[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: metronomic chemotherapy is based on antiangiogenic and immunologic mechanisms obtained by the ad-
ministration of traditional cytotoxic drugs at lower concentration without rest periods. The low dosage induces fewer or
no side effect compared to classic maximum tolerated dose administration (MTD). At present, no treatment related
acute leukaemia was reported in cyclophosphamide-based metronomic chemotherapy (CMC). Case: We report the case
of an 81-year-old man considered as having castration and chemo-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. CMC was
started. Objective response was observed in this heavily pre-treated patient with progression free survival lasting more
than 30 months. No toxicity was observed in this period and his autonomy was maintained. Finally, our patient develo-
ped a chemotherapy-induced acute myeloid leukaemia at 36th month of CMC. Conclusion: Even CMC is a well-tole-
rated treatment; secondary acute leukaemia is related to cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide. The benefit and the risk
of long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide should be carefully balanced.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare liver mesenchymatous tumor with an epithelial aspect developed from endothelial cells with a lack of validated therapeutic options at metastatic stage. Metronomic chemotherapy has been described as an anti-angiogenic therapy leading to the depletion of circulating endothelial progenitors. We report the results of two patients treated for metastatic hemangioendothelioma with metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Following initiation of metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50mg once a day continuously), the two patients exhibited significant clinical improvement and decrease in metastasis size without any clinically relevant side-effect. Metronomic cyclophosphamide could be proposed as a new therapeutic option to treat metastatic hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1) are involved in antitumor immunity. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CX3CR1 gene, V249I and T280M, have been associated with reduced fractalkine signaling characterized by decreased adhesive function, signaling, and chemotaxis of leukocytes. We hypothesized that a renal transplant recipient (RTR) carrying the homozygous I249M280 genotype could experience more cancer due to lower CX3CL1-dependent antitumorigenic effects. METHODS: We studied the association between these polymorphisms and cancer incidence in two independent cohorts of RTR, including a total of 622 patients. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 8.7 and 7.9 years for the first and second cohorts, respectively. Analysis of 622 patients identified 20 (3.2%) I249M280 homozygous patients, 321 (51.6%) V249T280 homozygous patients, and 281 (45.2%) heterozygous patients. I249M280 homozygotes have an independent increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.3 [1.04-10.52], P=0.043 for cohort 1 and 9.2 [1.67-50.91], P=0.011 for cohort 2) compared with other patients. Age and male gender were also risk factors for cancer occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: CX3CR1 gene polymorphism is associated with a higher rate of cancer in RTRs. Such findings may be used to influence immunosuppressive strategies and optimize patient management.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cancer patients with CD4 lymphopenia have an increased risk of severe toxicity after administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The impact of CD4 lymphopenia on long term overall survival (OS) of cancer patients was explored in this work. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first prospective series (test series) included 219 patients with solid tumours, lymphomas or myelomas receiving chemotherapy within an oncology department in 1999 and 2000. A phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed before chemotherapy on day 1. The prognostic value of total, CD4, CD8 and CD56 lymphocyte count for OS was tested in a multivariate analysis. The prognostic value of low CD4 counts was then tested in a validation series of 269 patients with metastatic solid tumours in second line treatment included in a prospective observational study in the Centre Leon Berard. RESULTS: In the test series, all patients with metastatic cancers and CD4 lymphopenia ⩽200/μL (12% of metastatic patients) died within 18months with a median OS of 5.9months. CD4 count was an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS in multivariate analysis. In the validation series, 83 (30%) of patients had CD4 count ⩽200/μL: their median overall survival was 3.9months with an 18-month survival rate of 6%. CD4 count was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in this series. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 lymphopenia <200/μL is frequent in advanced cancer patients and associated with a very short life expectancy. These patients should be proposed for specific treatment and research approaches.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in a KRAS-independent manner. Phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with anti-EGFR-containing salvage chemotherapy has never been investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first endpoint of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of pSTAT3 on the time to progression (TTP) in 94 patients with mCRC treated with anti-EGFR-based therapies in the second- or third-line setting between July 2004 and November 2009. The influence of pSTAT3 on objective response rate and overall survival (OS) was also reported. Nuclear expression of pSTAT3 status was evaluated by immunohistochemical tests on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples obtained before therapy. RESULTS: Positive expression of pSTAT3 was observed in 24.5% of the tumor samples. The probability of achieving an objective response was 13% among patients with positive nuclear expression of pSTAT3 compared with 41% for patients displaying pSTAT3-negative tumors (P = .02). In a multivariate logistic regression model, high-grade skin rash, wild-type KRAS status, and negative pSTAT3 status significantly improved TTP and OS. CONCLUSION: These results underscore an impact of pSTAT3 on the clinical efficacy of anti-EGFR-containing chemotherapy regimens and support the prospective assessment of this biomarker.
Clinical Colorectal Cancer 10/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in carcinogenesis is controversial. We studied whether CMV may contribute to cancer occurrence in renal transplant recipients. We studied a prospective cohort of 455 consecutive patients who received a kidney transplant between January 1995 and December 2006. All cancers and types of cancers were assessed. Lymphocyte phenotype and cytokines production were analysed according to CMV status in a subset population of this cohort. Mean follow-up was 84 ± 29 months. One hundred and nineteen cancers (26.2%) occurred during the study follow-up. There was a higher cumulated incidence of cancers in CMV-exposed patients (30.4% vs. 20%; P=0.018). Mean time to cancer occurrence was shorter in CMV-exposed patients than in CMV-naïve patients (4.7 ± 2.6 vs. 6.7 ± 2.8; P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that both pretransplant CMV exposure (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.17-2.88; P = 0.009) and post-transplant CMV replication (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.02-4.59; P = 0.044) were risk factors for cancer. Among CD8+ T cells, exhausted T cells assessed as CD57+CD28- were expanded in CMV-exposed patients (26 ± 20 vs. 9 ± 8%; P < 0.0001), whereas CD8+CD57+IL2- cells were more frequent in CMV-exposed patients. Our results highly suggest that CMV increases the risk of cancer after transplantation.
Transplant International 07/2012; 25(9):948-55. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castration resistant prostate cancer occurs when patients experience disease progression despite appropriate hormonal manipulations. In these patients, chemotherapy remains standard treatment. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated the potential utility of an immunotherapy-based approach for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC). The phase III trial (IMPACT) has recently reported an advantage for Sipuleucel-T over placebo, with an overall survival 4.1 months superior to placebo. Sipuleucel-T is also the first FDA-approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. These promising results need to be confirmed with other large studies and within previous step of PC. Neoplasic cells can escape immune responses by multiple mechanisms. A better knowledge of these mechanisms is of major concern for the future development of new immunotherapies approach.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Th17 cells are known to promote tissue inflammation and autoimmunity, their role during cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we showed that in vitro Th17 cells generated with the cytokines IL-6 and TGF-β expressed CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases, leading to adenosine release and the subsequent suppression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell effector functions. The IL-6-mediated activation of the transcription factor Stat3 and the TGF-β-driven downregulation of Gfi-1 transcription factor were both essential for the expression of ectonucleotidases during Th17 cell differentiation. Stat3 supported whereas Gfi-1 repressed CD39 and CD73 expression by binding to their promoters. Accordingly, Th17 cells differentiated with IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 but without TGF-β did not express ectonucleotidases and were not immunosuppressive. Finally, adoptive transfer of Th17 cells induced by TGF-β and IL-6 promoted tumor growth in a CD39-dependent manner. Thus, ectonucleotidase expression supports the immunosuppressive fate of Th17 cells in cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of KRAS mutations has become a prerequisite for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancers. KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to treatment by monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and panitumumab and thus are correlated with a shorter progression-free survival. BRAF mutations also may play a role in treatment decisions. The widespread use of these targeted therapies has generated the need to develop cost-effective methods for routine KRAS and BRAF analysis. The aim of this study was to compare a multiplex SNaPshot assay with DNA sequencing and high-resolution melting analysis for identifying KRAS codons 12 and 13 and BRAF codon 600 mutations. Thus 110 routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were tested by each method. The SNaPshot analysis detected KRAS and BRAF codon 600 mutations in, respectively, 34.5% (n = 38) and 10% (n = 11) of these tissue blocks. These results were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing and by high-resolution melting analysis. The costs and time constraints of each detection method were compared at the same time. In conclusion, our newly designed multiplex SNaPshot assay is a fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and robust technique for molecular diagnostic practices and patient selection.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 09/2011; 13(5):485-92. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia after polyclonal antithymocyte globulins (ATG) is associated with an increased rate of cancers. Here, we examined whether pre-transplant thymic function estimated by TREC levels is predictive of cancer occurrence following ATG treatment.
The impact of TREC on cancer occurrence was analyzed in 115 consecutive incident renal transplant recipients having received ATG.
Mean follow-up was 7.5±2.6years. After ATG induction, patients with the lowest pre-transplant TREC values had lower post-transplant CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD45RA(+) CD45RO(-) T cell counts, and a higher frequency of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (CD127(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)). Log-transformed pre-transplant TREC values were significantly lower in patients who developed cancer after transplantation (p<0.0001). The cumulative incidence of cancer was higher in patients having the lowest pre-transplant TREC values (T1 [low]: 47.4%, T2 [medium]: 12.5%, and T3 [high]: 2.7%; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, pre-transplant TREC value was the only predictive factor of cancer (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.97, for one log (TREC/10(6) PBMC); p=0.046).
Pre-transplant thymic function is associated with an increased rate of post-transplant cancer in patients having received ATG. Omitting ATG in recipients with low pre-transplant TREC values should be considered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of natural killer group 2, member D receptor (NKG2D)-expressing natural killer (NK) cells in tumor immunosurveillance is now well established. Nevertheless, tumor progression occurs despite tumor immunosurveillance, leading to cancer persistence in immunocompetent hosts. STAT3 plays a pivotal role both in oncogenic functions and in immunosuppression. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 in suppressing NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance. Using a colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) that can poorly activate NK, we neutralized STAT3 with pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA and found that this led to an increase in NK degranulation and IFN-γ production in a TGF-β1-independent manner. Exposure to NKG2D-neutralizing antibodies partially restored STAT3 activity, suggesting that it prevented NKG2D-mediated NK cell activation. On this basis, we investigated the expression of NKG2D ligands after STAT3 activation in HT29, mesenchymal stem cells, and activated lymphocytes. The NK cell recognition receptor MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) was upregulated following STAT3 neutralization, and a direct interaction between STAT3 and the MICA promoter was identified. Because cross-talk between DNA damage repair and NKG2D ligand expression has been shown, we assessed the influence of STAT3 on MICA expression under conditions of genotoxic stress. We found that STAT3 negatively regulated MICA expression after irradiation or heat shock, including in lymphocytes activated by CD3/CD28 ligation. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for STAT3 in NK cell immunosurveillance by modulating the MICA expression in cancer cells.
Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(5):1615-26. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropilins, initially characterized as neuronal receptors, act as co-receptors for cancer related growth factors and were recently involved in several signaling pathways leading to cytoskeletal organization, angiogenesis and cancer progression. Then, we sought to investigate the ability of neuropilin-2 to orchestrate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells. Using specific siRNA to target neuropilin-2 expression, or gene transfer, we first observed that neuropilin-2 expression endows HT29 and Colo320 for xenograft formation. Moreover, neuropilin-2 conferred a fibroblastic-like shape to cancer cells, suggesting an involvement of neuropilin-2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Indeed, the presence of neuropilin-2 in colorectal carcinoma cell lines was correlated with loss of epithelial markers such as cytokeratin-20 and E-cadherin and with acquisition of mesenchymal molecules such as vimentin. Furthermore, we showed by surface plasmon resonance experiments that neuropilin-2 is a receptor for transforming-growth factor-β1. The expression of neuropilin-2 on colon cancer cell lines was indeed shown to promote transforming-growth factor-β1 signaling, leading to a constitutive phosphorylation of the Smad2/3 complex. Treatment with specific TGFβ-type1 receptor kinase inhibitors restored E-cadherin levels and inhibited in part neuropilin-2-induced vimentin expression, suggesting that neuropilin-2 cooperates with TGFβ-type1 receptor to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells. Our results suggest a direct role of NRP2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and highlight a cross-talk between neuropilin-2 and TGF-β1 signaling to promote cancer progression. These results suggest that neuropilin-2 fulfills all the criteria of a therapeutic target to disrupt multiple oncogenic functions in solid tumors.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e20444. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent investigations highlighted strong similarities between neural crest migration during embryogenesis and metastatic processes. Indeed, some families of axon guidance molecules were also reported to participate in cancer invasion: plexins/semaphorins/neuropilins, ephrins/Eph receptors, netrin/DCC/UNC5. Neuropilins (NRPs) are transmembrane non tyrosine-kinase glycoproteins first identified as receptors for class-3 semaphorins. They are particularly involved in neural crest migration and axonal growth during development of the nervous system. Since many types of tumor and endothelial cells express NRP receptors, various soluble molecules were also found to interact with these receptors to modulate cancer progression. Among them, angiogenic factors belonging to the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) family seem to be responsible for NRP-related angiogenesis. Because NRPs expression is often upregulated in cancer tissues and correlated with poor prognosis, NRPs expression might be considered as a prognostic factor. While NRP1 was intensively studied for many years and identified as an attractive angiogenesis target for cancer therapy, the NRP2 signaling pathway has just recently been studied. Although NRP genes share 44% homology, differences in their expression patterns, ligands specificities and signaling pathways were observed. Indeed, NRP2 may regulate tumor progression by several concurrent mechanisms, not only angiogenesis but lymphangiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. In view of their multiples functions in cancer promotion, NRPs fulfill all the criteria of a therapeutic target for innovative anti-tumor therapies. This review focuses on NRP-specific roles in tumor progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated as an oncogene in several neoplastic diseases. However, the biological effects of STAT3 have not been extensively studied in rectal carcinogenesis.
To evaluate STAT3 activation in advanced rectal cancers and its association with clinicopathological variables and prognosis.
Nuclear immunohistochemical expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) was studied in 104 advanced rectal cancers (T3-T4). All patients were participating in the EORTC 22921 trial to assess whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by postoperative chemotherapy improved overall and progression-free survival.
Nuclear p-STAT3 expression was detected in 37.5% of rectal cancer patients. No correlation was observed between p-STAT3 and any clinicopathological variables tested. However, patients with tumours positive for p-STAT3 had significantly improved overall survival.
These results highlight an unexpected role for nuclear p-STAT3 expression in advanced rectal cancers and need further investigation to clarify this finding.
Journal of clinical pathology 10/2010; 63(10):873-8. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human CD20 is a B-cell lineage-specific marker expressed by normal and leukemic B cells from the pre-B to the plasma-cell stages and is a target for rituximab (RTX) immunotherapy. A CD20 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on B-cell lines cDNA yielded a short PCR product (DeltaCD20) corresponding to a spliced mRNA transcript linking the exon 3 and exon 7 ends. We established here that this novel, alternatively spliced CD20 transcript is expressed and detectable at various levels in leukemic B cells, lymphoma B cells, in vivo tonsil- or in vitro CD40L-activated B cells, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells, but not in resting CD19(+)- or CD20(+)-sorted B cells from peripheral blood or bone marrow of healthy donors. The truncated CD20 sequence is within the reading frame, codes a protein of 130 amino acids ( approximately 15-17 kDa) lacking large parts of the 4 transmembrane segments, suggesting that DeltaCD20 is a nonanchored membrane protein. We demonstrated the translation into a DeltaCD20 protein which is associated with the membrane CD20 protein and showed its involvement in RTX resistance. Study of patient samples before and after RTX resistance or escape confirms our in vitro findings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been identified in humans and mice as a population of immature myeloid cells with the ability to suppress T cell activation. They accumulate in tumor-bearing mice and humans and have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Here, we have isolated tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) from mouse cell lines and shown that an interaction between TDE-associated Hsp72 and MDSCs determines the suppressive activity of the MDSCs via activation of Stat3. In addition, tumor-derived soluble factors triggered MDSC expansion via activation of Erk. TDE-associated Hsp72 triggered Stat3 activation in MDSCs in a TLR2/MyD88-dependent manner through autocrine production of IL-6. Importantly, decreasing exosome production using dimethyl amiloride enhanced the in vivo antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide in 3 different mouse tumor models. We also demonstrated that this mechanism is relevant in cancer patients, as TDEs from a human tumor cell line activated human MDSCs and triggered their suppressive function in an Hsp72/TLR2-dependent manner. Further, MDSCs from cancer patients treated with amiloride, a drug used to treat high blood pressure that also inhibits exosome formation, exhibited reduced suppressor functions. Collectively, our findings show in both mice and humans that Hsp72 expressed at the surface of TDEs restrains tumor immune surveillance by promoting MDSC suppressive functions.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2010; 120(2):457-71. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue releases angiogenic factors that may promote tumour growth.
To determine whether body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) are associated with outcomes in patients given first-line bevacizumab-based treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (MCC). Patients CT was used to measure SFA and VFA in 120 patients with MCC who received bevacizumab-based treatment (bevacizumab group, n=80) or chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group, n=40) as first-line treatment. Associations linking BMI, SFA and VFA to tumour response, time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.
In the bevacizumab group, median follow-up lasted for 24 months (3-70). BMI, SFA and VFA values above the median (ie, high BMI, high VFA and high SFA) were significantly associated with absence of a response. TTP was shorter in patients with high BMI (9 vs 12 months; p=0.01) or high VFA (9 vs 14 months; p=0.0008). High VFA was associated with shorter OS (p=0.0493). By multivariate analysis, high VFA was independently associated with response, TTP and OS (HR=7.18, p=0.008, HR=5.79, p=0.005 and HR=2.88, p=0.027, respectively). In the chemotherapy group, median follow-up lasted for 30 months (4-84). BMI, SFA and VFA were not associated with response, TTP or OS. In the whole population, interaction between VFA and bevacizumab administration was significant for response (OR=3.31, p=0.005) and TTP (HR=1.64, p=0.022), thereby confirming the results.
This study provides the first evidence that high VFA independently predicts a poorer outcome in patients given first-line bevacizumab-based treatment for MCC. However, this predictive biomarker needs to be validated in a different dataset.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)-bearing patients treated with imatinib mesylate (IM) are variable. Other than the site of mutation within the c-kit gene, prognostic features of GIST remain undefined. IM can exhibit off-target effects such as triggering natural killer (NK) cell activity. We addressed whether NK cell functions could predict long term survival with IM. NK cell functions were followed up in 77 GIST patients enrolled onto two phase III trials. "Immunologic responders" were defined as patients whose NK cell IFN-gamma values after 2 months of IM were higher than or equal to the baseline value at entry into the trial. The prognostic effect of IFN-gamma on progression-free survival was assessed by a Wald test in a Cox regression analysis using the landmark method and stratified by trial and on the c-kit mutational status. Fifty-six patients were evaluable for the NK cell IFN-gamma responses at baseline and 2 months. Their median follow-up for progression-free survival was 3.7 years. Thirty-four of 56 patients were immunologic responders to IM. In the Cox regression analysis, immunologic responders possessed a hazard ratio of progression or death equal to 0.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.70; P = 0.006) compared with nonresponders. Kaplan-Meier 2-year survival estimates were 85% for immunologic responders and 50% for nonresponders. Moreover, the immunologic response added prognostic value to the c-kit mutation. The NK cell IFN-gamma production after 2 months of treatment could be considered an independent predictor of long term survival in advanced GISTs treated with IM.
Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(8):3563-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor