[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In T3 rectal cancer (RC), preoperative chemoradiotherapy (5-FU-RT) reduces local recurrences, but does not impact overall survival. New therapeutic options are still necessary to improve clinical outcomes.
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine/Cisplatin (Gem/CDDP) combination has demonstrated a clear survival advantage over gemcitabine alone and has become a new standard in advanced Biliary Tract Carcinoma (aBTC). However, Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin (GEMOX) combination and Gemcitabine/Carboplatin (Gem/Carb) combination regimens have shown efficacy in phase II trials and there is no comparative study between different platinum salts.We assessed the efficacy and safety of different platinum-based chemotherapies at first line in aBTC patients. We also analysed the second-line chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin/gemcitabine association has been a standard of care for first-line regimen in advanced biliary tract cancer nevertheless oxaliplatin/gemcitabine regimen is frequently preferred. Because comparative effectiveness in clinical outcomes of cisplatin- versus oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is not available, a systematic review of studies assessing cisplatin/gemcitabine or oxaliplatin/gemcitabine chemotherapies in advanced biliary tract cancer was performed. Published studies evaluating cisplatin/gemcitabine or oxaliplatin/gemcitabine in advanced biliary tract cancer were included. Each study was weighted according to the number of patients included. The primary objective was to assess weighted median of medians overall survival (mOS) reported for both regimens. Secondary goals were to assess weighted median of medians progression-free survival (mPFS) and toxic effects were pooled and compared within each arm. Thirty-three studies involving 1470 patients were analyzed. In total, 771 and 699 patients were treated by cisplatin/gemcitabine and oxaliplatin/gemcitabine, respectively. Weighted median of mOS was 9.7 months in cisplatin group and 9.5 months in oxaliplatin group. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was significantly associated with more grade 3 and 4 asthenia, diarrhea, liver toxicity, and hematological toxicity. Sensitivity analysis including only the studies with the standard regimen of cisplatin (25–35 mg/m2 administered on days 1 and 8) showed that the weighted median of mOS increased from 9.7 to 11.7 months but Gem/CDDP regimen remained more toxic than Gemox regimen. These results suggest that the Gem/CDDP regimen with cisplatin (25–35 mg/m2) administered on days 1 and 8 is associated with survival advantage than Gemox regimen but with addition of toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perioperative chemotherapy improves the overall survival of resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) patients. However, more than 40 % of the patients are not healthy enough to complete their post-operative chemotherapy, and the progression-free survival rate is lower than 35 % at 5 years. In order to optimise neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, a pilot study of weekly dose-intensified cisplatin, epirubicin, and paclitaxel (PET) was conducted. The primary objective was a complete resection (R0) rate. Then, a R0 rate ≤80 % was considered as uninteresting, with an expected R0 rate of 92 %. Secondary objectives were the feasibility, safety, histological response rate (Becker score), and survival (Trial registration: NCT01830270).
Patients with >T1N0M0 GEA were included. Treatment consisted of eight preoperative cycles of weekly PET regimen at 30/50/80 mg/m(2) of cisplatin, epirubicin, and paclitaxel, respectively. Primary prophylaxis by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered. Surgery was performed 4-6 weeks following the last cycle of chemotherapy. Using Fleming two-step design with a unilateral alpha type one error of 5 % and a statistical power of 80 %, it would be required to include 68 patients. At planned interim analysis for futility, it was required to observe at least 25 of 29 patients with R0 resection to pursue inclusion. At the second step, it was required to observe at least 61 of 68 patients with R0 resection to conclude for promising activity of the dose-intensified chemotherapy.
Between May 2011 and January 2013, 29 patients were enrolled. Median age was 62 years (range 39-83 years), and seven (24 %) patients presented signet-ring cell histology. Twenty-seven (93 %) patients underwent surgery. Pathological complete responses (Becker score 1a) were observed in four patients, and nearly complete responses (Becker score 1b) for additional three patients. A R0 rate was achieved for 24 of 29 (82.7 %; 95 % CI 64-94 %) patients. No Becker score 1a/1b response was observed among patients with signet-ring cell GEA. Twenty-one (72 %) patients completed all eight cycles, and 86 % received seven or more cycles. Sixteen (56 %) patients experienced grade 3-4 neutropenia, and five patients had febrile neutropenia. Among non-haematological toxicities, mucositis and fatigue were the most frequent ones. The median-delivered relative dose intensity (DI) was 80 % for cisplatin, 75 % for epirubicin, and 79 % for paclitaxel. However, only 45 % of the patients received at least 80 % of the planned median DI for all three drugs.
Despite high R0 and pathological response rates, neoadjuvant PET chemotherapy did not meet the primary end-point and failed to show an acceptable relative DI. PET chemotherapy is not recommended in resectable GEA patients.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endpoints are measurable clinical and biological findings that are used for the development and assessment of treatment options. In the treatment of cancer, endpoints can be classified into two categories: "patient-centered clinical endpoints" including overall survival (OS) and health-related quality of life (QoL), and "tumor-centered clinical endpoints" such as progression-free survival. Surrogate endpoints are tumor-centered clinical endpoints that can be used as substitutes for patient-centered clinical endpoints, particularly OS. The choice of endpoints in oncology trials is a major problem. The published Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) best-practice guidelines encourage the reporting of clearly defined primary and secondary outcome measures. OS is the gold standard of endpoints but as increasing numbers of effective salvage treatments become available for many types of cancer, much larger numbers of patients are included; this requires a longer follow-up period and increases the cost of clinical trials. Thus, tumor-centered clinical endpoints that can be assessed earlier and used as surrogates for overall survival are increasingly studied, but most of them currently lack standardized definitions to enable cross comparison of results among different clinical trials and they have not been validated as surrogate endpoints. In addition, the variability of their definition can strongly impact the trial's conclusions by affecting both statistical power and estimation. In this context, QoL constitutes an available and useful surrogate endpoint for trials to ensure treatment benefit from both the patient and public health points of view. Methodological research should be pursued to develop standard outcome definitions for use in cancer clinical trials and to define a standardized longitudinal analysis of QoL data.
Journal of Visceral Surgery 01/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab plus fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is standard treatment for first-line and second-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, to date, there is no current biomarker predictive for the benefit of bevacizumab use for these patients. Preclinical data suggest that the presence of the primary tumor could be involved in less efficient antitumor activity of antiangiogenic agents, but no clinical data currently support this hypothesis.
We performed a retrospective analysis of factors associated with overall survival (OS) in a study cohort of 409 mCRC patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the influence of primary tumor resection and bevacizumab use on OS. We evaluated associations linking bevacizumab use and OS among patients who previously underwent or did not undergo primary tumor resection. Results were externally validated in a second independent cohort of 328 mCRC patients.
In the study cohort, bevacizumab use and resection of the primary tumor were associated with improved OS. However, subgroup analyses indicate that bevacizumab did not influence survival of patients bearing a primary colorectal tumor (hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.61, log-rank test P = 0.6). By contrast, the survival benefit of bevacizumab was restricted to patients who previously underwent primary tumor resection (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.55-0.92, P = 0.009). Similar results were observed in the validation cohort.
Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy is associated with improvement of OS only in patients with primary tumor resection. These data support the rationale to validate prospectively the influence of primary tumor resection on bevacizumab antitumor effect in synchronous mCRC.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endpoints describe clinical and biological measurements in therapeutic development and assessment. They can be classified in two categories: “patient-centered clinical endpoints” including overall survival (OS) and health related quality of life (QoL), and “tumour-centered clinical endpoints” such as progression-free survival. Surrogate endpoints are tumour-centered clinical endpoints, which intend to substitute for patient-centered clinical endpoints specially OS. The choice of the endpoints in oncology trials is a major problem. The publications of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement encouraged the reporting of clearly defined primary and secondary outcome measures. OS is the gold standard but with the increasing number of effective salvage treatments available in many types of cancer, a higher number of patients included and a longer follow-up is necessary which increases the cost of clinical trials. Thus, tumour-centered clinical endpoints which could be assessed earlier and used as surrogates for overall survival are more and more studied but most of them currently lack standardised definitions enabling a cross comparison of results from different clinical trials and they have not been validated as surrogate endpoints. In addition, the variability of their definition can strongly impact the trial's conclusions by affecting both statistical power and estimation. In this context, QoL constitutes an available and a useful alternative endpoint for trials to ensure treatment benefit in a patient or public health point of view. Methodological researches should be pursued to develop standard outcome definitions for use in cancer clinical trials and to define a standardized analysis of longitudinal QoL data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Everolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, approved in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Besides, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition has the ability to modulate T-lymphocyte homeostasis. Here, we report the case of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma patient treated with everolimus who presented unexpected prolonged tumor response. The monitoring of immune responses showed strong antitumor T-cell activation at the time of disease control, whereas a profound immunosuppression occurred when tumor progressed. Thus, a change of immune functions is associated with everolimus treatment. Our observation suggests that everolimus could shape immune responses, which in turn could contribute to its efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The QSOX1 protein (Quiescin Sulfhydryl oxidase 1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds and is involved in the folding and stability of proteins. More recently, QSOX1 has been associated with tumorigenesis and protection against cellular stress. It has been demonstrated in our laboratory that QSOX1 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo. In addition, QSOX1 expression has been shown to be induced by oxidative or ER stress and to prevent cell death linked to these stressors. Given the function of QSOX1 in these two processes, which have been previously linked to autophagy, we wondered whether QSOX1 might be regulated by autophagy inducers and play a role in this catabolic process. To answer this question, we used in vitro models of breast cancer cells in which QSOX1 was overexpressed (MCF-7) or extinguished (MDA-MB-231). We first showed that QSOX1 expression is induced following amino acid starvation and maintains cellular homeostasis. Our results also indicated that QSOX1 inhibits autophagy through the inhibition of autophagosome/lysosome fusion. Moreover, we demonstrated that inhibitors of autophagy mimic the effect of QSOX1 on cell invasion, suggesting that its role in this process is linked to the autophagy pathway. Previously published data demonstrated that extinction of QSOX1 promotes tumor growth in NOG mice. In this study, we further demonstrated that QSOX1 null tumors present lower levels of the p62 protein. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time a role of QSOX1 in autophagy in breast cancer cells and tumors.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86641. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimization of chemotherapy effectiveness in metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC) is a major endpoint to enhance the possibility of curative intent surgery. FOLFIR3 has shown promising results as second-line chemotherapy for mCRC patients previously exposed to oxaliplatin. The clinical efficacy of FOLFIRI3 was never determined in association with bevacizumab in non-previously treated mCRC patients.
We conducted a phase 2 clinical trial to characterize the response rate and toxicity profile of FOLFIRI3-bevacizumab as initial treatment for mCRC. Sixty-one patients enrolled in 3 investigation centers were treated with FOLFIRI3-bevacizumab (median of 10 cycles) followed by a maintenance therapy combining bevacizumab and capecitabine. Levels of plasma angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline.
Overall response rate (ORR) was 66.7% (8% of complete and 58% of partial responses). The disease control rate was 91.7%. After a median time of follow-up of 46.7 months, 56 patients (92%) had progressed or died. The median progression free survival (PFS) was 12.7 months (95% CI: 9.7-15.8 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 24.5 months (CI 95%: 10.6-38.3 months). Twenty-one patients underwent curative intent-surgery including 4 patients with disease initially classified as unresectable. Most common grade III-IV toxicities were diarrhea (15%), neutropenia (13%), asthenia (10%), and infections (4%). Hypertension-related medications needed to be increased in 3 patients. In multivariate analysis, surgery of metastases and Ang-2 levels were the only independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS. Indeed, baseline level of Ang-2 above 5 ng/mL was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for progression free survival (HR = 0.357; 95%CI: 0.168-0.76, p = 0.005) and overall survival (HR = 0.226; 95%CI: 0.098-0.53, p = 0.0002).
As front-line therapy, FOLFIRI-3-bevacizumab is associated with an acceptable toxicity and induced promising objective response rates. However, unfavorable clinical outcomes were observed in patients with high levels of angiopoietin 2.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):611. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell therapy based on alloreactivity has completed clinical proof of concept against hematological malignancies. However, the efficacy of alloreactivity as a therapeutic approach to treat solid tumors is unknown. Using cell culture and animal models, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of allogeneic suicide gene-modified killer cells as a cell-based therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which treatment options are limited. Allogeneic killer cells from healthy donors were isolated, expanded, and phenotypically characterized. Antitumor cytotoxic activity and safety were studied using a panel of human or murine HCC cell lines engrafted in immunodeficient or immunocompetent mouse models. Human allogeneic suicide gene-modified killer cells (aSGMKCs) exhibit a high, rapid, interleukin-2-dependent, and non-major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted in vitro cytotoxicity toward human hepatoma cells, mainly mediated by natural killer (NK) and NK-like T cells. In vivo evaluation of this cell therapy product demonstrates a marked, rapid, and sustained regression of HCC. Preferential liver homing of effector cells contributed to its marked efficacy. Calcineurin inhibitors allowed preventing rejection of allogeneic lymphocytes by the host immune system without impairing their antitumor activity. Our results demonstrate proof of concept for aSGMKCs as immunotherapy for HCC and open perspectives for the clinical development of this approach.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.277.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Longitudinal analysis of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains unstandardized and compromises comparison of results between trials. In oncology, despite available statistical approaches, results are poorly used to change standards of care, mainly due to lack of standardization and the ability to propose clinical meaningful results. In this context, the time to deterioration (TTD) has been proposed as a modality of longitudinal HRQoL analysis for cancer patients. As for tumor response and progression, we propose to develop RECIST criteria for HRQoL.
Several definitions of TTD are investigated in this paper. We applied this approach in early breast cancer and metastatic pancreatic cancer with a 5-point minimal clinically important difference. In breast cancer, TTD was defined as compared to the baseline score or to the best previous score. In pancreatic cancer (arm 1: gemcitabine with FOLFIRI.3, arm 2: gemcitabine alone), the time until definitive deterioration (TUDD) was investigated with or without death as event.
In the breast cancer study, 381 women were included. The median TTD was influenced by the choice of the reference score. In pancreatic cancer study, 98 patients were enrolled. Patients in Arm 1 presented longer TUDD than those in Arm 2 for most of HRQoL scores. Results of TUDD were slightly different according to the definition of deterioration applied.
Currently, the international ARCAD group supports the idea of developing RECIST for HRQoL in pancreatic and colorectal cancer with liver metastasis, with a view to using HRQoL as a co-primary endpoint along with a tumor parameter.
Quality of Life Research 11/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare disease, mostly diagnosed at early stage. After concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil (5FU), local or metastatic recurrences occur in >20% of the patients. After treatment failure, cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy is the standard option, but complete response (CR) is a rare event and the prognosis remains poor.
Eight consecutive patients with advanced recurrent SCCA after CRT were treated with DCF regimen (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) day 1, CDDP 75 mg/m(2) day 1 and 5FU at 750 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days every 3 weeks). Tumour samples were analysed for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping, as well as p16 and p53 expression.
After a median follow-up of 41 months, the overall survival rate at 12 months was 62.5% (95% CI 22.9-86.1 months). Four patients achieved a complete remission and remain relapse-free at the time of analysis with a progression-free survival of 19, 33, 43 and 88 months. Three of these patients underwent surgery for all involved metastatic sites. For all of them, pathological CR was confirmed. DCF regimen appeared feasible in these patients previously exposed to pelvic CRT, and no grade IV toxicity occurred. All patients in complete remission had HPV-16-positive SCCA, while HPV could only be detected among 50% of the non-responding patients. Of interest, immunohistochemical study revealed a p16(+)/p53(-) phenotype in these patients, while none of non-responders expressed p16.
The high level of complete and long-lasting remission among SCCA patients treated with DCF regimen supports the assessment of this strategy in prospective cohorts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross-talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human MoDCs and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolysopora rectivirgula (SR) an actinomycetes, Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI) a mycobacteria and two filamentous fungi, Wallemia sebi (WS) and Eurotium amstelodami (EA)) involved in HP. Our objectives were to specify the cross-talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response differs according to the microbial extract tested.Methods: The phenotypical activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of co-stimulary molecules and dosage of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by their ability to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation by mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR).Results: EA-MoDCs expressed a higher percentage of co-stimulary molecules than WS- MoDCs, SR- MoDCs and MI- MoDCs (p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs and MI-MoDCs all induced a CD4(+) T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response.Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that although differences were initially observed between MoDCs vs filamentous fungi and MoDCs vs bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 05/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare liver mesenchymatous tumor with an epithelial aspect developed from endothelial cells with a lack of validated therapeutic options at metastatic stage. Metronomic chemotherapy has been described as an anti-angiogenic therapy leading to the depletion of circulating endothelial progenitors. We report the results of two patients treated for metastatic hemangioendothelioma with metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Following initiation of metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50mg once a day continuously), the two patients exhibited significant clinical improvement and decrease in metastasis size without any clinically relevant side-effect. Metronomic cyclophosphamide could be proposed as a new therapeutic option to treat metastatic hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1) are involved in antitumor immunity. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CX3CR1 gene, V249I and T280M, have been associated with reduced fractalkine signaling characterized by decreased adhesive function, signaling, and chemotaxis of leukocytes. We hypothesized that a renal transplant recipient (RTR) carrying the homozygous I249M280 genotype could experience more cancer due to lower CX3CL1-dependent antitumorigenic effects. METHODS: We studied the association between these polymorphisms and cancer incidence in two independent cohorts of RTR, including a total of 622 patients. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 8.7 and 7.9 years for the first and second cohorts, respectively. Analysis of 622 patients identified 20 (3.2%) I249M280 homozygous patients, 321 (51.6%) V249T280 homozygous patients, and 281 (45.2%) heterozygous patients. I249M280 homozygotes have an independent increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.3 [1.04-10.52], P=0.043 for cohort 1 and 9.2 [1.67-50.91], P=0.011 for cohort 2) compared with other patients. Age and male gender were also risk factors for cancer occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: CX3CR1 gene polymorphism is associated with a higher rate of cancer in RTRs. Such findings may be used to influence immunosuppressive strategies and optimize patient management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current cancer immunotherapies predominantly rely on CD8 (+) T cells to fight against tumors. However accumulative evidence showed that proinflammatory CD4 (+) helper T cells are critical determinants of effective antitumor immunity. The utilization of universal tumor-reactive helper peptides from telomerase represents a powerful approach to the fully use of CD4 (+) T cell-based immunotherapy.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 01/2013; 9(5).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cancer patients with CD4 lymphopenia have an increased risk of severe toxicity after administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The impact of CD4 lymphopenia on long term overall survival (OS) of cancer patients was explored in this work. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first prospective series (test series) included 219 patients with solid tumours, lymphomas or myelomas receiving chemotherapy within an oncology department in 1999 and 2000. A phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed before chemotherapy on day 1. The prognostic value of total, CD4, CD8 and CD56 lymphocyte count for OS was tested in a multivariate analysis. The prognostic value of low CD4 counts was then tested in a validation series of 269 patients with metastatic solid tumours in second line treatment included in a prospective observational study in the Centre Leon Berard. RESULTS: In the test series, all patients with metastatic cancers and CD4 lymphopenia ⩽200/μL (12% of metastatic patients) died within 18months with a median OS of 5.9months. CD4 count was an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS in multivariate analysis. In the validation series, 83 (30%) of patients had CD4 count ⩽200/μL: their median overall survival was 3.9months with an 18-month survival rate of 6%. CD4 count was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in this series. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 lymphopenia <200/μL is frequent in advanced cancer patients and associated with a very short life expectancy. These patients should be proposed for specific treatment and research approaches.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor