[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefit of preoperative chemotherapy in resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas was not observed in signet ring cell subtype. However, the potential interest of taxane-based preoperative chemotherapy on this subtype is still an unresolved issue. Nineteen patients with localized signet ring cell adenocarcinomas received taxane-based regimens, and 17 patients underwent surgery. Complete resection was achieved in 80 %, and median overall survival was 40.8 months (95 % confidence interval (CI), 20.2—not reached). Even though one patient achieved a complete pathological response, seven patients had an upstaging of their tumors at surgery. The potential benefits of taxane-based chemotherapy seem to be limited to a reduced number of patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13045-015-0148-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report and investigate the genomic alterations of two novel cases of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multisystem disorder caused by 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. Additionally, we report the case of a child with NHL and a somatic 7q11.23 deletion. Although the WBS critical region has not yet been identified as a susceptibility locus in NHL, it harbors a number of genes involved in DNA repair. The high proportion of pediatric NHL reported in WBS is intriguing. Therefore, the role of haploinsufficiency of genes located at 7q11.23 in lymphomagenesis deserves to be investigated.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0082-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer-specific splice variants gain significant interest as they generate neo-antigens that could be targeted by immune cells. CD20, a membrane antigen broadly expressed in mature B cells and in B cell lymphomas, is subject to an alternative splicing named D393-CD20 leading to loss of membrane expression of the spliced isoform. D393-CD20 expression is detectable in transformed B cells and upregulated in various lymphoma B cells. In this study, we show that D393-CD20 is translated in malignant B cells and that D393-CD20 specific CD4 T cells producing IFN-γ are present in B-cell lymphoma patients. Then we have investigated whether the 20mer D393-CD20 peptide spanning the splicing site might be targeted by the immune system and we have shown that D393-CD20-specific CD4 Th1 clones could directly recognize malignant B cell lines and kill autologous lymphoma B cells indicating that D393-CD20-derived epitopes are naturally processed and presented on tumor cells. Finally, D393-CD20 peptide-based vaccination induced specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses in HLA-humanized transgenic mice suggesting the presentation of D393-CD20 derived peptides on both HLA class-I and -II. These findings support further investigations on the potential use of D393-CD20 directed specific immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Cancer 11/2014; 137(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29366 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report and investigate the genomic alterations of two novel cases of Non-Hodgkin¿s Lymphoma (NHL) in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multisystem disorder caused by 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. Additionally, we report the case of a child with NHL and a somatic 7q11.23 deletion. Although the WBS critical region has not yet been identified as a susceptibility locus in NHL, it harbors a number of genes involved in DNA repair. The high proportion of pediatric NHL reported in WBS is intriguing. Therefore, the role of haploinsufficiency of genes located at 7q11.23 in lymphomagenesis deserves to be investigated.
American Society of Human Genetics, 2014, Annual Meeting, San Diego; 10/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There are several reports demonstrating the role of CD8 T cells against Leishmania species. Therefore peptide vaccine might represent an effective approach to control the infection. We developed a rational polytope-DNA construct encoding immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides and validated the processing and presentation of encoded epitopes in a preclinical mouse model humanized for the MHC-class-I and II.
Methods and Findings
HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes from LPG-3, LmSTI-1, CPB and CPC along with H-2Kd restricted peptides, were lined-up together as a polytope string in a DNA construct. Polytope string was rationally designed by harnessing advantages of ubiquitin, spacers and HLA-DR restricted Th1 epitope. Endotoxin free pcDNA plasmid expressing the polytope was inoculated into humanized HLA-DRB1*0101/HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice intramuscularly 4 days after Cardiotoxin priming followed by 2 boosters at one week interval. Mice were sacrificed 10 days after the last booster, and splenocytes were subjected to ex-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of specific IFN-γ production and in-vitro cytotoxicity against individual peptides by ELISpot and standard chromium-51(51Cr) release assay respectively. 4 H-2Kd and 5 HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides were able to induce specific CD8 T cell responses in BALB/C and HLA-A2/DR1 mice respectively. IFN-γ and cytolytic activity together discriminated LPG-3-P1 as dominant, LmSTI-1-P3 and LmSTI-1-P6 as subdominant with both cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production, LmSTI-1-P4 and LPG-3-P5 as subdominant with only IFN-γ production potential.
Here we described a new DNA-polytope construct for Leishmania vaccination encompassing immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides. Immunogenicity evaluation in HLA-transgenic model confirmed CD8 T cell induction with expected affinities and avidities showing almost efficient processing and presentation of the peptides in relevant preclinical model. Further evaluation will determine the efficacy of this polytope construct protecting against infectious challenge of Leishmania. Fortunately HLA transgenic mice are promising preclinical models helping to speed up immunogenicity analysis in a human related mouse model.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108848. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108848 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous chemotherapies have been developed to treat cancers. Now, it is becoming clear that cytotoxic agents not only have a direct effect on cancer cell death, but can also elicit tumour-specific immune responses. We recently showed that 8 patients treated with DCF for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) presented an overall survival rate of 62.5 % at 12 months. Half of the patients, with HPV16 positive SCCA, achieved a complete remission. To attempt to understand why such a good clinical response was obtained, we aimed to determine whether DCF regimen could increase antigenicity and immunogenicity in in vitro and in vivo models of HPV16 cancers.
C57BL/6 mice were grafted subcutaneously with 3×105 TC1 cells (primary lung epithelial cells of C57BL/6 immortalized with E6 and E7 of HPV16 and transformed with c-Ha-ras). When the tumour size reached 100 mm2, mice were treated either with DCF or CF. The tumours were measured for 15 days and the number of Treg (CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+) and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC, Gr1+, CD11b+) were assessed in the spleen after the sacrifice of the mice. Tumour specific immune responses against E7 and mTERT were analyzed by IFNg ELISPOT.
In parallel in vitro studies were conducted with TC1 cells treated by DCF, CF or D. The analysis of calreticulin expression by flow cytometry, and the release of ATP and HMGB1 in the supernatant of treated cells were conducted to highlight the induction of an immunogenic cell death (ICD).
The DCF regimen showed the best antitumor effect in TC1 grafted mice compared with CF. Furthermore a lower level of Treg and MDSC was observed in the spleen of mice treated with DCF compared to CF. Reduction of tumour size was linked to the induction of specific anti-E7 and anti-mTERT immune responses. As for the in vitro assessment of ICD, DCF increased the membrane expression of calreticulin and the release of HMGB1.
As a whole our preliminary data indicate that the clinical response observed with DCF may be due to efficient modulation of tumour-specific immune responses by (i) inducing in mice a less immunosuppressive environment compared to CF, (ii) promoting the optimal release and presentation of tumour antigens through the induction of immunogenic cell death.
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires 09/2014; 2014(465):14–15. DOI:10.1016/S1773-035X(14)72674-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reports the results in terms of pathological response of a phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab plus chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.In T3 rectal cancer (RC), preoperative chemoradiotherapy [5-fluorouracil (5-FU-RT)] reduces local recurrences, but does not affect overall survival. New therapeutic options are still necessary to improve clinical outcomes. This randomized, noncomparative, open-label, multicenter, two arms, phase II study was conducted in MRI-defined locally advanced T3 resectable RC. In arm A, patients received 12-week bevacizumab plus 5-FU, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (Folfox-4) followed with bevacizumab-5-FU-RT before total mesorectal excision (TME). In arm B, patients received only bevacizumab-5-FU-RT before TME. Primary end point was pathological complete response (pCR) rate. Forty-six patients were randomized in arm A and 45 patients in arm B. In arm A, the rate of pCR was 23.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1% to 39.5%] statistically superior to the defined standard rate of 10%, P = 0.015. In arm B, the rate of pCR of 11.4% (95% CI 3.8% to 24.6%) was not different from 10%, P = 0.906. No death occurred during the study period, from the start until 8 weeks following surgery. Postoperative fistulas were reported for 16 patients (7 in arm A and 9 in arm B). Even if the addition of bevacizumab induced manageable toxicities including an increased risk of postoperative fistula and no treatment-related death, arm B did not achieve the expected pCR rate in the population of patients included. Induction bevacizumab-Folfox-4 followed by bevacizumab-5-FU-RT is promising. It is however necessary to continue investigations in the management of locally advanced RC. NCT 00865189.
Annals of Oncology 08/2014; 25(11). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu377 · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine/Cisplatin (Gem/CDDP) combination has demonstrated a clear survival advantage over gemcitabine alone and has become a new standard in advanced Biliary Tract Carcinoma (aBTC). However, Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin (GEMOX) combination and Gemcitabine/Carboplatin (Gem/Carb) combination regimens have shown efficacy in phase II trials and there is no comparative study between different platinum salts.We assessed the efficacy and safety of different platinum-based chemotherapies at first line in aBTC patients. We also analysed the second-line chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin/gemcitabine association has been a standard of care for first-line regimen in advanced biliary tract cancer nevertheless oxaliplatin/gemcitabine regimen is frequently preferred. Because comparative effectiveness in clinical outcomes of cisplatin- versus oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is not available, a systematic review of studies assessing cisplatin/gemcitabine or oxaliplatin/gemcitabine chemotherapies in advanced biliary tract cancer was performed. Published studies evaluating cisplatin/gemcitabine or oxaliplatin/gemcitabine in advanced biliary tract cancer were included. Each study was weighted according to the number of patients included. The primary objective was to assess weighted median of medians overall survival (mOS) reported for both regimens. Secondary goals were to assess weighted median of medians progression-free survival (mPFS) and toxic effects were pooled and compared within each arm. Thirty-three studies involving 1470 patients were analyzed. In total, 771 and 699 patients were treated by cisplatin/gemcitabine and oxaliplatin/gemcitabine, respectively. Weighted median of mOS was 9.7 months in cisplatin group and 9.5 months in oxaliplatin group. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was significantly associated with more grade 3 and 4 asthenia, diarrhea, liver toxicity, and hematological toxicity. Sensitivity analysis including only the studies with the standard regimen of cisplatin (25–35 mg/m2 administered on days 1 and 8) showed that the weighted median of mOS increased from 9.7 to 11.7 months but Gem/CDDP regimen remained more toxic than Gemox regimen. These results suggest that the Gem/CDDP regimen with cisplatin (25–35 mg/m2) administered on days 1 and 8 is associated with survival advantage than Gemox regimen but with addition of toxicity.
Cancer Medicine 07/2014; 3(6). DOI:10.1002/cam4.299
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perioperative chemotherapy improves the overall survival of resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) patients. However, more than 40 % of the patients are not healthy enough to complete their post-operative chemotherapy, and the progression-free survival rate is lower than 35 % at 5 years. In order to optimise neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, a pilot study of weekly dose-intensified cisplatin, epirubicin, and paclitaxel (PET) was conducted. The primary objective was a complete resection (R0) rate. Then, a R0 rate ≤80 % was considered as uninteresting, with an expected R0 rate of 92 %. Secondary objectives were the feasibility, safety, histological response rate (Becker score), and survival (Trial registration: NCT01830270).
Patients with >T1N0M0 GEA were included. Treatment consisted of eight preoperative cycles of weekly PET regimen at 30/50/80 mg/m(2) of cisplatin, epirubicin, and paclitaxel, respectively. Primary prophylaxis by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered. Surgery was performed 4-6 weeks following the last cycle of chemotherapy. Using Fleming two-step design with a unilateral alpha type one error of 5 % and a statistical power of 80 %, it would be required to include 68 patients. At planned interim analysis for futility, it was required to observe at least 25 of 29 patients with R0 resection to pursue inclusion. At the second step, it was required to observe at least 61 of 68 patients with R0 resection to conclude for promising activity of the dose-intensified chemotherapy.
Between May 2011 and January 2013, 29 patients were enrolled. Median age was 62 years (range 39-83 years), and seven (24 %) patients presented signet-ring cell histology. Twenty-seven (93 %) patients underwent surgery. Pathological complete responses (Becker score 1a) were observed in four patients, and nearly complete responses (Becker score 1b) for additional three patients. A R0 rate was achieved for 24 of 29 (82.7 %; 95 % CI 64-94 %) patients. No Becker score 1a/1b response was observed among patients with signet-ring cell GEA. Twenty-one (72 %) patients completed all eight cycles, and 86 % received seven or more cycles. Sixteen (56 %) patients experienced grade 3-4 neutropenia, and five patients had febrile neutropenia. Among non-haematological toxicities, mucositis and fatigue were the most frequent ones. The median-delivered relative dose intensity (DI) was 80 % for cisplatin, 75 % for epirubicin, and 79 % for paclitaxel. However, only 45 % of the patients received at least 80 % of the planned median DI for all three drugs.
Despite high R0 and pathological response rates, neoadjuvant PET chemotherapy did not meet the primary end-point and failed to show an acceptable relative DI. PET chemotherapy is not recommended in resectable GEA patients.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2014; 74(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2482-0 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endpoints describe clinical and biological measurements in therapeutic development and assessment. They can be classified in two categories: “patient-centered clinical endpoints” including overall survival (OS) and health related quality of life (QoL), and “tumour-centered clinical endpoints” such as progression-free survival. Surrogate endpoints are tumour-centered clinical endpoints, which intend to substitute for patient-centered clinical endpoints specially OS. The choice of the endpoints in oncology trials is a major problem. The publications of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement encouraged the reporting of clearly defined primary and secondary outcome measures. OS is the gold standard but with the increasing number of effective salvage treatments available in many types of cancer, a higher number of patients included and a longer follow-up is necessary which increases the cost of clinical trials. Thus, tumour-centered clinical endpoints which could be assessed earlier and used as surrogates for overall survival are more and more studied but most of them currently lack standardised definitions enabling a cross comparison of results from different clinical trials and they have not been validated as surrogate endpoints. In addition, the variability of their definition can strongly impact the trial's conclusions by affecting both statistical power and estimation. In this context, QoL constitutes an available and a useful alternative endpoint for trials to ensure treatment benefit in a patient or public health point of view. Methodological researches should be pursued to develop standard outcome definitions for use in cancer clinical trials and to define a standardized analysis of longitudinal QoL data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The QSOX1 protein (Quiescin Sulfhydryl oxidase 1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds and is involved in the folding and stability of proteins. More recently, QSOX1 has been associated with tumorigenesis and protection against cellular stress. It has been demonstrated in our laboratory that QSOX1 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo. In addition, QSOX1 expression has been shown to be induced by oxidative or ER stress and to prevent cell death linked to these stressors. Given the function of QSOX1 in these two processes, which have been previously linked to autophagy, we wondered whether QSOX1 might be regulated by autophagy inducers and play a role in this catabolic process. To answer this question, we used in vitro models of breast cancer cells in which QSOX1 was overexpressed (MCF-7) or extinguished (MDA-MB-231). We first showed that QSOX1 expression is induced following amino acid starvation and maintains cellular homeostasis. Our results also indicated that QSOX1 inhibits autophagy through the inhibition of autophagosome/lysosome fusion. Moreover, we demonstrated that inhibitors of autophagy mimic the effect of QSOX1 on cell invasion, suggesting that its role in this process is linked to the autophagy pathway. Previously published data demonstrated that extinction of QSOX1 promotes tumor growth in NOG mice. In this study, we further demonstrated that QSOX1 null tumors present lower levels of the p62 protein. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time a role of QSOX1 in autophagy in breast cancer cells and tumors.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86641. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086641 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab plus fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is standard treatment for first-line and second-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, to date, there is no current biomarker predictive for the benefit of bevacizumab use for these patients. Preclinical data suggest that the presence of the primary tumor could be involved in less efficient antitumor activity of antiangiogenic agents, but no clinical data currently support this hypothesis.
We performed a retrospective analysis of factors associated with overall survival (OS) in a study cohort of 409 mCRC patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the influence of primary tumor resection and bevacizumab use on OS. We evaluated associations linking bevacizumab use and OS among patients who previously underwent or did not undergo primary tumor resection. Results were externally validated in a second independent cohort of 328 mCRC patients.
In the study cohort, bevacizumab use and resection of the primary tumor were associated with improved OS. However, subgroup analyses indicate that bevacizumab did not influence survival of patients bearing a primary colorectal tumor (hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.61, log-rank test P = 0.6). By contrast, the survival benefit of bevacizumab was restricted to patients who previously underwent primary tumor resection (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.55-0.92, P = 0.009). Similar results were observed in the validation cohort.
Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy is associated with improvement of OS only in patients with primary tumor resection. These data support the rationale to validate prospectively the influence of primary tumor resection on bevacizumab antitumor effect in synchronous mCRC.