Jean Pierre Fouassier

Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhousen, Alsace, France

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Publications (216)441.21 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isoquinolinone derivatives (IQ) have been synthesized and combined with different additives (an amine, 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, an iodonium salt, or N-vinylcarbazole) to produce reactive species (i.e. radicals and cations) being able to initiate the radical polymerization of acrylates, the cationic polymerization of epoxides, the thiol-ene polymerization of trifunctional thiol/divinylether, and the synthesis of epoxide/acrylate interpenetrated polymer network IPN upon exposure to very soft polychromatic visible lights, blue laser diode or blue LED lights. Compared with the use of camphorquinone based systems, the novel combinations employed here ensures higher monomer conversions (∼50–60% vs. ∼15–35%) and better polymerization rates in radical polymerization. The chemical mechanisms are studied by steady-state photolysis, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, and electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 12/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naphthalimide-phthalimide derivatives (NDPDs) have been synthesized and combined with an iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, amine or 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine to produce reactive species (i.e., radicals and cations). These generated reactive species are capable of initiating the cationic polymerization of epoxides and/or the radical polymerization of acrylates upon exposure to very soft polychromatic visible lights or blue lights. Compared with the well-known camphorquinone based systems used as references, the novel NDPD based combinations employed here demonstrate clearly higher efficiencies for the cationic polymerization of epoxides under air as well as the radical polymerization of acrylates. Remarkably, one of the NDPDs (i.e., NDPD2) based systems is characterized by an outstanding reactivity. The structure/reactivity/efficiency relationships of the investigated NDPDs were studied by fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, electron spin resonance spin trapping, and steady state photolysis techniques. The key parameters for their reactivity are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 12/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two naphthalimide derivatives containing tertiary amine groups are synthesized.•Specific photoinitiating systems under LED at 365, 385, 395 and 405 nm.•High-performance photoinitiating systems for radical and cationic polymerization.
    Polymer. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A benzophenone-naphthalimide derivative (BPND) bearing tertiary amine groups has been developed as a high-performance photoinitiator in combination with 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine or an iodonium salt for both the free radical polymerization (FRP) of acrylates and the cationic polymerization (CP) of epoxides upon exposure to near UV and visible LEDs (385–470 nm). BPND can even produce radicals without any added hydrogen donor. The photochemical mechanisms are studied by molecular orbital calculations, steady state photolysis, electron spin resonance spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry and laser flash photolysis techniques. These novel BPND based photoinitiating systems exhibit an efficiency higher than that of the well-known camphorquinone-based systems (FRP and CP) or comparable to that of bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phenylphosphineoxide (FRP at λ ≤ 455 nm). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 11/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Six iron complexes (FeCs) with various ligands have been designed and synthesized. In combination with additives (e.g., iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, amine, or chloro triazine), the FeC-based systems are able to efficiently generate radicals, cations, and radical cations on a near UV or visible light-emitting diode (LED) exposure. These systems are characterized by an unprecedented reactivity, that is, for very low content 0.02% FeC-based systems is still highly efficient in photopolymerization contrary to the most famous reference systems (Bisacylphosphine oxide) illustrating the performance of the proposed catalytic approach. This work paves the way for polymerization in soft conditions (e.g., on LED irradiation). These FeC-based systems exhibit photocatalytic properties, undergo the formation of radicals, radical cations, and cations and can operate through oxidation or/and reduction cycles. The photochemical mechanisms for the formation of the initiating species are studied using steady state photolysis, cyclic voltammetry, electron spin resonance spin trapping, and laser flash photolysis techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 10/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 10/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [N,N′-Bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine]zinc(II) (ZnC) exhibits unexpected properties as a photoinitiator or additive for both free-radical photopolymerization reactions and in situ formation of Zn-based fillers under light activation and aerated conditions. The ZnC/2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) and ZnC/N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) couples are characterized by remarkable properties: (i) a photoinitiating efficiency for the radical polymerization of an acrylate matrix under air higher than that of a reference Type I photoinitiator such as DMPA (final conversion of 30–45% vs. 15%) and therefore a good ability to overcome the oxygen inhibition effect and (ii) a never reported in situ formation of Zn-based fillers (100 μm thick sticks) or composites. The photochemical properties of the ZnC are investigated by fluorescence and UV-visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The photodecomposition of ZnC under air is governed by either an addition of peroxyl radicals onto ZnC when associated with DMPA, or a H-abstraction mechanism when combined with MDEA. When using a ZnC/MDEA/silver salt photoinitiating system, a highly efficient polymerization of the acrylate matrix under air and a concomitant in situ production of Ag(0) NPs are observed.
    Polym. Chem. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: 2-(4-Methoxystyryl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine (R–Cl) appears as a versatile high-performance photoinitiator (PI) under LED exposure at 385, 395 or 405 nm (intensities in the range 9–140 mW cm−2). It has been used as an efficient Type I cleavable PI for the free radical photopolymerization (FRP) of (meth)acrylates under near UV or visible LED irradiation. When combined with various additives (i.e. amine, iodonium salt, or N-vinylcarbazole), the R–Cl based photoinitiating systems can exhibit an even higher efficiency than R–Cl alone. Remarkably, R–Cl alone as well as the R–Cl/additive systems lead to a photoinitiation ability for the FRP of methacrylate under air at 405 nm that is better than that of well-known commercial photoinitiators (e.g. bisacylphosphine oxide (BAPO), 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide (TPO), or 2-benzyl-2-dimethylamino-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-butanone-1 (BDMB)). In addition, the R–Cl/iodonium salt/N-vinylcarbazole combination can also initiate the cationic polymerization of epoxides in the 385–405 nm range. Moreover, the photochemistry of these systems has been investigated by steady state photolysis, molecular orbital (MO) calculations, and electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques.
    Polym. Chem. 07/2014;
  • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 07/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three copper complexes (E1, G1, and G2) with different ligands in combination with an iodonium salt (and optionally another additive) were used to generate radicals upon soft visible light exposure (e.g., polychromatic visible light from a halogen lamp, laser diodes at 405 and 457 nm, LEDs at 405 and 455 nm). This approach can be worthwhile and versatile to initiate free radical photopolymerization, ring-opening cationic photopolymerization, and the synthesis of interpenetrating polymer networks. The photochemical mechanisms for the production of initiating radicals are studied using cyclic voltammetry, electron spin resonance spin trapping, steady state photolysis, and laser flash photolysis techniques. The photoinitiation ability of the copper complexes based photoinitiating systems are evaluated using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. G1 and G2 are better than the well-known camphorquinone (CQ)-based systems (i.e., TMPTA conversion = 18%, 35%, 48%, and 39% with CQ/iodonium salt, CQ/amine, G1/iodonium salt, and G2/iodonium salt, respectively; halogen lamp exposure). Interestingly, some of these systems are also better than the well-known type I phosphine oxide photoinitiator (BAPO) clearly showing their high performance. These copper complexes can be used as highly efficient catalysts in photoredox catalysis.
    Macromolecules 06/2014; 47(12):3837–3844. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three novel photoinitiators, namely (2,2′-bithiophen-5-yl)(4-(N,N′- dimethylaminophenyl)ketone, 5,10-dimethoxybenzo[j]fluoranthene and 6,6′-(((1E,1′E)- (2,5-bis(octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl))bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(1,3,5-triazine- 2,4-diamine) applicable to different near UV or visible LEDs (385 nm, 395 nm, 405 nm or cold white LED) have been developed. When incorporated into multicomponent photoinitiating systems PISs (in the presence of iodonium salt (and optionally N-vinyl carbazole) or amine/alkyl halide couples), they exhibit quite excellent photoinitiating abilities for the cationic polymerization CP of epoxides or the free radical polymerization FRP of methacrylates under air. Compared to the corresponding camphorquinone-based systems, the newly developed photoinitiating systems display noticeably higher polymerization efficiencies under air (epoxide conversions = 31−55% vs ∼0%, halogen lamp exposure; methacrylate conversion = 56−66% vs 0−8%, LED irradiation). These systems are very interesting to overcome the oxygen inhibition. The photochemical mechanisms have been studied by steady state photolysis, electron spin resonance spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and laser flash photolysis techniques
    Macromolecules 05/2014; 47:2811−2819. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perylene derivatives (PTCTE, BPTI and DPPDI) combined with an iodonium salt or an amine (and optionally an additive) are used as photoinitiating systems to initiate the cationic polymerization (CP) of epoxides, the free radical polymerization (FRP) of acrylates, or the thiol-ene polymerization (TEP) of a trithiol/divinylether mixture under different irradiation sources i.e. very soft halogen lamp or laser diodes at 473 nm or 457 nm (blue light). Upon a blue light exposure, the PTCTE based systems are very efficient for CP and FRP and better than the camphorquinone (CQ) based reference systems. Interestingly, the combination of PTCTE with previously studied green light and red light sensitive perylene derivatives and an iodonium salt ensures the manufacture of a panchromatic thiol-ene polymerizable film (400 – 650 nm) usable under various household LED bulbs irradiations (i.e. blue, green, yellow or red lights). The photochemical mechanisms are studied by steady state photolysis, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis and electron spin resonance spin-trapping techniques.
    European Polymer Journal 04/2014; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The monomeric (DPPDT) and polymeric (PDQT) diketopyrrolopyrrole–thiophene derivatives combined with an iodonium salt or an amine (and optionally an additive) are used as photoinitiating systems to initiate the cationic polymerization of epoxides or divinyl ethers, radical polymerization of acrylates and thiol–ene polymerization under different irradiation sources (i.e. very soft halogen lamp, laser diodes at 473 nm, 532 nm and 808 nm). The DPPDT based systems are very efficient upon the green light exposure. Remarkably, these systems are characterized by a higher efficiency than references based on camphorquinone, a well known photosensitizer for visible light. The photochemical mechanisms are studied by steady state photolysis, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis and electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques.
    Polym. Chem. 03/2014; 5(7).
  • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 03/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Yue Qi, Haoyu Li, Jean Pierre Fouassier, Jacques Lalevée, John T Sheridan
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    ABSTRACT: Dyes often act as the photoinitiator PI/photosensitizer PS in photopolymer materials and are therefore of significant interest. The properties of the PI/PS used strongly influences grating formation when the material layer is exposed holographically. In this paper, the ability of a recently synthesized dye, D_1, to sensitize an acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA) based photopolymer is examined, and the material performance is characterized using an extended nonlocal photopolymerization-driven diffusion model. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping (ESR-ST) experiments are also carried out to characterize the generation of the initiator/primary radical, R<sup>•</sup>, during exposure. The results obtained are then compared with those for the corresponding situation when using a xanthene dye, i.e., erythrosine B, under the same experiment conditions. The results indicate that the nonlocal effect is greater when this new photosensitizer is used in the material. Analysis indicates that this is the case because of the dye's (D_1) weak absorptivity and the resulting slow rate of primary radical production.
    Applied Optics 02/2014; 53(6):1052-62. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative based dyes (DPP), combined with an iodonium salt or an amine (and optionally an additive), are studied as photoinitiating systems for the cationic polymerization CP of epoxides or the free radical polymerization FRP of acrylates under different irradiation sources i.e. a very soft halogen lamp as well as laser diodes at 473 nm (blue light) and 532 nm (green light). The diketopyrrolopyrrole-furan derivative (FuDPP) is very efficient in CP. The structure/reactivity/efficiency relationships in this series of DPP derivatives are investigated. A comparison with a well known reference for visible light photoinitiating system (i.e. camphorquinone based photoinitiating system) is also provided showing the better efficiency of the new proposed structures. The photochemical mechanisms are studied by steady state photolysis, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis and electron spin resonance spin-trapping techniques.
    Polymer 02/2014; 55(3):746–751. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel naphthalene derivatives have been designed to be used as versatile photoinitiators upon a laser diode (405 nm), a polychromatic halogen lamp, or an UV LED (385 nm) exposure. The reactive species produced from photoinitiating systems based on one particular naphthalene derivative (NA3) and an iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, an amine or 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine were particularly efficient for cationic, radical, IPN and thiol–ene photopolymerizations upon low light intensity exposure. The best proposed systems exhibit a higher efficiency than references systems for visible lights (i.e., camphorquinone CQ-based photoinitiating systems). The mechanisms for the photochemical generation of reactive species (i.e., radicals and cations) were studied by electron spin resonance spin-trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, and steady state photolysis techniques.
    01/2014; 47(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Although there have been many reports on photoinitiating systems adapted to visible lights for radical photopolymerization, the challenge for the design and development of photoinitiating systems for cationic photopolymerization or concomitant radical/cationic photopolymerization (for interpenetrating polymer network IPN synthesis) with visible lights still remains open. Particularly, the recent development of cheap and easily accessible LEDs operating upon soft visible light irradiations has opened new fields for polymer synthesis. Since 2011, many novel photoinitiating systems based on organic and organometallic compounds with excellent visible light absorption have emerged and exhibited outstanding photoinitiating abilities especially for cationic photopolymerization. In this review, recent progress (mainly from 2011 to early 2014) in applications of photoinitiators and sensitive photoinitiating systems under visible lights are reported. In addition, their relative efficiencies in the photopolymerization of different monomers are exemplified and discussed.
    Progress in Polymer Science. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Novel naphthalimide derivatives (or naphthalic anhydride derivatives) have been prepared and combined with an iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, amines or 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine to produce radicals and cations upon exposure to low intensity blue lights (e.g., a household blue LED bulb). The photochemical mechanisms are studied by electron spin resonance spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, and steady state photolysis techniques. The naphthalimide derivatives (ND4) or the naphthalic anhydride derivative (ND10) based photoinitiating systems are particularly efficient for cationic, radical and thiol–ene photopolymerizations; the synthesis of interpenetrated polymer networks IPNs can also be easily carried out. Compared to camphorquinone/amine or camphorquinone/iodonium salt, the new proposed combinations appear as highly versatile and high performance visible light photoinitiating systems. Some of these photoinitiating systems can also be used for UV LED irradiations (e.g., 365, 385, or 395 nm).
    12/2013; 47(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Newly synthesized indanedione derivatives combined with an iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, amine, phenacyl bromide, or 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine have been used as photoinitiating systems upon very low visible light intensities: blue lights (e.g., household blue LED bulb at 462 nm) or even a halogen lamp exposure. One of them (ID2) is particularly efficient for cationic, radical and thiol–ene photopolymerizations as well as for the synthesis of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs). It can be useful to overcome the oxygen inhibition. ID2 based photoinitiating systems can also be selected for the reduction of Ag+ and the in situ formation of Ag(0) nanoparticles in the synthesized polymers. The (photo)chemical mechanisms are studied by electron spin resonance spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, and steady state photolysis techniques.
    Macromolecules 12/2013; 47(1):26–34. · 5.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

707 Citations
441.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2010
    • Université de Haute-Alsace
      • Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse : IS2M
      Mulhousen, Alsace, France
  • 1992
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1988
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Ingeniería Química
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile