Julie E Martin

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (12)80.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus infection is a highly lethal disease for which there are no effective therapeutic or preventive treatments. Several vaccines have provided immune protection in laboratory animals, but because outbreaks occur unpredictably and sporadically, vaccine efficacy cannot be proven in human trials, which is required for traditional regulatory approval. The Food and Drug Administration has introduced the 'animal rule', to allow laboratory animal data to be used to show efficacy when human trials are not logistically feasible. In this Review, we describe immune correlates of vaccine protection against Ebola virus in animals. This research provides a basis for bridging the gap from basic research to human vaccine responses in support of the licensing of vaccines through the animal rule.
    Nature Reviews Microbiology 06/2009; 7(5):393-400. · 22.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus is a member of the Coronaviridae (CoV) family that first appeared in the Guangdong Province of China in 2002 and was recognized as an emerging infectious disease in March 2003. Over 8000 cases and 900 deaths occurred during the epidemic. We report the safety and immunogenicity of a SARS DNA vaccine in a Phase I human study. A single-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Spike (S) glycoprotein was evaluated in 10 healthy adults. Nine subjects completed the 3 dose vaccination schedule and were evaluated for vaccine safety and immune responses. Immune response was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), ELISpot, ELISA, and neutralization assays. The vaccine was well tolerated. SARS-CoV-specific antibody was detected by ELISA in 8 of 10 subjects and neutralizing antibody was detected in all subjects who received 3 doses of vaccine. SARS-CoV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in all vaccinees, and CD8+ T-cell responses in approximately 20% of individuals. The VRC SARS DNA vaccine was well tolerated and produced cellular immune responses and neutralizing antibody in healthy adults.
    Vaccine 10/2008; 26(50):6338-43. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2008; 197(11):1628-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: West Nile virions incorporate 180 envelope (E) proteins that orchestrate the process of virus entry and are the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The E proteins of newly synthesized West Nile virus (WNV) are organized into trimeric spikes composed of pre-membrane (prM) and E protein heterodimers. During egress, immature virions undergo a protease-mediated cleavage of prM that results in a reorganization of E protein into the pseudo-icosahedral arrangement characteristic of mature virions. While cleavage of prM is a required step in the virus life cycle, complete maturation is not required for infectivity and infectious virions may be heterogeneous with respect to the extent of prM cleavage. In this study, we demonstrate that virion maturation impacts the sensitivity of WNV to antibody-mediated neutralization. Complete maturation results in a significant reduction in sensitivity to neutralization by antibodies specific for poorly accessible epitopes that comprise a major component of the human antibody response following WNV infection or vaccination. This reduction in neutralization sensitivity reflects a decrease in the accessibility of epitopes on virions to levels that fall below a threshold required for neutralization. Thus, in addition to a role in facilitating viral entry, changes in E protein arrangement associated with maturation modulate neutralization sensitivity and introduce an additional layer of complexity into humoral immunity against WNV.
    PLoS Pathogens 06/2008; 4(5):e1000060. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause severe meningitis and encephalitis in infected individuals. We report the safety and immunogenicity of a WNV DNA vaccine in its first phase 1 human study. A single-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the premembrane and the envelope glycoproteins of the NY99 strain of WNV was evaluated in an open-label study in 15 healthy adults. Twelve subjects completed the 3-dose vaccination schedule, and all subjects completed 32 weeks of evaluation for safety and immunogenicity. The development of a vaccine-induced immune response was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, neutralization assays, intracelluar cytokine staining, and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated, with no significant adverse events. Vaccine-induced T cell and antibody responses were detected in the majority of subjects. Neutralizing antibody to WNV was detected in all subjects who completed the 3-dose vaccination schedule, at levels shown to be protective in studies of horses, an incidental natural host for WNV. Further assessment of this DNA platform for human immunization against WNV is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00106769 .
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 196(12):1732-40. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are key effectors of adaptive immunity for the control of virus infections. Epitope-specific responses are hierarchical and the rules for dominance are not well defined. Here we show that the H2-Kd-restricted RSV M2(82-90) (KdM2(82-90)) epitope dominates the H2-Db-restricted RSV M187-195 (DbM187-195) epitope and influences epitope-specific effector function in the acute and memory phases of the immune response to primary RSV infection in H-2b/d hybrid mice. The hybrid mouse model provides a system to define rules of epitope hierarchy and better understand how antigen presentation and epitope competition affect the phenotype of effector and memory T cells.
    Virology 07/2007; 362(2):314-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Needle-free delivery of a six-plasmid HIV-1 DNA vaccine encoding EnvA, EnvB, EnvC, and subtype B Gag, Pol, and Nef underwent open-label evaluation in 15 subjects; 14 completed the 0, 1, 2 month vaccination schedule. T cell responses to HIV-specific peptide pools were detected by intracellular cytokine staining of CD4(+) [13/14 (93%)] and CD8(+) [5/14 (36%)], and by ELISpot in 11/14 (79%). Ten of 14 (71%) had ELISA antibody responses to Env proteins. Compared to a four-plasmid product, Gag- and Nef-specific T cell responses were improved, while Env-specific responses were maintained. This candidate vaccine has now advanced to Phase II evaluation.
    Vaccine 05/2007; 25(20):4085-92. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate HIV DNA vaccine administered using a needle-free device. In this phase 1, dose escalation, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 21 healthy adults were randomized to receive placebo or 0.5, 1.5, or 4 mg of a single plasmid expressing a Gag/Pol fusion protein. Each participant received repeat immunizations at days 28 and 56 after the first inoculation. Safety and immunogenicity data were collected. The vaccine was well tolerated, with most adverse events being mild injection site reactions, including pain, tenderness, and erythema. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. HIV-specific antibody response was not detected in any vaccinee by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV-specific T-cell responses to Gag or Pol as measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular cytokine staining were of low frequency and magnitude. This candidate HIV DNA vaccine was safe and well tolerated. No HIV-specific antibody responses were detected, and only low-magnitude HIV-specific T-cell responses were detected in 8 (53%) of 15 vaccinees. This initial product led to the development of a 4-plasmid multiclade HIV DNA Vaccine Research Center vaccine candidate in which envelope genes expressing Env from clades A, B, and C and a Nef gene from clade B have been added.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2007; 44(5):601-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene-based vaccine delivery is an important strategy in the development of a preventive vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Vaccine Research Center (VRC) 004 is the first phase 1 dose-escalation study of a multiclade HIV-1 DNA vaccine. VRC-HIVDNA009-00-VP is a 4-plasmid mixture encoding subtype B Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein and modified envelope (Env) constructs from subtypes A, B, and C. Fifty healthy, uninfected adults were randomized to receive either placebo (n=10) or study vaccine at 2 mg (n=5), 4 mg (n=20), or 8 mg (n=15) by needle-free intramuscular injection. Humoral responses (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, Western blotting, and neutralization assay) and T cell responses (measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular cytokine staining after stimulation with antigen-specific peptide pools) were measured. The vaccine was well tolerated and induced cellular and humoral responses. The maximal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses occurred after 3 injections and were in response to Env peptide pools. The pattern of cytokine expression by vaccine-induced HIV-specific T cells evolved over time, with a diminished frequency of interferon- gamma -producing T cells and an increased frequency of interleukin-2-producing T cells at 1 year. DNA vaccination induced antibody to and T cell responses against 3 major HIV-1 subtypes and will be further evaluated as a potential component of a preventive AIDS vaccine regimen.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 194(12):1650-60. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is a high global priority. Here, we report the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector HIV-1 candidate vaccine. The vaccine is a mixture of 4 rAd5 vectors that express HIV-1 subtype B Gag-Pol fusion protein and envelope (Env) from subtypes A, B, and C. Healthy, uninfected adults were randomized to receive 1 intramuscular injection of placebo (n=6) or vaccine at dose levels of 10(9) (n=10), 10(10) (n=10), or 10(11) (n=10) particle units and were followed for 24 weeks to assess immunogenicity and safety. The vaccine was well tolerated but was associated with more reactogenicity at the highest dose. At week 4, vaccine antigen-specific T cell responses were detected in 28 (93.3%) and 18 (60%) of 30 vaccine recipients for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively, by intracellular cytokine staining assay and in 22 (73%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Env-specific antibody responses were detected in 15 (50%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in 28 (93.3%) of 30 vaccine recipients by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. No neutralizing antibody was detected. A single injection induced HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, and antibody responses in the majority of vaccine recipients. This multiclade rAd5 HIV-1 vaccine is now being evaluated in combination with a multiclade HIV-1 DNA plasmid vaccine.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 194(12):1638-49. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola viruses represent a class of filoviruses that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Recognized first in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, outbreaks continue to occur in equatorial Africa. A safe and effective Ebola virus vaccine is needed because of its continued emergence and its potential for use for biodefense. We report the safety and immunogenicity of an Ebola virus vaccine in its first phase I human study. A three-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the envelope glycoproteins (GP) from the Zaire and Sudan/Gulu species as well as the nucleoprotein was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, dose escalation study. Healthy adults, ages 18 to 44 years, were randomized to receive three injections of vaccine at 2 mg (n = 5), 4 mg (n = 8), or 8 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 6). Immunogenicity was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The vaccine was well-tolerated, with no significant adverse events or coagulation abnormalities. Specific antibody responses to at least one of the three antigens encoded by the vaccine as assessed by ELISA and CD4(+) T-cell GP-specific responses as assessed by ICS were detected in 20/20 vaccinees. CD8(+) T-cell GP-specific responses were detected by ICS assay in 6/20 vaccinees. This Ebola virus DNA vaccine was safe and immunogenic in humans. Further assessment of the DNA platform alone and in combination with replication-defective adenoviral vector vaccines, in concert with challenge and immune data from nonhuman primates, will facilitate evaluation and potential licensure of an Ebola virus vaccine under the Animal Rule.
    Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 12/2006; 13(11):1267-77. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the declaration of smallpox eradication in 1980, the existence of variola stockpiles and the threat of bioterrorism demand that immunity to smallpox through vaccination be maintained. Although the currently available vaccine was used for the most successful medical intervention ever accomplished, it also is associated with side effects that are difficult to accept in a vaccine for a disease that has not been present for >25 years. Herein, we review alternative approaches to maintaining immunity to smallpox through vaccination with attenuated poxviruses, and we suggest modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a leading candidate for an alternative smallpox vaccine.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2004; 38(12):1749-53. · 9.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

815 Citations
80.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2008
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Emerging Viral Pathogens
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2006
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention
      Seattle, Washington, United States