Akiko Ishigami

Fukuoka University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (20)19.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The erythematous patches and vesicles that are observed in coma patients, usually from an overdose of medication, are known as coma blisters. However, it is unknown whether the degenerated sweat gland is a necrosis or apoptosis. We immunohistochemically examined such skin lesions to investigate the characteristics and pathogenesis of the coma blister. Skin lesions were obtained from a forensic autopsy case, a woman in her thirties, of caffeine intoxication. Those lesions were observed in the left femoral, the lower left thigh, and the right knee. Histologically, the skin lesions showed that the keratinocytes had necrosed and the epidermis was thin in some areas. Eccrine sweat gland degeneration was observed. Obvious inflammatory cell infiltrations were not detected. Immunohistochemically, we stained each skin lesion against CD3, CD8, CD45RO, cytokeratin, 70 kD heat shock protein, ubiquitin, 150 kD oxygen regulated protein, and caspase-cleaved keratin 18 neo-epitope M30. They were also stained with an in situ apoptosis detection kit. Degenerated sweat glands featured CD45RO and M30 immunoreactivity. Immunohistochemical staining for CD45RO, CK-L, and M30 might be useful to observe sweat gland degeneration in the coma blister. Therefore, the apoptosis might be related to coma blisters and sweat gland degenerations. J. Med. Invest. 60: 256-261, August, 2013.
    The Journal of Medical Investigation 01/2013; 60(3-4):256-61. DOI:10.2152/jmi.60.256
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the role of glial cells in the striatum of chronic methamphetamine (METH) users. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined glial reactions in the striatum of chronic METH users who did not abstain from METH use and died of drug intoxication. Human glucose transporter 5 (hGLUT), a useful marker of microglia, and CR3.43, a major histocompatibility complex class II antigen specific for reactive microglia, were immunostained. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 Beta were used for astrocyte immunohistochemistry. We analyzed 12 chronic METH users and 13 control subjects, and detected a 200-240% increase in the number of hGLUT5-positive cells in chronic METH users (p<0.01). However, we did not detect any proliferation of CR3.43-positive cells. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes increased, but this increase was not significant (p>0.05). Moreover, S100B-positive cell density between the two groups was not significant (p>0.05). This study demonstrates the absence of reactive gliosis in the striatum of chronic METH users who did not abstain for prolonged periods from METH use. The results suggest that chronic METH use by itself did not activate glial cells in humans and reactive gliosis may not be involved in the mechanism underlying the loss of control in drug intake, which is a characteristic feature of drug addiction.
    Legal Medicine 03/2010; 12(2):57-62. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.11.001 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of a man who died 2 days after taking an overdose of vegetamin. The autopsy findings were as follows: the epidermis on the axillary fossa and the inguinal skin had become macerated. Skeletal muscle was discolored. Concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine myoglobin were 1.95 g/day, 0.66 g/day and 1100 ng/mL, respectively. Immunohistochemically, myoglobin was strongly stained at the Bowman's capsule, and tubular lumen and epithelium. 8-OH-dG was strongly stained in renal tubular epithelium in which cell nuclei were strongly stained. ORP-150 was observed in intraglomerular cells and renal tubular epithelium. The concentrations of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels, from toxic to lethal levels and toxic level, respectively. His cause of death was considered to be vegetamin-induced rhabdomyolysis. In genetic analysis of this subject, there were two heterozygous silent mutations in the three hot-spot regions in the RYR1 gene. In the CPT II gene, the subject was found to be heterozygous for an amino acid substitution in exon 4, (1203)G>A causing a (368)Val>Ile amino acid substitution. There was no mutation in the VLCAD gene or CYP2C19 gene. The subject was heterozygous for CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2.
    Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 01/2010; 17(1):46-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jflm.2009.07.020 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An 87-year-old female who had been hospitalized due to pneumonia was administered nourishment through a nasogastric tube. She collapsed as a result of dyspnea after the insertion of a new tube and administration of nourishment. Chest X-rays revealed that the tube was inserted into the left pleural cavity passing the trachea and left bronchi and that the nourishment pooled. In spite of immediate treatment including removal of the tube and insertion of a drain, she died 12 days later. Autopsy findings: Both the left pulmonary and parietal pleurae were thickened and covered with a dirty gray-yellowish moss-like paste. The left lower lobe was softened, and this region was suspected as the ruptured site of the pleura. Histological findings: A part of the thick pleura with inflammatory cells, including multinucleated giant cells, was positive-stained for anti alpha-lactalbumin antibody immunohistochemically. These giant cells are often observed in granulomatous inflammation against a foreign material. It was considered that those in the pleura had been induced by the nourishment, and that those in the pulmonary parenchyma had been affected by the insertion of the tube. The multinucleated giant cells clarified the cause of fatal pleuritis and pneumonia and the misinsertion of the tube.
    Legal Medicine 05/2009; 11(4):191-4. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.065 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of a man in his forties who died 2 days after taking an overdose of vegetamin. The autopsy findings were as follows: externally, the upper epidermis of some parts of the body had become loosened. The epidermis was easily detached from the dermis using the fingers. Viscous fluid adhered around the nose and mouth. The brain was edematous and weighed 1520 g. Skeletal muscle was discolored. The urine was a slightly red-tinged yellow. The organs showed congestion. Urine tests: urea nitrogen: 1.95 g/day; creatinine: 0.66 g/day; urine myoglobin: 1100 ng/mL. Blood level of drugs: phenobarbital: 38.2 microg/ml; promethazine: 2.22 microg/ml; chlorpromazine: 0.96 microg/ml. Immunohistochemistry identified myoglobin in the kidney. From these findings, his cause of death was considered to be vegetamin-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. Mutation of the ryanodine receptor 1 gene is associated with malignant hyperthermia. However, there was no mutation which causes amino acid substitution in the three hot-spot regions of the ryanodine receptor 1 gene. Partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II is the commonest cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in adults. The subject was found to be heterozygous for an amino acid exchange in exon 4, (1203)G-->A causing a (368)Val-->Ile amino acid substitution. It is necessary to examine other candidate gene mutations.
    Legal Medicine 03/2009; 11 Suppl 1:S570-2. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.01.074 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated methamphetamine (METH)- induced peroxidative DNA damage in various regions of the rat brain. We injected METH to rats following 2 protocols. For the single administration experiment (group I), 50 mg/kg (i. p.) of METH was administered to observe the acute influence of METH. For the repeated administration experiment (group II), 10 mg/kg/day (i. p.) of METH was injected for 5 days. Immunohistochemically, peroxidative damage DNA, 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) was observed, and in situ apoptosis was also observed. In group I, immunoreactivity of 8-OH-dG was only enhanced in neurons of the nucleus accumben of METH-treated rats. On in situ apoptosis detection, positive findings were also enhanced in all examined parts compared to those in the control, though there were no significant increases in 8-OH-dG-immunopositive neurons except in the nucleus accumben. In group II, the nucleus accumben also showed enhanced 8-OH-dG immunopositivity compared to that in the control. There was no significant difference in apoptosis between the control and METH groups. Based on our observations, it is considered that METH induces oxidative DNA damage in the brain, especially in the nucleus accumben. However, those DNA damage might be caused differently between acute and chronic administration.
    The Journal of Medical Investigation 09/2008; 55(3-4):241-5. DOI:10.2152/jmi.55.241
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    ABSTRACT: A 63-years-old man was found dead with the body soaking in water lying face up on a riverbank. Autopsy and diatom examination demonstrated that the cause of death was drowning. He had undergone hypophysectomy 20 years earlier. Autopsy, pathological and endocrinological findings demonstrated secondary and chronic hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and adrenal insufficiency. The cadaver had fallen into the river, and received numerous wounds such as abrasions and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Moreover, it was suspected that he had developed hypothermia before death. Cortisol in the blood and 17- OHCS in urine were within the reference range. We suspect that the adrenocortical hormone was secreted into the blood as a result of various stresses due to wounds and hypothermia. However, it was suspected that sufficient hormone might not be secreted due to chronic adrenal insufficiency. This insufficient cortisol causes the decrease in the stress resistance, and might influence his cause of death. Moreover, as hypothyroidism decreases thermogenesis, he might have fallen into hypothermia easily. In addition, because both adrenocortical insufficiency and hypothyroidism caused the hypoglycemia, he might have fallen into the loss of consciousness. Therefore, it was considered that he had died by drowning, in relation to the adrenocortical insufficiency and panhypopituitarism.
    The Journal of Medical Investigation 03/2006; 53(1-2):183-7. DOI:10.2152/jmi.53.183
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we observed renal damage and peroxidative injury as the acute or sub-acute effect of methamphetamine (MA) to determine whether MA intoxication can be diagnosed from immunohistochemical changes in the kidney. In addition, renal function was investigated in relation to the immunohistochemical changes. A single administration of MA (group I) (50mg/kg/ (i.p.)) and repeated administration (group II) (10mg/kg/day (i.p.) for 5 days) were designed as an acute model and a sub-acute or chronic model. Immunohistochemically, cell damage markers were observed. Then, renal function markers and minerals in blood were measured. Myoglobin and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) in blood were also analyzed. In group I, ubiquitin immunoreactivity was enhanced only in the renal tubules. Creatinine increased, while K, Ca, and P decreased (P<0.01). CPK increased significantly (P<0.01). Therefore, it was suspected that MA might induce renal dysfunction with renal tubule damage. This damage might be related to leakage of CPK from muscle. In group II, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) increased immunohistochemically and quantitatively (P<0.01). It was considered that oxidative DNA damage might be induced by repeated administration. It was considered that this study offers basic information for the evaluation of pathological changes in the kidney in MA-related autopsy cases.
    Legal Medicine 02/2006; 8(1):16-21. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2005.07.003 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic neuronal injury induce degradation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). In addition to ischemia, postmortem brains show alterations in MAP2 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, suggesting that the factors inducing cytoskeletal disruption in postmortem brain are similar to those in ischemic brains. Hypothermia reduces the severity of ischemic injury including disruption of MAP2 in the hippocampus. However, whether hypothermia reduces postmortem changes of MAP2 was not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hypothermia on postmortem degradation of MAP2 in the human hippocampus at various postmortem intervals using immunohistochemistry. In postmortem brains without hypothermia (the normothermic group), the locus of MAP2 immunoreactivity moved from the dendrites to the cell bodies prior to becoming undetectable with increasing postmortem interval, particularly in the CA1-subiculum region. On the other hand, the change in MAP2 immunoreactivity was remarkably attenuated in brains of death from cold (the hypothermic group). The present study demonstrated that MAP2 disruption is remarkable in the CA1-subiculum region of autopsied brains and that hypothermia reduces the postmortem change of MAP2, as observed in ischemic brain. Therefore, immunostaining of MAP2 in the hippocampus could be used to diagnose hypothermia.
    Legal Medicine 11/2005; 7(5):340-344. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.08.003 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After prolonged toluene-inhalation (for 20 days) at the common abuse density (1500 ppm for 4 h per day), the effect of toluene on spermatogenesis in rats was investigated. Body weight was significantly decreased in the toluene group (P < 0.05). However, the weights of the testis and epididymis were maintained. To confirm whether the toluene-inhalation influences testis and epididymis as a stress factor; anti-70kD heat-shock protein (HSP70) and c-fos gene product (c-Fos) were observed. To observe the change of the cell division and the proliferation in spermatogenesis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were stained immunohistochemically, and apoptosis was also detected. There was no positive immunoreactivity for HSP70 or c-Fos. There was no significant difference in the PCNA-expression in both groups. It was considered that toluene-inhalation did not have a clear influence in the division of spermatogonium and spermatocytes. On in situ apoptosis detection, slightly enhanced signals were observed in the toluene-inhalation groups. This might have some influence on meiosis from spermatocyte to spermatid. However, in toluene-inhalation rats exposed to a common abuse density, it was considered that spermatogenesis was well maintained and not apparently damaged.
    Legal Medicine 01/2005; 7(1):42-6. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.07.005 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On a cold winter morning, a 35-year-old male was unexpectedly found dead and therefore autopsied. Macro- and microscopically, the lungs were demonstrated bronchopneumonia. On the surface of brain, small blood vessels were slightly congested. Microscopically, brain edema was also observed, and proliferation of lymphocytes was observed around the capillary vessels of the hippocampus. These findings suggested a viral infection of the cerebrum. We conducted an immunohistochemical study with antibody against influenza virus. Influenza A virus antigen was detected in both the lungs and brain. Therefore, findings were compatible with influenza A encephalopathy. Even when serological inspection is not performed, it is useful to inspect localization of the virus antigen immunohistochemically. We considered that it is necessary to perform pathological examination for influenza encephalopathy in sudden death cases when influenza is epidemic.
    Legal Medicine 11/2004; 6(4):252-5. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.05.003 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A putrefied cadaver of a middle-aged woman was found drifting in the 'Kii" water course. Autopsy findings indicated that the postmortem duration was about one week, and the cause of death was assumed to be drowning. In this case, a nail was collected as a sample for personal identification. After five months of police investigation, persons thought to be her family, husband and child, were found. A combination of D1S80 and the short tandem repeat (STR) typing system using an AmpFISTR Profiler PCR Amplification kit was performed for identification. Nine STRs (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820) and Amelogenin were analyzed by this kit. Those DNA typings successfully confirmed the family relation for personal identification of the cadaver. This analysis system may be useful for identification of a decomposed cadaver.
    The Journal of Medical Investigation 09/2004; 51(3-4):243-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Between 1996 and 2002, we tested a total of 20 unidentified bodies for DNA typing. We describe here the relationships among detection rates achieved by four DNA typing systems (D1S80 typing, TH01 typing, HLA DQA1 typing, and PM typings), the post-mortem interval, types of specimens (bone, nail, and blood), post-mortem changes, and the site at which the corpse was found (indoors, outdoor, or in the sea). Detection rates for PM typings, HLA DQA1 typing, TH01 typing, and D1S80 typing in all cases were 94.7, 90.0, 73.7, and 50.0%, respectively. The success of the typings was highly influenced by the post-mortem interval. Using blood, almost all DNA types were detected, while the nail showed comparatively higher detection rates than bone. The detection rate decreased in order with indoor, outdoor, sea, and soil as the site at which the corpse was found. It is important to consider the specimen, the site at which the corpse was found, and the post-mortem interval to successfully achieve DNA typing.
    Legal Medicine 08/2004; 6(3):143-50. DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.03.001 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Medical Investigation 01/2004; 51(3):243-246. DOI:10.2152/jmi.51.243
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that methamphetamine (MA) causes rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. We conducted an immunohistochemical study on the kidney of 22 forensic autopsy cases in which MA had been detected. Myoglobin was positive in 17 cases. The concentration of the blood MA in the myoglobin-positive cases (8.39+/-3.43 micromol/dl) was higher than -negative cases (0.198+/-0.076 micromol/dl). And, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also stained positively in five, ten, 11, nine cases of examined, respectively. In addition, 80% of HSP70-positive cases were myoglobin-positive. Myoglobin was also observed in 60% of 8-OH-dG-positive, in 82% of 4-HNE-positive, and in 78% of SOD-positive cases, respectively. Therefore, myoglobin rather than MA itself might induce oxidative damage. From these results, it was considered that MA abuse had caused the skeletal muscle damage before death. In forensic autopsy cases of drug abusers, the antemortem situation is not often known. The present research suggested that in addition to the measurement of the concentration of MA, immunohistochemical staining of myoglobin, HSP70, 8-OH-dG, 4-HNE, and SOD offers important information for the diagnosis of MA poisoning.
    Legal Medicine 04/2003; 5(1):42-8. DOI:10.1016/S1344-6223(03)00005-1 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of toluene inhalation on oxidative damage in rat organs was examined. Male Wistar rats was inhaled toluene (1500 ppm for 4 h a day) for 7 days. Quantitatively and immunohistochemically, oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. As a marker of the oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) immunoreactivity increased in the lung, liver and kidney. The amount of 8-OH-dG also increased in liver and kidney significantly. In the testis, the amount of 8-H-dG did not increase, however 8-OH-dG immunoreactivity enhanced in the spermatogonia. SOD immunoreactivity increased in the lung, liver and kidney. However, 4-hydroxy-nonenal immunoreactivity and the amount of LPO did not change in each organ. Thus, oxidative damage by toluene is mainly DNA damage, especially, the oxidative DNA damage observed in the lung, liver and kidney for the increase of the immunoreactivity and amount of 8-OH-dG.
    Legal Medicine 04/2003; 5(1):34-41. DOI:10.1016/S1344-6223(03)00004-X · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forensic autopsy cases detecting methamphetamine (MA) are usually diagnosed according to its toxicological concentration. It has been reported that the lethal blood concentration of MA is 4.48 microg/ml (3.0 micromol/dl). We autopsied two MA-detected cadavers, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on the skeletal muscle with an anti-myoglobin antibody, and on the kidney with an anti-the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) antibody. One case showed a high rectal temperature (40 degrees C). The toxicological examination revealed 0.75 microg/ml of MA in the blood, and 16.8 microg/ml in the urine. Myoglobin was negative and HSP70 was positive in the kidney immunohistochemically. From the toxicological and immunohistochemical findings, it was considered that the subject died of hyperthermia and acidosis caused by muscular hyperactivity. In another case, the autopsy revealed highly congested lungs, with dark-red bloody fluid and foam in the trachea and bronchus. MA (17.0 microg/ml) was detected in the blood. HSP70 was negative and myoglobin was positive immunohistochemically. It was thought that the subject died of acute MA intoxication based on the high MA concentration, although rhabdomyolysis was suspected. It is suggested that myoglobin and HSP70 immunostaining are useful to diagnose MA poisoning.
    The Journal of Medical Investigation 03/2003; 50(1-2):112-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Rats were exposed to toluene (1500 ppm for 4 h per day) for 7 days. After toluene inhalation, only granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were slightly shrunken. In the cerebellum, several Purkinje cells were shrunken and lost, and the white matter was thinner than in controls. Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-immunopositive filaments of neuronal processes were slightly disarrayed in the radial layer of the hippocampus, and were fragmented in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. It was considered that toluene induced neuronal changes both in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. To elucidate the effect of neurotrophic factors on those neuronal changes, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), transforming growth factor (TGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in rat brain were examined immunohistochemically. In control rats, TNF-alpha was not stained in either the hippocampus or the cerebellum, while TGF-beta1 was scarcely expressed in the cerebellum. GDNF was minimally expressed in the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. After toluene-treatment, TGF-beta1 was over-expressed in the endothelium of the capillary vessel walls in both regions. In the cerebellum, TNF-alpha was induced only in the granule cells, while GDNF expression was enhanced in the Purkinje cells. These data suggest that toluene induces astrocyte activation through TGF-beta1 upregulation, which then induces GDNF in the Purkinje cells and TNF-alpha in the granule cells of the cerebellum. The differences in the expression of the neurotrophic factors may account for neurobehavioral changes after toluene exposure.
    Legal Medicine 04/2002; 4(1):21-8. DOI:10.1016/S1344-6223(01)00058-X · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In head injury, assessing the damage not only to the cerebrum and the cerebellum but also to the brain stem is very important. In this paper, we report neuronal changes of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) in the brain stem. We investigated these changes immunohistochemically with antibodies against microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), c-fos gene product (c-Fos), and the 72 kD heat-shock protein (HSP70). We measured the percentage of immunopositive neurons among the total neurons of the ARC and the HN. The investigation of neuronal changes in relation to the type of head injury showed different results. In cases of tonsillar herniation, immunoreactivity to MAP2 and mAChR in the ARC was significantly lower than in the HN (p < 0.01). Moreover, MAP2, HSP70 and c-Fos reactivities in the ARC were significantly lower than in other types of head injuries (p < 0.01). In the HN, diffuse axonal injury produced slightly higher immunoreactivity to mAChR and c-Fos (p < 0.1). Our observations indicate that immunohistochemical examination of brain stem nuclei can provide useful information for estimating damage to the brain stem.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 12/2001; 115(3):121-7. DOI:10.1007/s004140000185 · 2.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

137 Citations
19.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2013
    • Fukuoka University
      • Department of Forensic Medicine
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2002–2010
    • The University of Tokushima
      • • Department of Forensic Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan