M J Rohrer

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States

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Publications (47)136.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mobile thrombus is a rare cause of distal arterial embolization. We report 2 cases of mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta leading to distal embolization. Both patients were successfully treated with endovascular exclusion of the thrombus and distal embolectomy. Endovascular exclusion of a mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta is a significantly less invasive alternative to open abdominal aorta thrombectomy.
    Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 08/2009; 43(5):518-23. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 18 (IL18) is an interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducing factor and a proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokine. IL18 binding protein (IL18-BP) functions as an IL18 inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate whether systemic administration of IL18-BP could inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and arterial lipid deposition. New Zealand white, male rabbits were fed with a 21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol diet. The left superficial femoral artery (SFA) was de-endotheliazed with a 2F arterial embolectomy catheter. IL18-BP (5 microg, 10 microg, or 25 microg), or 0.9% saline (control) was administered by i.v. bolus during surgery. Rabbits were followed-up at 2 and 4 weeks. Intima-media (I/M) and lumen-whole artery (L/A) area ratios, and luminal areas were measured. Serum lipid levels, liver enzymes, and kidney function were evaluated. Inflammatory cells were quantified and further verified with immunohistofluorescence staining. The extent of lipid deposition in the artery wall was quantified with Oil Red O (ORO) staining employing Zeiss AxioVision 4.6.3. Image analysis software. Lipid laden cells including macrophages were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intravenous IL18-BP 5 microg, 10 microg, and 25 microg significantly reduced I/M ratios compared with the control group at both 2 and 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between the 5 microg and 10 microg dose groups. However, at 10 microg, IL18-BP significantly increased L/A ratio more than either the 5 microg IL18-BP or control groups. The high fat diet caused significant elevation of serum lipids at 4 and 6 weeks. IL18-BP had no effect on blood lipid levels. Lipid deposit in the thoracic aorta of the control group at 6 weeks was more than at 4 weeks (P = .025). Administration of IL18-BP inhibited the lipid deposition at 4 weeks (not significant) and 6 weeks (P = .012 to .008) compared with its control group. Lipid laden macrophages (foam cells), as well as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were seen in the descending thoracic aorta after 6 weeks of a high fat diet by ORO, immunohistofluorescence staining, and TEM. The lipid laden cells were not seen in either of IL18-BP groups. IL18-BP 10 microg significantly inhibited mono/macro adherence and infiltration in the SFA after balloon-injury at 2 weeks after surgery. A single intravenous dose of IL18-BP significantly decreased arterial neointimal hyperplasia, improved lumen to artery ratio after balloon-injury and also prevented arteriosclerosis progression. A single intravenous dose of IL18BP decreased neointimal hyperplasia and improved arterial L/A ratios in an atherosclerotic balloon-injury animal model. These preliminary results suggest that IL18BP may be a promising molecular approach to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and arteriosclerosis progression following coronary and peripheral angioplasty.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/2008; 47(5):1048-57. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of recombinant human thrombomodulin (rTM) to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia when bound to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent grafts placed in a porcine balloon injured carotid artery model. The left carotid artery of male pigs, weighing 25 to 30 Kg, was injured with an angioplasty balloon. Two weeks later either a non-coated standard ePTFE stent graft (Viabahn, 6 x 25 mm, W. L. Gore & Associates) or a rTM coated stent graft was implanted into the balloon-injured segment using an endovascular technique. Carotid angiography was performed at the time of the balloon injury, two weeks later and then at 4 weeks to assess the degree of luminal stenosis. One month after stent graft deployment, the grafts were explanted following in situ perfusion fixation for histological analysis. The specimens were then cross-sectioned into proximal, middle and distal segments, and the residual arterial lumen and intimal to media (I/M) ratios were calculated with computerized planimetry. rTM binding onto ePTFE-grafts was confirmed by functional activation of protein C and histopathology with immuno-scanning electron microscopy, backscatter electron emission imaging and x-ray microanalysis. All seven of the rTM coated stent grafts and six of the seven uncoated stent grafts were patent at the time of explantation. The mean luminal diameter of the rTM coated stents was 93% +/- 2.0% of the original diameter, compared with 67% +/- 23% (P = .006) in the control group. Histological analysis demonstrated that the area obliterated by intimal hyperplasia at the proximal portion of the rTM stent was -27% compared with the control group: (2.73 +/- 0.69 mm(2), vs 3.47 +/- 0.67 mm(2), P <.05). Neointimal hyperplasia is significantly inhibited in ePTFE stent grafts coated with rTM compared with uncoated grafts, as documented by improved luminal diameter by angiography and by computerized planimetry measurements of residual lumen area. These findings suggest that binding of recombinant human thrombomodulin onto ePTFE grafts may improve the long-term patency of covered stents grafts. Decrease of neointimal hyperplasia of the magnitude observed in this study could significantly improve blood flow and patency of small caliber prosthetic grafts. If the durability of these results can be confirmed by long-term studies, this technique may prove useful in preventing graft stenosis and arterial thrombosis following angioplasty or vascular bypass procedures.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 03/2008; 47(3):608-15. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several publications document the technical feasibility of stent graft repair of aortic transection. We report our mid-term results of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic transections using covered stent grafts and compare this to a cohort undergoing open repair during the same time period to demonstrate the shift in practice pattern at our institution. A retrospective review of patients who sustained blunt thoracic transection was undertaken. Medical records were examined to identify the clinical outcome of the procedure, and follow-up CT scans were reviewed to document adequate treatment of the transection. Outcome measures include procedure-related mortality, neurological morbidity, and successful immediate and mid-term coverage of the thoracic false aneurysm and absence of graft migration or endoleak. From July, 2000 to October, 2004, 27 patients were identified with descending thoracic aortic transection at our level I trauma center. Fourteen patients were managed nonoperatively, five patients underwent thoracotomy and direct aortic repair, and eight patients underwent endoluminal stent graft repair. Of the endovascular group (n=8), repairs were performed with stacked AneuRx aortic cuffs (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) (n = 6), a Gore thoracic aortic stent graft (Thoracic EXCLUDER; W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) (n=1), or a Medtronic Talent thoracic endograft (Medtronic, Inc.) (n=1). Access for stent graft deployment was the common femoral artery (n=2), iliac artery (n=4), or distal abdominal aorta (n=2). Completion arch aortography and postoperative CT scanning confirmed successful management of the aortic transection in each patient. There were no procedure-related deaths, paraplegia, or stroke. Postoperative complications included a brachial artery thrombosis in one patient as well as an external iliac artery dissection and acute renal failure in a second patient for a complication rate of 37.5%. Two patients died as a result of their injuries unrelated to the stent graft repair. Mean follow-up of 16.6 mo has shown no evidence of endoleak or stent graft migration. Of the open repair group (n=5), one patient died in the operating room during attempted aortic repair, and one patient had a postoperative stroke. Due to technical success and absence of delayed complications including endoleak and graft migration, stent graft repair of traumatic aortic transection has replaced open aortic repair as the primary treatment modality in the multiply injured trauma patient at our institution. The postoperative complication rate observed in this small series tempers the success to some degree, but the severity of the complications compares favorably with those observed in the open repair group.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2007; 138(2):181-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2006; 130(2):270-270.
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    ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle cell proliferation is a major pathophysiologic factor in injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and recurrent stenosis. We have demonstrated that recombinant human thrombomodulin (rTM) inhibits thrombin-induced arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rTM on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. A rabbit femoral artery balloon injury model was used. Bilateral superficial femoral arteries were deendothelialized with a 2F arterial embolectomy catheter. rTM (145 microg/kg; 2.0 microg/mL in circulation) or Tris-hydrochloride vehicle control was administered intravenously during the procedure, then either discontinued (group A) or administered twice daily for an additional 48 hours (group B). Rabbits were euthanized at 4 days and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and femoral artery specimens were prepared with in situ perfusion fixation and paraffin embedding. Luminal, intima, media, and whole artery areas were quantitated with digital imaging computerized planimetry. Intima-media and lumen-whole artery ratios were calculated. The injury-induced inflammatory reaction was also evaluated with light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical and immunohistofluorescence staining. In the buffer control group, neointimal hyperplasia after femoral artery balloon injury was evident at 2 weeks, and was pronounced at 4 weeks (P <.0001). Infusion of rTM significantly inhibited intimal hyperplasia at both 2 and 4 weeks (P <.0001). In group A, rTM reduced the intima-media ratio by 27% and 39% at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Extended administration of rTM (group B) resulted in inhibition of hyperplasia by 57% and 30% at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, but failed to reach significance compared with the shorter exposure. rTM infusion significantly inhibited thrombosis (8.1-fold) compared with the buffer control group (P =.012). rTM had no significant effect on lumen area or lumen-whole artery ratio, but treated arteries demonstrated significantly less compensatory dilatation (P =.045), as measured by whole artery area in response to less intimal hyperplasia. rTM administration inhibited platelet adhesion and inhibition of neutrophil infiltration to a degree that approached statistical significance (P =.0675). Systemic intravenous administration of rTM significantly decreases neointimal hyperplasia and improves patency in the rabbit femoral artery after balloon injury. In addition to exhibiting antithrombotic and antiproliferative effects, rTM may also invoke an anti-inflammatory mechanism, and may alter vascular remodeling in a multidimensional role to inhibit recurrent stenosis after arterial injury.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 05/2004; 39(5):1074-83. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2003; 41(6):252-252. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion is an important pathologic response to vessel injury or inflammation. On binding to its endothelial or platelet G protein-linked seven-transmembrane domain receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), thrombin releases a 41-amino acid peptide (TR(1-41)). We examined the effect of TR(1-41) on platelet activation and on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion. A monolayer of confluent human saphenous vein endothelial cells was incubated with washed human platelets. Platelets were stimulated with either TR(1-41), TR(21-41), scrambled TR(1-41), adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-epinephrine (EPI), thrombin, or thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Platelet activation was identified with flow cytometry. The magnitude of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion was determined with a laser scanning cytometer that scanned the monolayer of endothelial cells and identified fluorescently bound platelets. Maximal thrombin stimulation (0.1 U/mL) induced a threefold increase in platelets bound to endothelial cells compared with buffer alone. Stimulation with TR(1-41) (20 mmol/L) tripled the number of platelets bound to endothelial cells compared with thrombin. Scrambled sequence of TR(1-41) (20 mmol/L) and TR(21-41) (20 mmol/L), neither of which induces platelet activation, had minimal effect on platelet adhesion. Both TRAP (20 mmol/L) and ADP-EPI (20 mmol/L) induced less platelet-endothelial cell adhesion than did thrombin. TR(1-41)-induced platelet-endothelial cell adhesion was partially blocked by glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa-specific monoclonal antibody, 10E5 (10 mg/mL). TR(1-41), the cleaved peptide of PAR1, is a more potent stimulant of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion than is thrombin, TRAP, or ADP-EPI, and this adhesion is at least in part mediated by the platelet GPIIb-IIIa receptor.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 03/2003; 37(2):440-5. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The performance of synthetic bypass grafts to tibial level outflow arteries is greatly limited by early thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. In addition to its anticoagulant effect, thrombomodulin (TM), an endogenous thrombin inhibitor, also displays anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we coated small caliber expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts with TM to examine its effect on patency and intimal hyperplasia. Methods: 4 mm diameter ePTFE grafts were pretreated with the cross-linking agent 1-ethyl-3-(3-diamethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and then incubated with either 40μg (0.1 μg/μl) TM or buffer control at 4o C overnight. Either coated or uncoated grafts were then surgically implanted into the common carotid arteries of male pigs (32–47 kg) as an interposition graft. Grafts were then harvested at 1 week post-implantation and analyzed grossly and histologically for patency and intimal hyperplasia. Samples were also analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the presence of TM on the graft surface at explantation. Results: Successful coating of ePTFE with soluble TM was confirmed using SEM and TEM and protein C activation assays prior to implantation. At 1 week following implantation, 5 of 6 uncoated grafts thrombosed while 5 of 6 TM coated grafts remained patent (P = 0.01). In addition, endothelialization was evident histologically on the TM coated grafts and absent in control grafts. No difference was observed in degree of intimal hyperplasia at 1 week with minimal hyperplasia in either group at this early time point. SEM, TEM and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of TM remaining on the surface of the explanted coated grafts (open circles). Conclusion: Thrombomodulin can be durably coated onto ePTFE with TM remaining on the graft under arterial flow conditions. TM appears to promote endothelial growth and provides an anti-thrombotic surface to reduce early graft thrombosis.
    Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2003; 114(2):263-264.
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    ABSTRACT: An increased number of circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs) is present in patients with all clinical classes of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with CVI maintain elevated levels of PMAs following complete surgical correction of chronic venous insufficiency. Patients with superficial venous insufficiency and a normal deep venous system documented by duplex scan were included in the study. Venous blood was drawn from a superficial vein in the leg and an antecubital vein prior to vein stripping and again six weeks postoperatively. Control subjects without evidence of venous disease had blood drawn from an antecubital vein. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to analyze the samples for the presence of platelet-monocyte aggregates following incubation with buffer or 0.5 microM adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Postoperative duplex scanning demonstrated elimination of venous reflux in the superficial venous system and normal deep vein physiology in all nine patients. Preoperatively, patients with CVI had significantly elevated levels of circulating PMAs in both arm and leg samples without stimulation by an agonist compared to controls (15.2+/-1.1 and 14.3+/-1.3 vs 7.4+/-0.3 for controls, p<0.02 for each), and after stimulation by 0.5 microM ADP (33.7+/-4.7 and 34.3+/-5.2 vs 12.5+/-3.8 for controls, p<0.04 for each). There was no significant change in the number of PMAs in either patient arm or leg blood samples six weeks following correction of venous reflux by removal of the diseased veins. Complete correction of chronic venous insufficiency did not diminish the elevated circulating levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates. We conclude that the presence of an increased number of PMAs identified in patients with CVI is not secondary to the presence of venous reflux, but may be involved with the primary etiology of chronic venous insufficiency. This finding also suggests that a stimulus other than venous hypertension may be important in triggering the leukocyte activation seen in patients with chronic venous disease.
    Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2002; 10(5):464-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The success of synthetic grafts for vascular reconstruction remains limited by thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. In addition to the well-described antithrombotic effects of thrombomodulin, we have demonstrated that recombinant human thrombomodulin (rTM) inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by thrombin. This study investigated the binding of functional rTM to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). Immobilization of rTM was achieved by either (1) a direct coating or (2) a two-step binding process using a water-soluble condensing cross-reaction agent EDAC to modify the ePTFE surface followed by binding of rTM. The samples were then subjected to a tangential shaken wash. The evidence of bound rTM was evaluated by both morphologic and functional studies. SEM, BSI, and X-ray microanalysis identified that the two-step binding method resulted in significantly greater binding of rTM molecules to ePTFE pre- and post a 7-h wash than the direct coating method. With the two-step binding method rTM ranging from 0.25 to 12.5 microg immobilized to ePTFE-activated protein C (APC) in a concentration-dependent manner by more than 6000-fold compared to the buffer control (P < 0.04) and 50-85% more than direct coating (P < 0.004). With direct coating, the level of APC dropped significantly to near 40% of the preshaken level at 2 h and diminished to 26% at 7 h. Whereas, the level of APC with the two-step binding stabilized at 51 and 49% after being shaken 2 and 7 h, respectively. Functional rTM binding to ePTFE was significantly improved with a new two-step binding method.
    Journal of Surgical Research 06/2002; 105(2):200-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term results of Greenfield inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement have been well documented in adults; however, similar data do not exist for pediatric patients. The potential for growth and the increased life expectancy in younger patients may contribute to a difference in the natural history of filters placed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of pediatric patients with IVC filters. At the University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, medical records and radiographs of patients 18 years old or younger at the time of IVC filter placement were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by interview, physical examination, and venous duplex ultrasound scanning. A total of 15 IVC filters were placed in children 18 years old or younger between 1983 and 1999. In 10 patients the indications for IVC filter placement were lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism. In five patients, prophylactic filters were placed in the absence of DVT because of a high risk for the development of pulmonary embolism. Surgical exposure of the right internal jugular vein was used to place the first eight filters. The remainder were inserted percutaneously through the right internal jugular vein or the right common femoral vein. There were no complications or mortality related to filter insertion. Follow-up of the surviving 14 patients ranged from 19 months to 16 years. During long-term follow-up, no patient had a pulmonary embolus. Of the nine patients who had lower-extremity DVT, three developed mild common femoral venous reflux documented by duplex scan. Of the five patients who had prophylactic filters, four had no symptoms or duplex evidence of reflux. The other patient, who was paraplegic, had bilateral leg edema but no venous varicosities and no reflux on duplex scan 11 years after filter placement. No patient in either group had chronic venous obstruction. In long-term follow-up there were no instances of pulmonary embolism, IVC thrombosis, significant postphlebitic symptoms, or significant filter migration among 14 pediatric patients with Greenfield IVC filters. This suggests a safety profile and efficacy similar to that seen in adults.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 12/2001; 34(5):820-5. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of trauma 09/2001; 51(2):376-81. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence of platelets to endothelial cells may be a significant event in the development of vascular thrombosis. Existing models, which examine platelet-endothelial cell interactions, compromise endothelial cell integrity or use radioactivity to identify platelets that adhere to endothelial cells. We report a novel method for in vitro detection of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion that allows endothelial cells to remain as an intact monolayer and for visualization of individual platelets. Fluorescently labeled platelets were incubated with a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) identified platelets bound to endothelial cells based on their fluorescent signals. LSC detection of platelets reliably reproduced well-described findings of thrombin-induced platelet-endothelial cell adhesion. Results demonstrating reduced adhesion with a glycoprotein IIb-IIIa-specific blocking monoclonal antibody confirmed the specificity of the LSC detection of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion. LSC is a novel method for detecting platelet--endothelial cell adhesion. Its advantages over other methods are: (a) endothelial cells remain undisturbed and adherent throughout; (b) the ability to detect individual bound platelets and subpopulations; (c) the ability to store images and slides and then relocate, revisualize, and reanalyze individual cells or cell populations of interest; and (d) no radioactivity.
    Cytometry 05/2001; 43(4):308-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Restenosis after angioplasty or bypass grafting to restore circulation to ischemic organs is still an unsolved problem. Thrombin generated in high concentrations at the sites of vascular injury plays a central role in thrombosis and hemostasis. alpha-Thrombin has also been implicated as a mitogen for smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation that contributes to arterial restenosis. Thrombomodulin has a high affinity of binding with thrombin and converts thrombin from a procoagulant to an anticoagulant. This study was designed to examine whether thrombomodulin could also moderate the thrombin-mediated SMC proliferative response. Porcine carotid artery SMCs (passages 4-7) were plated onto 96-well plates and incubated for 3 days. After growth arrest in a defined serum-free medium for 2 to 3 days, SMCs were subjected to the reagents as follows: (1) human alpha-thrombin, (2) recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin containing a chondroitin sulfate moiety, (3) thrombin receptor agonist peptide (SFLLRNPNDKYEPF), and (4) alpha-thrombin or thrombin receptor agonist peptide combined with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM). The viability and proliferation status of SMCs were quantified with MTT (thiazolyl blue) mitochondrial function and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-DNA incorporation assays. Human alpha-thrombin increased SMC proliferation in a dose dependent manner by more than 25% and 30% with thrombin 1 U/mL to 3 U/mL compared with control groups on day 7 (P <.006). rTM concentrations from 0.5 microg/mL to 3 microg/mL have no significant effect on SMC growth. The stimulation of SMC proliferation induced by alpha-thrombin at 0.5 U/mL, 1 U/mL, and 2 U/mL was significantly inhibited with rTM at 2 microg/mL and 3 microg/mL on days 3, 7, and 10 as evaluated with MTT assay (P <.01 to <.05) and BrdU-DNA incorporation assay on day 3 (P <.008). Thrombin receptor agonist peptide increased SMC BrdU-DNA incorporation at 48 hours (P <.007), and its effect was not altered by rTM. rTM containing all of the extracellular domains of thrombomodulin inhibits the effect of thrombin on SMC proliferation in vitro. Because thrombin is a mitogenic mediator of SMC in vascular injury, inhibition of its function in vivo could help to prevent SMC hyperplasia. The success of further studies in vivo may lead to use of rTM for decreasing or preventing arterial restenosis.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 10/2000; 32(4):804-13. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Surgeons - J AMER COLL SURGEONS. 01/2000; 191(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed whether the increased numbers of platelet-monocyte aggregates observed in patients with venous stasis ulceration (VSU) represent a response to dermal ulceration or if it is a condition associated with underlying chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We also analyzed the expression of CD11b in patients with CVI to determine whether leukocyte activation, known to occur in VSU, is a precursor of or a response to ulceration. Patients with varying classes of CVI (n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 15), whose status was documented by means of duplex scanning, stood upright and stationary for 10 minutes. Two aliquots of blood, drawn from a distal leg vein and an antecubital fossa vein, were incubated with either buffer or one of three platelet agonists. After fixation, these samples were further incubated with fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies (f-MoAb) specific for CD14 (monocytes) and CD61 (platelets). The activated leukocyte assay was performed by incubating another aliquot of the blood samples with f-MoAb specific for CD11b and CD14. All samples were evaluated by means of flow cytometry. We observed significantly more platelet-monocyte aggregates throughout the circulation in patients with CVI than in control subjects (29% vs. 8%; P <.0002). Furthermore, patients with CVI formed significantly more of these aggregates in response to all platelet agonists than did control subjects. There were no significant differences between baseline numbers of aggregates or response to agonists in patients who had CVI with (n = 10) or without (n = 14) ulceration. Patients with CVI had more circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates than control subjects (7.2% vs. 3.6%; P =.05). The addition of platelet agonists to the blood of patients with CVI resulted in more platelet-neutrophil aggregates than in control subjects. Monocyte CD11b expression was higher in patients with CVI than in control subjects (7.5 vs. 3.7; P <.01), with no differences noted in CD11b expression between patients with or without ulceration. Neutrophil CD11b expression was low and similar in control subjects and patients with CVI. All classes of CVI are associated with significantly increased percentages of platelet-monocyte aggregates and increased percentages of platelet-neutrophil aggregates throughout the circulation. The presence of more of these aggregates and the increased propensity to form aggregates in the presence of platelet agonists in all classes of CVI suggests an underlying state of platelet activation and increased reactivity that is independent of the presence of ulceration. The increased expression of monocyte CD11b throughout the circulation in all classes of CVI suggests that although systemic monocyte activation occurs in CVI, its presence is independent of VSU as well.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 11/1999; 30(5):844-51. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass are often receiving aspirin therapy. Hypothermia, aspirin and cardiopulmonary bypass can each induce a platelet function defect, but it is not known if the effects of aspirin and hypothermia are additive in this regard. To address this question in humans in vivo, the forearm skin temperature of healthy volunteers was equilibrated and maintained at either normothermia (32 degrees C) or hypothermia (28 degrees C or 22 degrees C) before and 16 h after the ingestion of 650 mg aspirin. A standardized template bleeding time was performed on the forearm and the shed blood emerging from the wound was assayed for platelet surface P-selectin expression by whole blood flow cytometry (reflecting alpha granule secretion) and thromboxane B2 (the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2) by radioimmunoassay. Hypothermia resulted in marked prolongation of the bleeding time. Aspirin resulted in prolongation of the bleeding time under normothermic conditions, but only minimally augmented the hypothermia-induced prolongation of the bleeding time. Platelet surface P-selectin up-regulation in shed blood was abolished by hypothermia. Aspirin had no effect on maximal platelet surface P-selectin expression under normothermic or hypothermic conditions. Both hypothermia and aspirin resulted in markedly reduced shed blood thromboxane B2. Although aspirin slightly augmented the hypothermia-induced reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2, the concentration of thromboxane generated in shed blood under hypothermic conditions in the absence of aspirin had no effect on platelet surface P-selectin or platelet aggregation in whole blood. In conclusion, as determined by three independent parameters of the shed blood emerging from a standardized bleeding time wound (bleeding time, platelet surface P-selectin, and thromboxane B2), aspirin did not significantly augment hypothermia-induced platelet dysfunction in vivo.
    British Journal of Haematology 02/1999; 104(1):64-8. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass are often receiving aspirin therapy. Hypothermia, aspirin and cardiopulmonary bypass can each induce a platelet function defect, but it is not known if the effects of aspirin and hypothermia are additive in this regard. To address this question in humans in vivo, the forearm skin temperature of healthy volunteers was equilibrated and maintained at either normothermia (32°C) or hypothermia (28°C or 22°C) before and 16 h after the ingestion of 650 mg aspirin. A standardized template bleeding time was performed on the forearm and the shed blood emerging from the wound was assayed for platelet surface P-selectin expression by whole blood flow cytometry (reflecting α granule secretion) and thromboxane B2 (the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2) by radioimmunoassay. Hypothermia resulted in marked prolongation of the bleeding time. Aspirin resulted in prolongation of the bleeding time under normothermic conditions, but only minimally augmented the hypothermia-induced prolongation of the bleeding time. Platelet surface P-selectin up-regulation in shed blood was abolished by hypothermia. Aspirin had no effect on maximal platelet surface P-selectin expression under normothermic or hypothermic conditions. Both hypothermia and aspirin resulted in markedly reduced shed blood thromboxane B2. Although aspirin slightly augmented the hypothermia-induced reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2, the concentration of thromboxane generated in shed blood under hypothermic conditions in the absence of aspirin had no effect on platelet surface P-selectin or platelet aggregation in whole blood. In conclusion, as determined by three independent parameters of the shed blood emerging from a standardized bleeding time wound (bleeding time, platelet surface P-selectin, and thromboxane B2), aspirin did not significantly augment hypothermia-induced platelet dysfunction in vivo.
    British Journal of Haematology 12/1998; 104(1):64 - 68. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of venous stasis ulceration, but the involvement of activated platelets and leukocyte-platelet aggregates has not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with venous stasis ulceration have increased platelet activation and a propensity toward formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Blood was drawn from the superficial veins of the leg just proximal to a venous stasis ulcer and from an antecubital vein in 14 patients with venous stasis ulceration. Blood was also drawn from the antecubital vein of 14 volunteers without evidence of venous disease. Whole-blood flow cytometry was used to analyze the samples before and after activation with a panel of agonists for evidence of platelet activation and the formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Patients with venous stasis ulceration had a greater number of monocyte-platelet aggregates in both the arm and leg samples than did the control subjects (p < 0.01). Furthermore, antecubital blood samples from patients with venous stasis ulceration stimulated with either thrombin-receptor agonist peptide, adenosine diphosphate, or phorbol myristate acetate formed more monocyte-platelet aggregates than did control samples (p < 0.05). No differences in platelet activation or neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation were noted among the three sample groups. Patients with venous stasis ulceration have an increase in the number of monocyte-platelet aggregates in systemic venous blood as well as in venous blood adjacent to a venous stasis ulcer, implicating the monocyte as the leukocyte involved in the pathogenesis of venous stasis ulceration. No association was identified between the presence of a venous stasis ulcer and either neutrophil-platelet aggregation or the activation of individual platelets. Because platelet activation is necessary for the formation of monocyte-platelet aggregates, these data also suggest that monocyte-platelet aggregation is a more sensitive marker for in vivo platelet activation than is the identification of individual activated platelets.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/1998; 27(6):1109-15; discussion 1115-6. · 2.88 Impact Factor