[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microRNA (miRNA) processing enzyme Dicer1 is required for zygotic and embryonic development, but the early embryonic lethality of Dicer1 null alleles in mice has limited our ability to address the role of Dicer1 in normal mouse growth and development. To address this question, we used a mouse mutant with a hypomorphic Dicer1 allele (Dicer(d/d)) and found that Dicer1 deficiency resulted in female infertility. This defect in female Dicer(d/d) mice was caused by corpus luteum (CL) insufficiency and resulted, at least in part, from the impaired growth of new capillary vessels in the ovary. We found that the impaired CL angiogenesis in Dicer(d/d) mice was associated with a lack of miR17-5p and let7b, 2 miRNAs that participate in angiogenesis by regulating the expression of the antiangiogenic factor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Furthermore, injection of miR17-5p and let7b into the ovaries of Dicer(d/d) mice partially normalized tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and CL angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the development and function of the ovarian CL is a physiological process that appears to be regulated by miRNAs and requires Dicer1 function.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2008; 118(5):1944-54. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is believed to be a component or a regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP), which controls mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis. However, the role of ANT in apoptosis is still uncertain, because hepatocytes isolated from ANT knockout and wild-type mice are equally sensitive to TNF- and Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screen for genes required for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis, we discovered that the ANT3 gene is involved in TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. We further found that ANT3 is selectively required for TNF- and oxidative stress-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells, but it is dispensable for cell death induced by several other inducers. This data supplements previous data obtained from ANT knockout studies, indicating that ANT is involved in some apoptotic processes. We found that the resistance to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis observed in ANT3 mutant (ANT3(mut)) cells is associated with a deficiency in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. It is not related to intracellular ATP levels or survival pathways, supporting a previous model in which ANT regulates mtPTP. Our study provides genetic evidence supporting a role of ANT in apoptosis and suggests that the involvement of ANT in cell death is cell type- and stimulus-dependent.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 12/2007; 18(11):4681-9. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have revealed that transforming growth factor-beta-activated protein kinase 1 (TAB1) interacts with p38alpha and induces p38alpha autophosphorylation. Here, we examine the sequence requirements in TAB1 and p38alpha that drive their interaction. Deletion and point mutations in TAB1 reveal that a proline residue in the C terminus of TAB1 (Pro412) is necessary for its interaction with p38alpha. Furthermore, a cryptic D-domain-like docking site was identified adjacent to the N terminus of Pro412, putting Pro412 in the phi(B)+3 position of the docking site. Through mutational analysis, we found that the previously identified hydrophobic docking groove in p38alpha is involved in this interaction, whereas the CD domain and ED domain are not. Furthermore, chimeric analysis with p38beta (which does not bind to TAB1) revealed a previously unidentified locus of p38alpha comprising Thr218 and Ile275 that is essential for specific binding of p38alpha to TAB1. Converting either of these residues to the corresponding amino acid of p38beta abolishes p38alpha interaction with TAB1. These p38alpha mutants still can be fully activated by p38alpha upstream activating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6, but their basal activity and activation in response to some extracellular stimuli are reduced. Adjacent to Thr218 and Ile275 is a site where large conformational changes occur in the presence of docking-site peptides derived from p38alpha substrates and activators. This suggests that TAB1-induced autophosphorylation of p38alpha results from conformational changes that are similar but unique to those seen in p38alpha interactions with its substrates and activating kinases.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2006; 26(10):3824-34. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AP-1-binding sequences are promoter/enhancer elements that play an essential role in the induction of many genes in mammalian cells; however, the number of genes containing AP-1 sites remains unknown. In order to better address the overall effect of AP-1 on expression of genes encoded by the entire genome, a genome-wide analysis of the frequency and distribution of AP-1 sites would be useful; yet to date, no such analysis of AP-1 sites or any other promoter/enhancer elements has been performed. We present here our study of the consensus AP-1 site and two single-bp variants showing that the frequency of AP-1 sites in promoter regions is significantly lower than their average rate of occurrence in the whole genomic sequence, as well as the frequency of a random heptanucleotide suggesting that nature has selected for a decrease in the frequency of AP-1 sites in the regulatory regions of genes. In addition, genes containing multiple AP-1 sites are more prevalent than those containing only one copy of an AP-1 site, which again may have evolved to allow for greater signal amplification or integration in the regulation of AP-1 target genes. However, the number of AP-1-regulated genes identified in various studies is far smaller than the number of genes containing potential AP-1 sites, indicating that not all AP-1 sites are activated in a given cell under a given condition, and is consistent with the prediction by others that cellular context determines which AP-1 sites are targeted by AP-1.
DNA Research 02/2005; 12(2):139-50. · 4.43 Impact Factor