G Cazzolato

Chinook Regional Hospital, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (83)322.58 Total impact

  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2004; 5(1):119-119.
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    ABSTRACT: The current study retrospectively examined the association between insulin resistance and plasma triglycerides (TG) in a group of subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Among 1,434 subjects consecutively undergoing a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 1993 and 1998, 567 (age, 15 to 78 years) were classified as having a normal glucose tolerance according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and were selected for the study. Serum insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay (INSI-CTK, Dia Sorin, Saluggia, Italy). Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation for the method were less than 4% and less than 8.5%, respectively. Insulin resistance was calculated by a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA(IR) = fasting serum insulin [mU/mL] x fasting blood glucose [mmol/L]/22.5). A very significant correlation was found between HOMA(IR) and plasma TG (r = 0.27, P < 1.02E(-10)). Multiple regression analyses confirmed plasma TG as independent variables explicative of HOMA(IR). When subjects were evaluated according to tertiles of TG, those in the upper two tertiles were older (P <.001) and presented higher body mass index (BMI) values (P <.0001) in comparison to subjects in the lower tertile. A positive trend (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) was found in regard to systolic (P <.05) and diastolic blood pressure (P <.0001), fasting blood glucose (P <.01), fasting serum insulin (P <.0001), and total cholesterol (P <.0001), while a negative trend was found in regard to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P <.0001). Insulin resistance, calculated as HOMA(IR), was higher in the upper two tertiles of TG in comparison to the lower tertile (P <.001 and P <.0001, respectively), with a statistically significant trend for the entire group (first tertile, 1.85 +/- 0.94; second tertile, 2.28 +/- 1.10; third tertile, 2.65 +/- 1.71; ANOVA: P <.0001). In conclusion, this study shows an association between high levels of circulating TG and insulin resistance in patients with normal glucose tolerance seen in an atherosclerosis prevention clinic. This association is also present at levels of plasma TG considered to be normal and is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors.
    Metabolism 06/2003; 52(5):616-9. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A subpopulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is present in human plasma that contains lipid hydroperoxides and is more negatively charged (LDL(-)) than normal native LDL. By circular dichroism and tryptophan lifetime measurements we found that apoB-100 secondary structure is markedly decreased and its conformation is severely altered in LDL(-). The low tryptophan fluorescence intensity confirms the oxidative degradation of the lipoprotein, and the very long lifetime value of one of its decay components indicates a low polarity environment for the remaining unbleached residues. Either a peculiar folding or, most likely, a sinking of the apoB-100 into the lipid core can account for the observed long lifetime component. Oxidation in vitro produces a similar unfolding of the apolipoprotein but the lifetime of tryptophan fluorescence is shifted to lower values, indicating that the denatured apoprotein remains at the hydrophilic surface of the lipoprotein particle. A disordering and an increased polarity of the LDL(-) surface lipids was demonstrated by measuring the generalized polarization of 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene (Laurdan). The looser monolayer packing apparently favors the new conformation of apoB-100 and its sinking into a more hydrophobic environment, possibly accounting for it reduced receptor binding properties.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/2001; 31(1):82-9. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) in diabetic patients is more glycated and susceptible to oxidation than in non-diabetic subjects and investigated the hypothesis that LDL glycation is associated with an increased plasma concentration of LDL- (a circulating electronegatively charged LDL), proposed as an index of in vivo oxidation. LDL glycation was measured by a competitive enzyme immunoadsorbent assay, using a monoclonal antibody against glycated apoB in 24 Type 2 diabetic patients and 12 healthy controls. LDL- was separated by ion-exchange HPLC in LDL samples obtained after sequential preparative ultracentrifugation (density range 1.019-1.063). In vitro LDL susceptibility to oxidation was evaluated by following the kinetics of conjugated diene formation and by measuring the lag-phase time in the presence of copper (Cu2+) ions. The percentages of glycated apoB (3.33+/-2.54% vs. 1.24+/-0.71%) and of LDL- (3.88+/-1.49% vs. 2.34+/-1.03%) in total LDL were significantly higher in diabetic patients (P<0.01 for both). LDL- was positively correlated with glycated apoB (r = 0.68, P<0.001). LDL isolated from Type 2 diabetic patients showed a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the resistance to oxidative stress, as indicated by the shorter lag-phase time (91+/-12.6 vs. 120+/-24.5 min). The lag-phase time was inversely correlated with glycated apoB (r = -0.65, P<0.001) and LDL- concentrations (r = -0.69, P<0.001). In this population of Type 2 diabetic patients, LDL were more glycated, more susceptible to in vitro oxidation and had a higher percentage of electronegative LDL. The glycation of apoB is proposed to be associated with a significative increase of in vivo and in vitro LDL oxidation.
    Diabetic Medicine 08/1999; 16(8):663-9. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are largely genetically determined by sequences linked to the gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the distinct protein component of Lp(a). Apo(a) is highly polymorphic in length due to variation in the numbers of a sequence encoding the apo(a) kringle 4 domain, and plasma levels of Lp(a) are inversely correlated with apo(a) size. In 2 racially homogeneous Bantu populations from Tanzania differing in their dietary habits, we found that median plasma levels of Lp(a) were 48% lower in those living on a fish diet than in those living on a vegetarian diet. Considering the relationship between apo(a) size and Lp(a) plasma concentration, we have extensively evaluated apo(a) isoform distribution in the 2 populations to determine the impact of apo(a) size in the determination of Lp(a) values. The majority of individuals (82% of the fishermen and 80% of the vegetarians) had 2 expressed apo(a) alleles. Additionally, the fishermen had a high frequency of large apo(a) isoforms, whereas a higher frequency of small isoforms was found in the vegetarians. When subjects from the 2 groups were matched for apo(a) phenotype, the median Lp(a) value was 40% lower in Bantus on the fish diet than in those on the vegetarian diet. A significant inverse relationship was also found between plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Lp(a) levels (r=-0.24, P=0.01). The results of this study are consistent with the concept that a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and not genetic differences, is responsible for the lower plasma levels of Lp(a) in the fish-eating Bantus and strongly suggest that a sustained fish-based diet is able to lower plasma levels of Lp(a).
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/1999; 19(5):1250-6. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    G Bittolo-Bon, G Cazzolato
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma low density lipoproteins from 20 patients were separated by capillary isotachophoresis (ITP). In each patient the apparent diameter of the predominant LDL peak on whole plasma was also determined by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Furthermore the concentration of the more electronegatively charged in vivo oxidized LDL- was accomplished using anion exchange high pressure liquid chromatography. By analytical capillary ITP of whole plasma lipoproteins, prestained with a lipophilic dye, LDL were separated into four subfractions. Usually, the predominant subfraction was the slow migrating LDL4, followed by LDL3, and then by the faster LDL2 and LDL1. Slow migrating LDL4 correlated negatively with plasma triglycerides and LDL- and positively with plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and with the LDL diameter, while the faster LDL1 showed an inverse behavior. The LDL1 + LDL2 to LDL3 + LDL4 ratio showed a strong positive correlation with LDL- concentration (r = 0.87; P < 0.001) and a highly significant inverse correlation with the LDL particle diameter (r = -0.74; P < 0.001). At least three highly atherogenic LDL that could be found in human plasma, namely oxidized, glycated and small-dense, are characterized by a greater electric charge. The LDL profile from capillary ITP and the relative prevalence of faster or slower migrating LDL fractions could indicate the presence of more atherogenic LDL.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 01/1999; 40(1):170-7. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that diabetes mellitus is characterized by an enhanced lipoprotein oxidation. We have therefore investigated whether a relationship exists between LDL oxidation and microalbuminuria, which is considered an early marker of vascular involvement in type 2 diabetic patients. We selected 12 microalbuminuric and 12 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, and 12 control subjects comparable for age, sex and blood pressure values. Oxidatively modified plasma LDL, referred as LDL-, were measured by ion-exchange HPLC. In vitro susceptibility to oxidation of LDL was evaluated by following the kinetics of conjugated diene formation in the presence of Cu++ ions (lag-phase time). Microalbuminuric diabetic patients had a less satisfactory metabolic control and showed a higher plasma triglyceride concentration than both normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (2.211+/-1.01 vs 1.15+/-0.39 mmol/l, P<0.O1) and controls (1.18+/-0.61 mmol/l, P<0.01 ). The percentage of LDL- in plasma was significantly increased in microalbuminuric diabetic patients in comparison with both normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (5.24+/-1.67 vs 3.13+/-1.22%, P<0.01) and controls (2.34+/-1.03%, P<0.001). LDL isolated from microalbuminuric diabetic patients had a significantly shorter lag-phase time in comparison with normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (79+/-11 vs 97+/-10 min, P<0.05) and controls (120+/-24 min. P<0.001). In diabetic patients a significant linear correlation was observed between the percentage of LDL and amount of fructosamine (r=0.45, P<0.05), HbA1c (r=0.41, P<0.05), and triglycerides (r=0.65, P<0.001). An inverse correlation was found between lag-phase time and fructosamine (r=-0.5, P<0.01) and triglycerides (r=-0.59, P<0.001). This study shows that microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients had evidence of increased LDL oxidation, which seems to be mainly due to a poor metabolic control and a more atherogenic lipid profile.
    Acta Diabetologica 11/1998; 35(3):161-4. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence implicating a dietary source of plasma lipid peroxides that become elevated in the postprandial state. This phenomenon may be a contributing factor to the correlation found between postprandial hyperlipidemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using a newly developed method for measuring lipid hydroperoxides directly in plasma, a pilot study was performed which revealed that lipid hydroperoxides are indeed elevated following a fatty meal. Lipid hydroperoxides increased within 2-4 h after the meal and returned to basal levels, corresponding to the usual postprandial hyperlipidemia. A marked suppression of postprandial hydroperoxides was found when a meal was consumed with wine, suggesting that these hydroperoxides can be formed and then absorbed during the digestive process.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/1998; 25(2):250-2. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of different levels of thyroid hormone and metabolic activity on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. Thus, in 16 patients with hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy normolipidemic control subjects, the native LDL content in lipid peroxides, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene, as well as the susceptibility of these particles to undergo lipid peroxidation, was assessed. Hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher lipid peroxidation, as characterized by a higher native LDL content in lipid peroxides, a lower lag phase, and a higher oxidation rate than in the other two groups. This elevated lipid peroxidation was associated with a lower LDL antioxidant concentration. Interestingly, hypothyroid patients showed an intermediate behavior. In fact, in hypothyroidism, LDL oxidation was significantly lower than in hyperthyroidism but higher than in the control group. Hypothyroidism was also characterized by the highest beta-carotene LDL content, whereas vitamin E was significantly lower than in control subjects. In hyperthyroidism but not in the other two groups, LDL oxidation was strongly influenced by free thyroxine blood content. In fact in this group, the native LDL lipid peroxide content and the lag phase were directly and indirectly, respectively, related to free thyroxine blood levels. On the contrary, in hypothyroidism LDL oxidation was strongly and significantly related to serum lipids. In conclusion, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are characterized by higher levels of LDL oxidation when compared with normolipidemic control subjects. In hyperthyroid patients, the increased lipid peroxidation was strictly related to free thyroxine levels, whereas in hypothyroidism it was strongly influenced by serum lipids.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/1998; 18(5):732-7. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mutual interaction between monocytes and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in atherogenesis prompted a test of the hypothesis that LDL-apheresis could reduce the adhesive properties of monocytes to endothelium; and therefore interfere with a key mechanism in atheroma formation. Five patients affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were studied. All patients received LDL-apheresis treatment with selective adsorption of LDL-cholesterol on dextran-sulphate columns. Low density lipoprotein particles were isolated by sequential preparative ultracentrifugation and subfractionated by ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Thiobarbituric acid reacting products of lipid peroxidation were measured fluorometrically. Vitamin E was estimated by high performance liquid chromatographic technique. Monocytes were isolated from patients blood before and 1 day after LDL-apheresis by Percoll gradient. The blood samples for monocyte adhesion were drawn from control subjects for 2 consecutive days. The adhesion of monocytes to an endothelial monolayer was evaluated by assaying the peroxidase content of the adherent monocytes. Low density lipoprotein-apheresis reduced total cholesterol (-65%; p < 0.01), LDL-cholesterol (-75%; p < 0.01), triglycerides (-51%; p < 0.05), and fibrinogen (-28%; p < 0.01). With LDL-apheresis treatment, a reduction of 54% in oxidized LDLs was observed; vitamin E concentration significantly increased in LDLs (+ 14.2%; p < 0.05). The monocyte adhesion decreased by approximately 61% after apheresis; the variation became statistically significant (-65%; p < 0.01) when endothelial cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccaride.
    ASAIO Journal 04/1997; 43(3):209-13. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A subclass of LDL described on the basis of its greater electronegativity and oxidative status is further characterized using a new, highly sensitive single photon counting technique to measure lipid hydroperoxides. We describe in this report that these particles, which we refer to as LDL-, are enriched in lipid peroxides and other peroxidation products as compared to the bulk of the unmodified, normal LDL (nLDL) recovered from human plasma. This chemiluminescence-based, single photon counting technique has unique advantages in that analyses are performed on whole LDL, thus avoiding artifactual lipid peroxidation during lipid extraction. Evidence for increased amounts of lipid hydroperoxides in LDL- versus nLDL are in agreement with other analytical methods such as measurement of conjugated dienes as well as cholesterol oxidation products. LDL- also has lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids than nLDL. Analysis of the amino acid composition of apoB-100 and fatty acid composition of total LDL lipids also revealed major differences between nLDL and LDL- consistent with an oxidative modification of the latter. Thus, LDL- has significantly lower proportions of the oxidizable amino acids histidine and lysine, and marked differences in other neutral and acidic amino acids. The deficit in specific amino acids is in agreement with a reduced TNBS reactivity and increased relative electrophoretic mobility of LDL-. We postulate that LDL- is a major carrier of lipid hydroperoxides associated with plasma LDL and may arise from oxidative events in the vasculature and/ or by ingestion of peroxide-enriched meals.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 04/1997; 38(3):419-28. · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis 01/1997; 134(1):312-313. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • G. Bittolo-Bon, G. Cazzolato
    Atherosclerosis 01/1997; 135:S2. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that populations with a high intake of fish, and specifically fish oils, are at reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. To explore the effect of fish intake, we compared two groups of Bantu villagers in Tanzania; one group live on the shores of Lake Nyasa and their diet includes large amounts of freshwater fish; the other group live in the nearby hills and have a vegetarian diet. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 622 fish-consuming villagers and 686 vegetarian villagers. 618 (99.4%) and 645 (94.0%), respectively, agreed to take part. Anthropometric and self-reported medical history data were collected by one local physician and a medical assistant, who also measured blood pressure and took blood samples for measurement of plasma lipids. A dietary questionnaire was administered to 25 families (about 15% of the study population) in each village. After adjustment for age, sex, and alcohol intake the fish-consuming group had lower mean blood pressure than the vegetarian group (123/72 vs 133/76 mm Hg, p < 0.001). The frequencies of definite and borderline hypertension (by WHO criteria) were lower in the fish-consuming than in the vegetarian group (2.8 vs 16.4%; 9.7 vs 22.3%, respectively). Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (mean 3.53 [SD 1.04] vs 4.10 [1.04] mmol/L), triglycerides (0.92 [0.64] vs 1.31 [0.64] mmol/L), and lipoprotein(a) (201 [213] vs 321 [212] mg/L), were all lower (p < 0.0001) in the fish-consuming group than in the vegetarian group. The proportions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipids were higher (p < 0.0001) in the fish-consuming group than in the vegetarian group (eicosapentaenoic acid 2.3 [1.3] vs 0.7 [0.2]%; docosapentaenoic acid 1.1 [0.4] vs 0.6 [0.3]%; docosahexaenoic acid 5.7 [1.6] vs 1.5 [1.1]%). In these villagers, consumption of freshwater fish (300-600 g daily) was associated with raised plasma concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower blood pressure, and lower plasma lipid concentrations.
    The Lancet 09/1996; 348(9030):784-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative modification of LDL is thought to be a radical-mediated process involving lipid peroxides. The small dense LDL subpopulations are particularly susceptible to oxidation, and individuals with high proportions of dense LDL are at a greater risk for atherosclerosis. An oxidatively modified plasma LDL, referred to as LDL-, is found largely among the dense LDL fractions. LDL- and dense LDL particles also contain much greater amounts of lipid peroxides compared with total LDL or the more buoyant LDL fractions. The content of LDL- in dense LDL particles appears to be related to copper- or heme-induced oxidative susceptibility, which may be attributable to peroxide levels. The rate of lipid peroxidation during the antioxidant-protected phase (lag period) and the length of the antioxidant-protected phase (lag time) are correlated with the LDL- content of total LDL. Once LDL oxidation enters the propagation phase, there is no relationship to the initial LDL- content or total LDL lipid peroxide or vitamin E levels. Beyond a threshold LDL- content of approximately 2%, there is a significant increase in the oxidative susceptibility of nLDL particles (ie, purified LDL that is free of LDL-), and this susceptibility becomes more pronounced as the LDL- content increases. nLDL is resistant to copper- or heme-induced oxidation. The oxidative susceptibility is not influenced by vitamin E content in LDL but is strongly inhibited by ascorbic acid in the medium. Involvement of LDL(-)-associated peroxides during the stimulated oxidation of LDL is suggested by the inhibition of nLDL oxidation when LDL- is treated with ebselen prior to its addition to nLDL. Populations of LDL enriched with LDL- appear to contain peroxides at levels approaching the threshold required for progressive radical propagation reactions. We postulate that elevated LDL- may constitute a pro-oxidant state that facilitates oxidative reactions in vascular components.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/1996; 16(6):784-93. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nondiabetic patients with advanced coronary artery disease (CAD) were assessed for lipid peroxidation, LDL modifications and insulin action. Twenty-four patients and 10 normal controls were studied. Insulin tolerance test (Kitt), glucose, insulin lipoproteins, electronegatively charged, modified, low density lipoproteins (LDL-) and the thiobarbituric acid reactivity (TBARS), as an index of lipid peroxidation, were determined. No difference was observed in insulin action (determined by insulin tolerance test) between patients with CAD (3.31 +/- 0.28%/min; range 0.73-6.13) and normal controls (3.59 +/- 0.42; range 1.76-6.06). The percentage of modified, electronegative LDL (LDL -) was higher in patients with CAD (0.5 +/- 0.48%; range 1.3-9.2) than that of controls (2.80 +/- 0.33; range 1.00-4.00; p = 0.013). TBARS were significantly (P = 0.043) higher in CAD patients (3.49 +/- 0.17 nmol/ml; range 2.4-5.5) than normal controls (1.47 +/- 0.12; range 1.07-2.10). A significantly negative correlation was observed between Kitt and TBARS (r= - 0.48; p = 0.016), and a significant (r = 0.46; p = 0.022) positive correlation was observed between plasma glucose and TBARS. On the contrary no correlation has been observed between LDL- and TBARS. We conclude that in patients with advanced coronary artery disease: A) there are increased circulating levels of modified low density lipoprotein; B) there is evidence of increased lipid peroxidation. This latter process is significantly influenced by the degree of insulin action.
    Giornale italiano di cardiologia 03/1996; 26(2):169-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple tendinous and tuberous xanthomas are characteristically associated with hyperlipidemic states. However, normolipidemic tendinous and tuberous xanthomas have been reported in the literature, with normal levels of cholesterol, cholestanol and plant sterols. To delineate the disorder and to suggest its likely origin, a case of apparently normolipidemic severe tuberous and tendinous xanthomatosis was studied. Several lipoprotein and lipid analyses, clinical tests and histological studies were performed over a period of 5 years in the propositus and his family. At the first lipid analysis, no quantitative or qualitative alterations of the lipoprotein fractions or of the apoproteins AI, B, CII, CIII, E were detected in the propositus and xanthomatosis was classified as normolipidemic. During the follow-up, the patient showed a nonconstant hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypercholesterolemia associated with the presence of small and dense VLDL and LDL. An increase in apo-B was observed. There was an unusual quantity of conjugated dienes of arachidonic acid in the plasma and in the LDLs of the patient, present only in small traces in the control population. The family study and the long follow-up of the lipid analysis of the propositus were compatible with the diagnosis of familial combined hyperlipidemia. Our data highlight the importance of a critical review of studies regarding normolipidemic xanthomatosis, since only after an extensive follow-up and sequential analyses of lipoprotein fractions is it possible to exclude the presence of time variables and complex lipoprotein abnormalities.
    Dermatology 02/1996; 193(1):27-32. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that more electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL) isolated from human blood by ion exchange chromatography has a chemical composition and physical properties similar to desialylated LDL obtained by lectin chromatography (Avogaro et al., 1988; Orekhov et al., 1989). In this study, sialic acid content and percentage of desialylated LDL in the electronegative LDL (LDL-) subfraction have been investigated. The sialic acid content of the LDL- was 2- to 6-fold lower than that of native LDL and close to that of desialylated LDL. In the native LDL subfraction, 83% of lipoprotein particles did not bind to the Ricinus communis agglutinin, indicating lack of terminal galactose, presumably appearing as a result of desialylation of LDL carbohydrate chains. By contrast, a major proportion of human LDL- (81%) was bound to the lectin. It was also found that the desialylated LDL subfraction consists of 88% LDL-. Native LDL did not affect the contents of free and esterified cholesterol in intimal cells cultured from grossly normal human aorta, while LDL- and desialylated LDL induced a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the intracellular content of cholesteryl esters. Thus, LDL- is desialylated LDL which induces lipid accumulation in intimal cells. Our findings suggest that the LDL- particle is similar if not identical to the desialylated LDL particle.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 07/1995; 62(3):166-72. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using ion exchange high pressure liquid chromatography, total plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) from 30 hypercholesterolemic and 10 normocholesterolemic cynomolgus monkeys was subfractionated into unmodified LDL (n-LDL) and more negatively charged LDL (LDL-). In hypercholesterolemic monkeys, the absolute LDL-cholesterol level was 16.54 +/- 2.82 mg/dl (mean +/- SE) whereas in normocholesterolemic monkeys it was 2.39 +/- 0.12 mg/dl (P < 0.0001); the percentage of LDL- was 5.2 +/- 0.71% and 4.9 +/- 0.19% of the total LDL for hypercholesterolemic versus normocholesterolemic monkeys, respectively. LDL- averaged 5% and n-LDL 95% of the total plasma LDL cholesterol. To confirm and further elucidate the oxidative nature of LDL-, cholesterol and cholesterol oxide contents of LDL- and n-LDL were determined by capillary gas chromatography; 53.98 +/- 2.24% (mean +/- SE) of the LDL- cholesterol was oxidized whereas in n-LDL only 10.70 +/- 1.06% of the cholesterol was oxidized (P < 0.00001). The spectrum of oxysterols identified, which was similar for LDL- and n-LDL, suggested a free radical-mediated process for cholesterol oxidation. The principal oxysterols identified were: cholest-5-ene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol, cholesta-3,5-diene-7-one, cholest-5-ene-3 beta, 7 beta-diol, 5,6 beta-epoxy-5 beta-cholestan-3 beta-ol, 5,6 alpha-epoxy-5 alpha-cholestan-3 beta-ol, 5 alpha-cholestan-3 beta,5,6 beta-triol, 3 beta-hydroxycholest-5-ene-7-one, and cholest-5-ene-3 beta,25-diol. To model one of the steps in the possible mechanism of atherogenesis, the cytotoxicity of LDL- was demonstrated to be greater against subconfluent than confluent aortic endothelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The Journal of Lipid Research 04/1994; 35(4):669-77. · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • G Bittolo-Bon, G Cazzolato, P Avogaro
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve patients with primary hypercholesterolemia were treated for 12 weeks with probucol (500 mg b.i.d.). For each patient low density lipoproteins (LDL), isolated by ultracentrifugation were subfractionated by ion exchange high resolution chromatography in order to evaluate the content of a more electronegatively charged LDL (LDL-), a small subfraction that probably represent a circulating oxidatively modified lipoprotein. The treatment induced a 17% reduction of total LDL and 43% reduction of LDL-. By thin layer chromatography the probucol content in LDL- was a quarter of that in normally charged LDL. Under basal conditions, native LDL incubated for 24 h with 3 microM copper sulphate shows a net increase in electrophoretic mobility, an increase in relative fluorescence intensity and a reduction in vitamin E content, thus indicating peroxidative damage. After treatment with probucol, no significant changes of electrophoretic mobility, fluorescence and vitamin E content are detectable. LDL isolated from patients treated with probucol thus become resistant to oxidation by copper ions. The observed reduction of LDL- after treatment with probucol, confirms in vivo the antioxidant role of the drug and support the hypothesis that circulating LDL- may be linked to an oxidative process occurring in vivo.
    Pharmacological Research 01/1994; 29(4):337-44. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
322.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1975–2003
    • Chinook Regional Hospital
      Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  • 1974–1998
    • Ospedale Generale Regionale "F. Miulli"
      Acquaviva delle Fonti, Apulia, Italy
  • 1996
    • Julphar School of Pharmacy
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1984
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      Gratz, Styria, Austria