40 and 43% of subjects treated with 120 microg t.i.d. and 360 microg b.i.d., respectively, achieved >or=10% weight loss (vs. 12% for placebo). Nausea, the most common adverse event with pramlintide in the 4-month study (9-29% pramlintide vs. 2% placebo), was generally mild to moderate and occurred in <10% of subjects during the extension. When used over 12 months as an adjunct to LSI, pramlintide treatment, with low-dose three-times-daily or higher-dose two-times-daily regimens, helped obese subjects achieve greater initial weight loss and enhanced long-term maintenance of weight loss.
    Diabetes care 10/2008; 31(9):1816-23. DOI:10.2337/dc08-0029 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the interactive effects of amylin with phentermine or sibutramine on food intake, body weight/composition and gene expression in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. DIO rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of amylin (10 microg kg(-1)) and/or phentermine (1 mg kg(-1)) or chronically infused with amylin (100 microg kg(-1) d(-1)) or vehicle with or without phentermine (0.5-10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or sibutramine (3 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) using two surgically implanted subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps. Twenty-four hour food intake, locomotor activity and components of meal microstructure (meal size, latency, duration and intermeal interval) were measured following acute administration (amylin, phentermine or amylin+phentermine). Body weight and composition (for amylin and/or sibutramine or phentermine) and metabolism-related gene mRNA expression in the liver (fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) and brown fat (beta-adrenergic receptors and uncoupling protein-1) were measured (for amylin and/or phentermine) after sustained infusion (2 weeks). Acute co-administration of amylin (10 microg kg(-1)) and phentermine (1 mg kg(-1)) reduced acute food intake (up to 19 h) more than either monotherapy. In two studies, sustained subcutaneous infusion of amylin for 2 weeks decreased cumulative food intake (22%) and vehicle-corrected body weight gain ( approximately 4-8%). Phentermine's anorexigenic (10-17%) and weight-reducing effects ( approximately 0-5%) were only evident at the highest dose tested (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Combination of amylin (100 microg kg(-1) d(-1)) and phentermine reduced food intake (30-43%), body weight (8-12%) and adiposity to a greater extent than either monotherapy. Amylin prevented phentermine-induced reductions in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue. When amylin+sibutramine were infused, mathematically additive decreases in food intake (up to 45%) and body weight (up to 12%) were evident. Similar to amylin+phentermine treatment, amylin+sibutramine mediated weight loss was attributable to significant reductions in fat mass. Combined treatment of DIO rats with the pancreatic beta-cell hormone amylin and phentermine or sibutramine resulted in additive anorexigenic, weight- and fat-reducing effects.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2008; 32(8):1201-10. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2008.91 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that combination treatment with rat amylin (100 microg/kg.d) and murine leptin (500 microg/kg.d) elicited greater inhibition of food intake and greater body weight loss in diet-induced obese rats than predicted by the sum of the monotherapy conditions, a finding consistent with amylin-induced restoration of leptin responsiveness. In the present study, a 3 x 4 factorial design was used to formally test for a synergistic interaction, using lower dose ranges of amylin (0, 10, and 50 microg/kg.d) and leptin (0, 5, 25, and 125 microg/kg.d), on food intake and body weight after 4 wk continuous infusion. Response surface methodology analysis revealed significant synergistic anorexigenic (P < 0.05) and body weight-lowering (P < 0.05) effects of amylin/leptin combination treatment, with up to 15% weight loss at doses considerably lower than previously reported. Pair-feeding (PF) experiments demonstrated that reduction of food intake was the predominant mechanism for amylin/leptin-mediated weight loss. However, fat loss was 2-fold greater in amylin/leptin-treated rats than PF controls. Furthermore, amylin/leptin-mediated weight loss was not accompanied by the counterregulatory decrease in energy expenditure and chronic shift toward carbohydrate (rather than fat) utilization observed with PF. Hepatic gene expression analyses revealed that 28 d treatment with amylin/leptin (but not PF) was associated with reduced expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (Scd1 and Fasn mRNA) and increased expression of genes involved in lipid utilization (Pck1 mRNA). We conclude that amylin/leptin interact synergistically to reduce body weight and adiposity in diet-induced obese rodents through a number of anorexigenic and metabolic effects.
    Endocrinology 07/2008; 149(11):5679-87. DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0770 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Hubert C Chen · Jonathan D Roth · Brock E Schroeder · Christian Weyer ·
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    ABSTRACT: Contrary to its historical epithet as a lifestyle disorder, obesity is now widely recognized as having a neurobiological basis. This progress is due to our knowledge not only about energy homoeostatic pathways within the central nervous system (CNS), but also about the role of peripheral peptide hormones acting upon the CNS. These hormones include long-term adiposity signals, such as leptin, that inform the CNS primarily of changes in the body's overall fat and energy reserves, and short-term signals such as amylin, peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, that primarily reflect changes in the immediate nutritive state (energy intake). The limited weight loss effects achieved with current monotherapy approaches to obesity have been attributed, at least in part, to the redundancies and potent counter-regulatory responses within the neurohormonal feedback loop governing energy balance. Recently, we reported that combinations of amylin, leptin and PYY(3-36) resulted in additive and/or synergistic interactions and caused marked weight loss in the diet-induced obese rat model, which to date has reasonably predicted the clinical effects of several hormones in obese humans. If confirmed in ongoing translational clinical research studies, these findings may provide a physiological rationale for a novel, integrated neurohormonal approach to pharmacotherapy for obesity.
    Current diabetes reviews 06/2008; 4(2):79-91. DOI:10.2174/157339908784220741
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    ABSTRACT: Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hindbrain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant, diet-induced obese rats. Weight loss synergy was specific to amylin treatment, compared with other anorexigenic peptides, and dissociable from amylin's effect on food intake. The addition of leptin after amylin pretreatment elicited further weight loss, compared with either monotherapy condition. In a 24-week randomized, double-blind, clinical proof-of-concept study in overweight/obese subjects, coadministration of recombinant human leptin and the amylin analog pramlintide elicited 12.7% mean weight loss, significantly more than was observed with either treatment alone (P < 0.01). In obese rats, amylin pretreatment partially restored hypothalamic leptin signaling (pSTAT3 immunoreactivity) within the ventromedial, but not the arcuate nucleus and up-regulated basal and leptin-stimulated signaling in the hindbrain area postrema. These findings provide both nonclinical and clinical evidence that amylin agonism restored leptin responsiveness in diet-induced obesity, suggesting that integrated neurohormonal approaches to obesity pharmacotherapy may facilitate greater weight loss by harnessing naturally occurring synergies.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2008; 105(20):7257-62. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0706473105 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enlargement of adipocytes from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), increased intrahepatic lipid content (IHL), intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and low circulating adiponectin concentrations are associated with insulin resistance. Because adiponectin increases fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and liver, and the expression of the adiponectin gene in SAT is inversely associated with adipocyte size, we hypothesized that hypoadiponectinemia links hypertrophic obesity with insulin resistance via increased IMCL and IHL. Fifty-three obese Pima Indians with a mean (+/-SD) age of 27 +/- 8 y, body fat of 35 +/- 5%, and normal glucose regulation (normal fasting and 2-h glucose concentration per WHO 1999 criteria) underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, biopsies of SAT and vastus lateralis muscle, and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen. Adipocyte diameter (AD) correlated positively with body fat (P < 0.0001) and IHL (estimated from magnetic resonance imaging intensity of liver; P = 0.047). No association was found between AD and plasma adiponectin or IMCL. Plasma adiponectin negatively correlated with type II IMCL (IIA, P = 0.004; IIX, P = 0.009) or IHL (P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, plasma adiponectin, AD, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) independently predicted IHL. Low insulin-mediated glucose disposal was associated with low plasma adiponectin (P = 0.02) and high IHL (P = 0.0003), SAT (P = 0.02), and VAT (P = 0.04). High IHL was the only predictor of reduced insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (P = 0.02) and the only independent predictor of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in a multivariate analysis. Increased lipid content in the liver may independently link hypoadiponectinemia, hypertrophic obesity, and increased visceral adiposity with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2008; 87(2):295-302. · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of the pancreatic beta-cell peptide hormone amylin and the gut peptide PYY[3-36] increase after nutrient ingestion. Both have been implicated as short-term signals of meal termination with anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects. However, their combined effects are unknown. We report that the combination of amylin and PYY[3-36] elicited greater anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects than either peptide alone. In high-fat-fed rats, a single ip injection of amylin (10 microg/kg) plus PYY[3-36] (1000 microg/kg) reduced food intake for 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle), whereas the anorexigenic effects of either PYY[3-36] or amylin alone began to diminish 6 h after injection. These anorexigenic effects were dissociable from changes in locomotor activity. Subcutaneous infusion of amylin plus PYY[3-36] for 14 d suppressed food intake and body weight to a greater extent than either agent alone in both rat and mouse diet-induced obesity (DIO) models (P < 0.05). In DIO-prone rats, 24-h metabolic rate was maintained despite weight loss, and amylin plus PYY[3-36] (but not monotherapy) increased 24-h fat oxidation (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). Finally, a 4 x 3 factorial design was used to formally describe the interaction between amylin and PYY[3-36]. DIO-prone rats were treated with amylin (0, 4, 20, and 100 microg/kg.d) and PYY[3-36] (0, 200, 400 microg/kg.d) alone and in combination for 14 d. Statistical analyses revealed that food intake suppression with amylin plus PYY[3-36] treatment was synergistic, whereas body weight reduction was additive. Collectively, these observations highlight the importance of studying peptide hormones in combination and suggest that integrated neurohormonal approaches may hold promise as treatments for obesity.
    Endocrinology 01/2008; 148(12):6054-61. DOI:10.1210/en.2007-0898 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • E Schönamsgruber · K Herrmann · J Roth · C Weyer · D Parkes · A Baron ·

    Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 01/2008; 3. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1076269 · 0.33 Impact Factor

  • Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 01/2008; 3. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1076394 · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from rodent studies indicates that the beta-cell-derived neurohormone amylin exerts multiple effects on eating behavior, including reductions in meal size, intake of highly palatable foods, and stress-induced sucrose consumption. To assess the effect of amylin agonism on human eating behavior we conducted a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigating the effects of the amylin analog pramlintide on body weight, 24-h caloric intake, portion sizes, "fast food" intake, and perceived control of eating in 88 obese subjects. After a 2-day placebo lead-in, subjects self-administered pramlintide (180 microg) or placebo by subcutaneous injection 15 min before meals for 6 wk without concomitant lifestyle modifications. Compared with placebo, pramlintide treatment elicited significant mean reductions from baseline in body weight on day 44 (-2.1 +/- 0.3 vs. +0.1 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.001), 24-h caloric intake (-990 +/- 94 vs. -243 +/- 126 kcal on day 3, P < 0.0001; -680 +/- 86 vs. -191 +/- 161 kcal on day 43, P < 0.01), portion sizes, and caloric intake at a "fast food challenge" (-385 +/- 61 vs. -109 +/- 88 kcal on day 44, P < 0.05). Pramlintide treatment also improved perceived control of eating, as demonstrated by a 45% placebo-corrected reduction in binge eating scores (P < 0.01). The results of this translational research study confirm in humans various preclinical effects of amylin agonism, demonstrating that pramlintide-mediated weight loss in obese subjects is accompanied by sustained reductions in 24-h food intake, portion sizes, fast food intake, and binge eating tendencies.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2007; 293(2):E620-7. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00217.2007 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In previous 1-yr trials, treatment with pramlintide (120 microg), an analog of the beta-cell hormone amylin, induced sustained reductions in A1C and body weight in insulin-using subjects with type 2 diabetes. To assess the potential of pramlintide as an antiobesity agent, we assessed the weight effect, safety, and tolerability of pramlintide in non-insulin-treated obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes at doses greater than previously studied. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. A total of 204 obese subjects [80/20% female/male, age 48 +/- 10 yr, and body mass index 37.8 +/- 5.6 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD)] participated in the study. For 16 wk, without concomitant lifestyle intervention, subjects self-administered pramlintide (nonforced dose escalation < or = 240 microg) or placebo via sc injection three times a day before meals. Weight, waist circumference, tolerability, and safety were the main outcome measures. Pramlintide was generally well tolerated, with 88% of subjects able to escalate to the maximum dose of 240 microg. Withdrawal rates were similar between placebo (25%) and pramlintide-treated subjects (29%). Subjects completing 16 wk of pramlintide treatment experienced placebo-corrected reductions in body weight of 3.7 +/- 0.5% (3.6 +/- 0.6 kg; P < 0.001) and waist circumference (3.6 +/- 1.1 cm; P < 0.01). Approximately 31% of pramlintide-treated subjects achieved > or =5% weight loss (vs. 2% placebo; P < 0.001). More pramlintide than placebo-treated subjects reported improvements in appetite control (72% vs. 31%), weight control (63% vs. 24%), and overall well-being (52% vs. 17%). No unexpected safety signals were observed. The most common adverse event reported was mild, transient nausea. Pramlintide-treated subjects not reporting nausea experienced weight loss similar to those who did (3.6 +/- 0.5% and 3.9 +/- 0.5%, respectively). These results support continued evaluation of pramlintide as a potential treatment for obesity.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 08/2007; 92(8):2977-83. DOI:10.1210/jc.2006-2003 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that a single preprandial injection (120 microg) of pramlintide, an analog of the beta-cell hormone amylin, reduced ad libitum food intake in obese subjects. To further characterize the meal-related effects of amylin signaling in humans, we studied a lower pramlintide dose (30 microg) in normal-weight subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 15 healthy men (age, 24 +/- 7 years; BMI, 22.2 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) underwent a standardized buffet meal test on two occasions. After an overnight fast, subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of pramlintide (30 microg) or placebo, followed immediately by a standardized pre-load meal. After 1 hour, subjects were offered an ad libitum buffet meal, and total caloric intake and meal duration were measured. Compared with placebo, pramlintide reduced total caloric intake (1411 +/- 94 vs. 1190 +/- 117 kcal; Delta, -221 +/- 101 kcal; -14 +/- 9%; p = 0.05) and meal duration (36 +/- 2 vs. 31 +/- 3 minutes; Delta, -5.1 +/- 1.4 minutes; p < 0.005). Visual analog scale profiles of hunger trended lower and fullness higher during the first hour after pramlintide administration. In response to the buffet, hunger and fullness changed to a similar degree after pramlintide and placebo, despite subjects on pramlintide consuming 14% fewer kilocalories. Visual analog scale nausea ratings remained near baseline, without differences between treatments. Plasma peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin concentrations did not differ with treatment, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations after meals were lower in response to pramlintide than to placebo. These observations add support to the concept that amylin agonism may have a role in human appetite control.
    Obesity 05/2007; 15(5):1179-86. DOI:10.1038/oby.2007.626 · 3.73 Impact Factor

  • Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 01/2006; 1. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-943881 · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • K Herrmann · K Chen · E Schönamsgruber · C Lush · J Limmer · C Burns · K Lutz · C Weyer ·

    Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 01/2006; 1. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-943953 · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pramlintide, a human amylin analogue, is a potential new adjunctive therapy to insulin for patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-using patients with type 2 diabetes. Early clinical trials have shown a transient increased risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients at the time of initiating pramlintide therapy. This may be the result of combining the postprandial glucose, lowering effect of pramlintide with the existing hypoglycaemic potential of insulin without appropriate adjustment of insulin doses. However, the possibility that pramlintide may exert an independent detrimental effect on the physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia needs to be excluded. We conducted three separate randomized, placebo-controlled studies in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with adjunctive pramlintide. These studies utilized pramlintide at high doses (either 0.1-1 mg pramlintide daily or 0.1-0.8 mg pramlintide four times a day for 5 or 6 days) as well as doses closer to those anticipated for therapeutic usage (30, 100 or 300 microg three times daily for 14 days), and examined the hormonal, metabolic and symptomatic responses to an insulin-infusion hypoglycaemic challenge conducted at baseline and after days of therapy. Pramlintide had no effect on the counter-regulatory hormonal, metabolic and symptomatic responses to hypoglycaemia. These findings demonstrated that pramlintide, when used as adjunctive therapy to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes, has no independent effect on the response to hypoglycaemia.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 10/2005; 7(5):504-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00417.x · 6.36 Impact Factor

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  • 2001-2011
    • Amylin Pharmaceuticals
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2004
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999-2004
    • National Institutes of Health
      • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • Novartis
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999-2002
    • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1998-1999
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Klinik für Stoffwechselkrankheiten
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany