[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus infections are yet an important cause of morbidity and mortality despite of numerous effective anti-staphylococcal antibiotics available. There has been an increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant strains which might have led to a wider use of vancomycin. This seems to ride alongside a covert progressive increase of S. aureus vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration. In this way, the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains and heteroresistant-VISA has raised concern for the scarcity of alternative treatment options. Equally alarming, though fortunately less frequent, is the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Ultimately, various debate issues have arisen regarding the emergence of S. aureus strains with decreased vancomycin susceptibility, within the range still considered sensitive. These strains have shown a different clinical behaviour regardless of vancomycin use, both in methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus. The emergence of increasing vancomycin-resistance in S. aureus isolates, has stirred up the basis of therapeutic approach in staphylococcal infections. There is yet much to explore to better define the impact of higher vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration in staphylococcal infections.
Revista espanola de quimioterapia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia 09/2015; 28 Suppl 1:25-9. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to characterize the dynamics of acquisition of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in CMV donor positive/recipient negative solid organ transplant (SOT) patients receiving long-term antiviral prophylaxis, and to determine whether development of CMI confers protection against CMV disease.
A prospective multicenter study was conducted in Spain from September 2009 to September 2012. Whole blood specimens were prospectively collected at 30, 90, 120, 200, and 365 days after SOT, and CMI was determined by enumeration of CMV pp65 and IE-1-specific CD69(+) /interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells by flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining. As part of a simultaneous clinical trial, patients received either early prophylaxis (in the first 3 days after transplantation) in the first period of the study or delayed prophylaxis (initiated at day 14) during the second period of the study. The impact of the dynamics of acquisition of CMV-specific CMI on the incidence of CMV disease was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
A total of 95 SOT recipients were recruited. CMV infection and disease occurred in 38 (40%) and 26 (27.4%) patients, respectively. The proportion of patients achieving any detectable CMV-specific CMI response at each of the different monitoring points was higher in liver transplant recipients, as compared to kidney or heart transplant recipients. The presence of any detectable response at day 120 or 200 was protective against the development of CMV disease (positive predictive values 92% and 93% respectively).
The rate of acquisition of CMV-specific CMI in SOT recipients undergoing antiviral prophylaxis differed significantly between different SOT populations. Patients developing any detectable CMI response were protected against the occurrence of CMV disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.