Shin-Ichi Ishii

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (42)86.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine[choline methyl-11C] ([11C]dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF) and 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine[choline methyl-11C] ([11C]C16-PAF) were synthesized as follows; Each of non-labeled dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF and C16-PAF was treated with sodium benzene thiolate to derive their desmethyl-precursors containing a dimethylphosphoethanolamine at sn-3. 11C-Labeled dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF and C16-PAF were synthesized by methylation of the respective desmethyl-precursors using [11C]CH3I. The radiochemical yield of methylation in [11C]dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF and [11C]C16-PAF was about 15 and 10% (decay corrected), respectively. The lower yield of [11C]C16-PAF compared with that of [11C]dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF was attributed to hydrolysis of the 2-acetyl group of [11C]C16-PAF during methylation. To study the stability to enzymatic hydrolysis, [11C]dimethylcarbamoyl-PAF or [11C]C16-PAF was incubated with mouse plasma at 37 °C.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 07/2006; 33(10):921 - 931.
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    ABSTRACT: We prepared sigma(1)-receptor selective 1-([4-methoxy-(11)C]-3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine ([(11)C]SA4503) and its fluorinated analog 1-([4-methoxy-(11)C]3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]piperazine ([(11)C]SA5845), and their [(11)C]ethoxy and [(18)F]fluoroethoxy analogs, and evaluated their potential for positron emission tomography studies. [(11)C]SA4503 is most selective for sigma(1) receptors, and the other five showed affinities for sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors with a different extent. All radioligands showed the receptor-specific binding in the brain, and visualized similar regional brain distributions by ex vivo autoradiography. The [(11)C]ethoxy analogs were relatively labile for metabolism.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2003; 30(3):273-84. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We prepared an (11)C-labeled adenosine transporter blocker, [1-methyl-(11)C]-3-[1-(6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-4-yl)piperidin-4-yl]-1,6-dimethyl-2,4(1H, 3H)-quinazolinedione ([(11)C]KF21652) and examined its potential as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping adenosine transporters in the brain and peripheral organs. The log P(7.4) value of KF21652 was 3.14, and the K(i) value was 13 nM for adenosine transporters using [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine as a radioligand. In mice, the highest initial uptake was found in the liver, followed by the kidney and small intestine. The brain uptake was very low. The radioactivity level slightly increased with time in the liver and small intestine, but decreased in the other organs. Coinjection of carrier KF21652 slightly decreased the uptake of [(11)C]KF21562 only in the liver, but not in any other organs. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain showed that [(11)C]KF21652 was scarcely incorporated into the brain. On the other hand, in vitro autoradiography showed the binding of [(11)C]KF21562 to adenosine transporters with high nonspecific binding. These results show that the compound is not a suitable PET ligand for mapping adenosine transporters.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2001; 28(3):281-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Labelled Compounds 05/2001; 44(S1).
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo assessment of the adenosine A(2A) receptors localized in the striatum with positron emission tomography (PET) may offers us a new diagnostic tool for neurological disorders. We evaluated the potential of [7-methyl-(11)C](E)-8-(2,3-dimethyl-4-methoxystyryl)-1, 3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11)C]KF21213) as a PET ligand for mapping adenosine A(2A) receptors in the central nervous system. KF21213 showed a high affinity for the adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro (Ki = 3.0 nM) and a very low affinity for the A(1) receptors (Ki > 10,000 nM). In mice, the striatal uptake of [(11)C]KF21213 increased for the first 15 min and then gradually decreased, whereas the uptake in the reference regions such as the cortex and cerebellum rapidly decreased. The uptake ratio of striatum to cortex and striatum to cerebellum increased to 8.6 and 10.5, respectively, at 60 min postinjection. The striatal uptake was significantly blocked by co-injection of carrier KF21213 or each of three other A(2A) antagonists, but not by co-injection of A(1) antagonist. The specific uptake was not detected in the cortex or in the cerebellum. Ex vivo autoradiography and PET clearly visualized adenosine A(2A) receptors in the rat striatum. [(11)C]KF21213 was the most selective tracer for mapping adenosine A(2A) in the central nervous system by PET among the tracers proposed to date.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 09/2000; 27(6):541-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo assessment of the adenosine A2A receptors localized in the striatum by PET or SPECT offers us a new diagnostic tool for neurological disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of iodinated and brominated styrylxanthine derivatives labeled with 11C as an in vivo probe. [7-Methyl-11C]-(E)-3,7-dimethyl-8-(3-iodostyryl)-1-propargylxan thine ([11C]IS-DMPX) and [7-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3-bromostyryl)-3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxa nthine ([11C]BS-DMPX) were prepared by the 11C-methylation of corresponding 7-demethyl derivatives. An in vitro membrane binding study showed a high affinity (Ki values) of the two ligands for A2A receptor: 8.9 nM for IS-DMPX and 7.7 nM for BS-DMPX, and a high A2A/A1 selectivity: > 1100 for IS-DMPX and 300 for BS-DMPX. In mice, [11C]IS-DMPX and [11C]BS-DMPX were taken up slightly more in the striatum than in the reference regions such as the cortex and cerebellum. The uptake ratios of striatum to cortex and striatum to cerebellum gradually increased but were very small: 1.6-1.7 for the striatum-to-cortex ratio and 1.2 for the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio at 60 min postinjection. The uptake by these three regions was reduced by co-injection of an excess amount of carrier or an A2A antagonist KF17837, but not by an A1 antagonist KF15372. The blocking effects in the three regions were greater for [11C]BS-DMPX (32-57%) than for [11C]IS-DMPX (6-29%). Ex vivo autoradiography confirmed that the two ligands were slightly concentrated in the striatum. [11C]BS-DMPX showed more selective affinity for adenosine A2A receptors than [11C]IS-DMPX, but these results have shown that the two tracers were not suitable as in vivo ligands because of low selectivity for the striatal A2A receptors and a high nonspecific binding.
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine 09/2000; 14(4):247-53. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of the (11)C-labeled selective sigma(1) receptor ligand 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine ([(11)C]SA4503) was evaluated in vivo as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping sigma(1) receptors in rats. SA4503 is known to have a high affinity (IC(50) = 17.4 nM) and a higher selectivity (sigma(1)/sigma(2) = 103) for the sigma(1) receptor. A high and increasing brain uptake of [(11)C]SA4503 was found. Pre-, co- and postinjection of cold SA4503 significantly decreased uptake of [(11)C]SA4503 in the brain, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney in which sigma receptors are present as well as in the skeletal muscle. In the blocking study with one of four sigma receptor ligands including haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, SA4503, and (-)-pentazocine (in the order of their affinity for sigma(1) receptor subtype), SA4503 and haloperidol significantly reduced the brain uptake of [(11)C]SA4503 to approximately 30% of the control, but the other two benzomorphans did not. A high specific uptake of [(11)C]SA4503 by the brain was also confirmed by ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and PET. Ex vivo ARG showed a higher uptake in the vestibular nucleus, temporal cortex, cingulate cortex, inferior colliculus, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and a moderate uptake in the parietal cortex and caudate putamen. Peripherally, the blocking effects of the four ligands depended on their affinity for sigma(1) receptors. No (11)C-labeled metabolite was detected in the brain 30 min postinjection, whereas approximately 20% of the radioactivity was found as (11)C-labeled metabolites in plasma. These results have demonstrated that the (11)C-labeled sigma(1) receptor ligand [(11)C]SA4503 has a potential for mapping sigma(1) receptors in the central nervous system and peripheral organs.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2000; 27(3):255-61. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation was undertaken to identify the long-lived radionuclide and its chemical forms existing in [15O]water which was synthesized from 15O produced by the nuclear reaction 14N(d,n)15O, and to develop a method for its removal to facilitate radioactive waste disposal. The long-lived nuclide was identified as tritium based on a comparison of its physical half-life and the energy spectrum of β-rays with those of tritium. The major chemical form of tritium in the target gas was estimated to be molecular hydrogen. The tritium radioactivity was completely removed without a serious loss occurring to the yield of [15O]water by passing the irradiated target gas over a heated palladium catalyst followed by a calcium chloride column before the final synthesis of the [15O]water. This provided a practical way of removing tritium from the [15O]water.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 03/2000; 52(2):175-179. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HPLC separation of either [11C]β-CFT or [11C]β-CIT from the N-desmethyl precursor greatly depended on the ODS column used and the pH of the phosphate buffer in the mobile phase. The separation was accomplished on the semipreparative reversed phase ODS column without end-capping treatment over a pH ranging from 6.4 to 9.2, but failed on the end-capped ODS column. This suggests that the presence of residual silanol groups on the ODS is an important factor for the separation.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 03/2000; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of a 11C-labeled selective sigma1 receptor ligand, 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl]piperazine ([11C]SA6298), was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping sigma, receptors in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. [11C]SA6298 was synthesized by methylation of the desmethyl SA6298 with [11C]CH3I, with the decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 39 +/- 5% based on [11C]CH3I and with the specific activity of 53 +/- 17 TBq/mmol within 20 min from end of bombardment (EOB). In mice, the uptake of [11C]SA6298 was significantly decreased by carrier loading in the brain, liver, spleen, heart, lung, small intestine, and kidney in which sigma receptors are present as well as in the skeletal muscle. Pretreatment with SA6298 also blocked the uptake of [11C]SA6298 by these organs except for the small intestine, but significant displacement of [11C]SA6298 by posttreatment with SA6298 was observed only in the heart, lung, and muscle. In the blocking study with one of the eight sigma receptor ligands, including haloperidol, SA6298, NE-100, (+)-pentazocine, SA4503, (-)-pentazocine, (+)-3-PPP, and (+)-SKF 10,047 (in the order of the affinity for sigma1 receptor subtype), only SA6298 and an analog SA4503 significantly reduced the brain uptake of [11C]SA6298 to approximately 80% of the control, but the other six ligands did not. Peripherally, the uptake of [11C]SA6298 by the organs described above was decreased predominantly by SA6298 or SA4503, but the blocking effects of the other five ligands except for NE-100 depended on their affinity for sigma1 receptors. The saturable brain uptake of [11C]SA6298, approximately 20%, was also observed by tissue dissection method in rats and by PET in a cat. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain showed a high uptake in the cortex and thalamus. In the cat brain a relatively high uptake was found in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellum. These results have indicated a receptor-mediated uptake of the tracer to some extent in the brain and peripheral organs. However, the tracer has a limited potential for the PET study of the brain receptors because of a relatively high nonspecific binding.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 12/1999; 26(8):915-22. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No carrier added (nca) 2-amino-4-([11C]methylthio) butyric acid ([11C]methionine, [11C]MET) was prepared by the reaction of O-acetyl-l-homoserine and [11C]methanethiol using immobilized γ-cyano-α-aminobutylic acid synthase. If one passed [11C]methyl iodide through a DMF solution containing NaSH at 120°C, approximately 90% of the radioactivity was converted to [11C]methanethiol with the radiochemical purity of >99%, which was trapped in acetone cooled at −30 to −50°C. After the buffer containing a substrate for the enzyme reaction was added, the aqueous acetone solution was passed through a small column packed with the immobilized enzyme (6.0 mm i.d.×17 mm length) at room temperature for approximately 1 min. Approximately 80% of [11C]methanethiol applied to the column was recovered as only [11C]MET. After dryness was achieved in vacuo, the residue was dissolved in physiological saline and the solution was passed through a membrane filter. The radiochemically and enatiomerically pure [11C]MET was ready for injection within 15 min after the end of irradiation. [11C]MET analogues such as [11C]ethionine and [11C]propionine were also prepared from corresponding [11C]alkanethiols.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 09/1999; · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Kiichi Ishiwata, Shin-ichi Ishii, Michio Senda
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    ABSTRACT: The standard method of [11C]raclopride synthesis requires a large amount of its desmethyl precursor. We prepared [11C]raclopride by methylation of a small amount of desmethyl derivative (0.3-0.5 mg) with [11C]methyl iodide in a DMF solution containing NaH, with a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 11-14% based on [11C]methyl iodide and with a specific activity of 48 TBq/mmol for 25 min from EOB. The reaction was reproducible and reliable.
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine 07/1999; 13(3):195-7. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel autoradiographic method of visualizing oxygen fixation with sufficient delivery of []O2/O2. Brain slices (400 μm) were preincubated in Krebs–Ringer phosphate buffer and exposed to []O2 in a chamber. Fixation of []O2 correlated with the polarographically measured oxygen consumption among tissue slices from various organs (r=0.84). The fixation of []O2 by brain slices was significantly reduced (7.2% of the control) by heat-treatment or dose dependently by NaCN (18.2% of the control on 50 mM NaCN pretreatment). The radioactivity in the brain slices prepared from rotenone injected rats was also reduced compared to the control (56.8% of the control side). In an autoradiographic study, radioactivity showed a heterogeneous distribution both in coronal and sagittal sections. Autoradiography of young and senescent rat brain sections showed reduction of oxygen uptake with aging in the cerebrum, the senescent being 77.4% of the young. This method provides information regarding basic oxygen consumption of tissue slices under condition of sufficient O2 delivery, which reflects mitochondrial electron transport.
    Brain Research 07/1999; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Toru Sasaki, Koji Ogawa, Shin-Ichi Ishii, Michio Senda
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    ABSTRACT: For in vivo measurement of the hydroxyl radical (.OH), we synthesized [11C]salicylic acid, [11C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [11C]2-methoxybenzoic acid by carboxylation of 2-bromomagnesiumanisol using [11C]CO2. The radiochemical yield of [11C]salicylic acid, [11C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [11C]2-methoxybenzoic acid calculated from trapped [11C]CO2 in a liquid argon cooled stainless tube was 7.3 +/- 1.6, 5.2 and 10.2 +/- 1.7% (decay corrected), respectively. The uptake of 11C tracers by mouse brain was 0.46, 0.32, and 0.46% dose/g tissue, respectively, at 10 min post injection and presented washout patterns thereafter.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 06/1999; 50(5):905-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon-11 labeled alkyl iodides such as ethyl, propyl and butyl iodides are useful precursors for labeling various tracers for positron emission tomography. In the standard preparing process, which consists of the reaction of Grignard reagents with 11CO2 followed by reduction with lithium aluminum hydride and reaction with HI, the produced 11C-alkyl iodides were applied onto gas chromatography using chromosorb W-HP with 10% OV101 as the liquid phase, to give radiochemically pure 11C-ethyl, 11C-propyl or 11C-butyl iodide without a concomitant byproduct, i.e. 11C-methyl iodide. The automated production system was described.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 04/1999; 50(4):693-697. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the synthesis of [11C]2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(10-hydroxy)-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone (idebenone) and [11C]2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (CoQo) by methylation of their respective desmethyl precursors using [11C]CH3I for in vivo measurement of mitochondrial electron transfer and redox state. The [11C]idebenone was more lipophilic than [11C]CoQo; the latter became hydrophilic by reduction. Clearance of [11C]idebenone from mouse brain was more rapid than that of [11C]CoQo. The results indicated that modification of the isoprenoid side chain in [11C]CoQ is necessary to develop more suitable radiopharmaceuticals.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 03/1999; 26(2):183-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N,N-Dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine (NE-100) was labeled with 11C in two different positions by the alkylation of an N-despropyl precursor with [11C]propyl iodide and of an O-desmethyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide and was evaluated for the potential as a tracer for mapping sigma 1 receptors in the CNS and peripheral organs by PET. Following i.v. injection of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100 or [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 into mice, the two tracers showed similar tissue distribution patterns except for the liver and brain. With the coinjected carrier NE-100 or haloperidol, the uptake of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100 by the liver, pancreas and spleen was significantly decreased at 15 min after injection, whereas the effect was not significant for [O-methyl-11C]NE-100. The coinjection of NE-100 enhanced the brain uptake of the two tracers. Haloperidol also enhanced the brain uptake of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100, but not that of [O-methyl-11C]NE-100. The regional brain distribution assessed with [O-methyl-3H]NE-100 was consistent with the distribution pattern of the sigma receptors. Four sigma drugs reduced the regional brain uptake of [O-methyl-3H]NE-100 to 70%-90% of the control. In an ex vivo autoradiographic study of the rat brain, the uptake of [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 was blocked by carrier NE-100 or haloperidol (53%-59% of the control in the cortex), which suggests a receptor-specific distribution. These results show that [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 has limited potential as a PET ligand for mapping sigma 1 receptors in the peripheral organs and the CNS because of high nonspecific binding.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/1998; 25(3):195-202. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N,N-Dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine (NE-100) was labeled with 11C in two different positions by the alkylation of an N-despropyl precursor with [11C]propyl iodide and of an O-desmethyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide and was evaluated for the potential as a tracer for mapping σ 1 receptors in the CNS and peripheral organs by PET. Following i.v. injection of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100 or [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 into mice, the two tracers showed similar tissue distribution patterns except for the liver and brain. With the coinjected carrier NE-100 or haloperidol, the uptake of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100 by the liver, pancreas and spleen was significantly decreased at 15 min after injection, whereas the effect was not significant for [O-methyl-11C]NE-100. The coinjection of NE-100 enhanced the brain uptake of the two tracers. Haloperidol also enhanced the brain uptake of [N-propyl-11C]NE-100, but not that of [O-methyl-11C]NE-100. The regional brain distribution assessed with [O-methyl-3H]NE-100 was consistent with the distribution pattern of the σ receptors. Four σ drugs reduced the regional brain uptake of [O-methyl-3H]NE-100 to 70%–90% of the control. In an ex vivo autoradiographic study of the rat brain, the uptake of [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 was blocked by carrier NE-100 or haloperidol (53%–59% of the control in the cortex), which suggests a receptor-specific distribution. These results show that [O-methyl-11C]NE-100 has limited potential as a PET ligand for mapping σ 1 receptors in the peripheral organs and the CNS because of high nonspecific binding.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 04/1998; 25(3):195-202. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 11C-labeled KF17837 ([7-methyl-11C](E)-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-1,3-dipropyl-7-methylxa nthine) was evaluated as a PET ligand for mapping adenosine A2a receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). The regional brain distribution of [11C]KF17837 and the effect of adenosine antagonists on the distribution were measured in mice by the tissue sampling method. In rats, the regional brain uptake of [11C]KF17837 and the effect of carrier KF17837 was visualized by autoradiography. Imaging of the monkey brain with [11C]KF17837 was performed by PET. In mice, a high uptake of [11C]KF17837 was found in the striatum in which A2a receptors were highly enriched. The uptake was decreased by co-injection of carrier KF17837 or a xanthine-type A2a antagonist CSC but not by nonxanthine-type A2a antagonists ZM 241385 or SCH 58261, or an A1 antagonist KF15372. In the rat brain, [11C]KF17837 was accumulated higher in the striatum than in other brain regions, and the uptake was blocked by co-injection of carrier KF17837. In a monkey PET study, a high striatal uptake of radioactivity was observed. Carbon-11-KF17837 binds to adenosine A2a receptors in the striatum. However, the presence of an unknown but specific binding site for xanthine-type compounds also was suggested in the other brain regions. The results also suggested that the in vivo receptor-binding sites of xanthine-type ligands are slightly different from those of nonxanthine-type A2a antagonists.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/1998; 39(3):498-503. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Nuclear Medicine and Biology 01/1998; 25(3). · 2.41 Impact Factor