[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that was involved in insulin resistance. RBP4 is predominantly expressed from the liver in normal metabolic state to transport retinoids throughout the body, but the exact physiological function and the regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte-derived RBP4 have not been revealed. We conducted the genetic analysis about metabolic parameters in Japanese and Mongolian; the minor allele carriers of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP -803G>A) showed significantly higher BMI in Japanese men (P = 0.009) and women (P = 0.017), and in Mongolian women (P = 0.009). Relative quantification of RBP4 transcripts in -803GA heterozygotes showed that the minor allele-linked haplotype-derived mRNA was significantly more abundant than the transcript from major allele. RBP4 promoter assay in 3T3L1 adipocytes revealed that the minor allele increased the promoter activity double to triple and the administration of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) enhanced the activity. Multiple alignment analysis of human, mouse, rat, and cattle RBP4 promoter suggested conserved seven transcription factor binding motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the -803G>A SNP modulate the affinity against unidentified DNA-binding factor, which was assumed to be a suppressive factor. These results collectively suggested that the minor allele of RBP4 regulatory SNP enhanced the expression in adipocytes, which may be associated with the adipogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome wide association studies discovered seven novel loci that influence plasma concentrations of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in Europeans. To date, large scale replication studies using populations with known differences in genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern have not been undertaken.
To address this issue, we tested associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the seven novel loci and plasma lipid profiles in 21 010 Japanese individuals.
Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the rs3812316 in MLXIPL was strongly associated with triglyceride concentrations (p approximately 3.0x10(-11), 7.1 mg/dl decrease per minor C allele) and that rs599839 in CELSR2/PSRC1/SORT1 was strongly associated with LDL cholesterol concentrations (p approximately 3.1x10(-11), 4.7 mg/dl decrease per minor G allele) in the Japanese population. SNPs near ANGPTL3, TRIB1 and GALNT2 showed evidence for associations with triglyceride concentrations (3.6x10(-6)<p<5.1x10(-5)). SNP near TRIB1 showed association with LDL cholesterol concentrations (p approximately 1.2x10(-5)). On the other hand, SNPs in NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and MVK/MMAB were not associated with any plasma lipid profiles in the Japanese population. Ethnic differences in LD pattern would explain the lack of association between these two loci and plasma lipid concentrations in the Japanese population.
Associations between the novel loci and plasma lipid concentrations were generally conserved in the Japanese population, with the exception of NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and MVK/MMAB.
Journal of Medical Genetics 06/2009; 46(6):370-4. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increase in prevalence of lifestyle related diseases becomes one of the main threats to human health in Asia-Pacific regions. Especially Pacific countries face the marked epidemic of obesity and related disorders. Understanding of the genetic basis for these diseases is awaited. We investigated frequencies of 106 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with lifestyle related diseases in 1,878 individuals from five Asia-Pacific countries including Japan, China, Mongolia, Thailand, and Palau. Population genetic analyses revealed that disease susceptible variants of SNPs in TRIB3, PTGS2, ADIPOR1, DGAT1, UCP2, FOXC2, and ESR1 were overrepresented in the Palau population in comparison with the Asian populations. These gene variants likely contribute to the high prevalence of obesity and related diseases in Pacific populations. The present results would be helpful in coping with the lifestyle related diseases and may provide a new insight into the human dispersal in Asia-Pacific regions.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 11/2008; 20 Suppl:173-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate genetic heterogeneity among local Japanese populations.
We performed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) study of four demographically distinct local populations (population 1: a large city; population 2: isolated islands; populations 3 and 4: rural areas). Seventy SNPs in a region spanning 5 Mb of chromosome 17 known to be a candidate region for essential hypertension were genotyped and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed.
Statistical analyses of SNP allele frequencies and haplotype distribution showed significant divergence among the populations, mostly between population 2 and the other populations. Pairwise D' declined with increasing population size, and smaller populations retained a high linkage disequilibrium.
Population 2 is likely to have a different ancestry from the majority of the Japanese population, whereas the heterogeneity among the other populations may result from differences in population size or geographic background.
Community Genetics 02/2008; 11(3):150-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in serum is associated with insulin resistance. To examine this further, the genomic region of RBP4 was genetically surveyed in Mongolian people, who as a group are suffering from a recent rapid increase in diabetes. The RBP4 gene was screened by DHPLC system, and the PCR fragments which showed heteroduplex peaks in multiple samples were followed by direct sequencing to identify common polymorphisms in 48 Mongolian diabetic samples. Identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 511 control and 281 type 2 diabetes samples. The functions of SNPs in the regulatory region were assessed by reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Possible association between functional SNPs and serum RBP4 levels or metabolic parameters was statistically assessed. Nine SNPs were identified in the RBP4 gene. A case-control study revealed that the rare alleles of four SNPs were associated with increased risk of diabetes, even after Bonferroni correction (-803, G > A, P = 0.0054; +5169, C > T, P = 0.0025; +6969, G > C, P = 0.0015; +7542, T > del, P = 0.0015). The -803 G > A SNP influenced the transcription efficiency in a hepatocarcinoma cell line as well as the binding efficiency of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha to the motif. In addition, the -803 A allele was associated with increased serum RBP4 levels in diabetic patients. We have identified a functional SNP in the RBP4 gene associated with type 2 diabetes in Mongolian people.
Human Genetics 02/2007; 120(6):879-88. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene is a member of the NALP subfamily of the CATERPILLER protein family that is expressed predominantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, which is to regulate apoptosis or inflammation through the activation of NF-kappaB and caspase. Recent genetic analyses suggested an association between inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes in the development of hypertension. This is the first genetic study indicating an association between the CIAS1 gene and susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). The frequency of subject with the homozygote of 12 repeat allele was significantly higher in patients with hypertension compared with control subjects (987 cases, 924 controls) (P=0.030; odds ratio=1.24) at a novel VNTR polymorphism of CIAS1 intron 4 loci. We also found that the mean of systolic blood pressure of homozygotes of 12 repeat allele was 6.4 mmHg higher than those of homozygotes of non-12 repeat allele in male random population (P=0.009). The frequency of six SNPs spanning of the CIAS1 gene was not significantly between patients and controls. The real-time PCR analysis showed that among healthy young adults, 12-12 subjects expressed CIAS1 mRNA in peripheral leukocytes significantly more abundantly than homozygote of non-12 repeat alleles subjects (P<0.05). Reporter gene assay of the CIAS1-VNTR in HL60 stimulated by lipopolysaccharides showed that the intronic sequence involving 12 repeat increased the expression of luciferase compared with 9, 7, and 6 repeats. Thus, we propose here the CIAS1 is associated with EH through the dominant expression of transcripts, which may depend on the CIAS1-VNTR genotype.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 12/2006; 14(12):1295-305. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are of considerable importance in transfusion medicine as well as in newborn or autoimmune hemolytic diseases due to their high antigenicity. We identified a major DNaseI hypersensitive site at the 5' flanking regions of both RHD and RHCE exon 1. A 34 bp fragment located at -191 to -158 from a translation start position, and containing the TCCCCTCCC sequence, was involved in enhancing promoter activity, which was assessed by luciferase reporter gene assay. A biotin-labelled 34 bp probe isolated an mRNA transporter protein, Aly/REF. The specific binding of Aly/REF to RH promoter in erythroid was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The silencing of Aly/REF by siRNA reduced not only the RH promoter activity of the reporter gene but also transcription from the native genome. These facts provide second proof of Aly/REF as a transcription coactivator, initially identified as a coactivator for the TCRalpha enhancer function. Aly/REF might be a novel transcription cofactor for erythroid-specific genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a clinical mishap based on sample contamination of cytological specimens. Bronchial lavage fluid collected from three male patients was submitted to a pathological institute for cytological diagnosis and to the clinical laboratory in the hospital for tuberculosis screening. Cytological slides of two patients were diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma and lobectomy was carried out on one patient. However, diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tuberculoma. To resolve the discrepancy, genome DNA was isolated from patients' blood, cytological slide glasses and the mycobacterial culture tubes. Analysis of mitochondrial hyper-variable sequence and microsatellite revealed sample contamination in the cytological slide of the tuberculoma patient. DNA from the mycobacterial culture tubes showed identical results with the cytological slides, suggesting that the contamination occurred at the bed-side. Preservation of part of cytological specimen will be a help to avoid dispute between pathological laboratory and hospital over responsibility of incident.
Legal Medicine 01/2004; 5(4):246-50. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We cloned a rat ABO homologue and established human A- and B-transferase transgenic rats. A DNA fragment corresponding to exon 7 of the human ABO gene was amplified from Wistar rat genomic DNA and sequenced. Using the amplified fragments as a probe for Southern blotting, multiple hybridized bands appeared on both EcoRI- and BamHI-digested genomes of seven rat strains, which showed variations in the band numbers among the strains. Four cDNAs were cloned from a Wistar rat, three of which showed A-transferase activity and one of which showed B-transferase activity. These activities were dependent on the equivalent residues at 266 and 268 of human ABO transferase. Wild Wistar rats expressed A-antigen in salivary gland, intestine, and urinary bladder tissue, but B-antigen was not stained in any organs studied, whereas a transcript from the ABO homologue with B-transferase activity was ubiquitous. Human A-transferase and B-transferase were transferred into Wistar rats. A-transgenic rats expressed A-antigen in ectopic tissue of the brain plexus, type II lung epithelium, pancreas, and epidermis. B-antigen in the B-transgenic rat was expressed in the same organs as A-transgenic rats. These results may shed light on the function and evolution of the ABO gene in primates.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2002; 277(48):46463-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse genomic sequence of the region containing the gene Rhced, the orthologue to the human gene RH30, was determined to elucidate the structure of Rhced and its flanking regions and to compare these with the corresponding human genomic region. Two genes, Smp1 and AK003528 (an orthologue of FLJ10747), flank Rhced. Neither sequences homologous to the characteristic nucleotide elements flanking the RHD gene in humans (rhesus boxes) nor an additional Rh gene were found within the mouse region sequenced. This result and that of a previous report demonstrate that this chromosomal region of the mouse comprises five genes (FLJ10747-RHCE-SMP1-NPD014-P29) that exhibit syntenic homology with the corresponding human region, which suggests that the RHD gene and rhesus boxes were inserted later. Evaluations of tissue distribution and subcellular localization of these genes indicate that the SMP1 orthologue has a ubiquitous tissue distribution and cytoplasmic localization, whereas AK003528 is expressed slightly higher in testis with a strong subcellular localization in the nucleus. Despite the steady improvements in the draft sequence of the human genome, this study demonstrates the continuing benefits of comparative genetic analyses in increasing our understanding of human genomic structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations detected in 161 weak D samples from Caucasians have been classified into 16 types. Because flow cytometry using monoclonal anti-D antibodies (mAbs) has shown that weak D red cells display type-specific antigen density, these mutations in transmembranous regions have been assigned weak D phenotypes. The present study attempts to confirm or refute this assignment.
We amplified DNA from four Japanese weak D samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and directly sequenced the amplified DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed three vectors expressing mutant RHDs-- G212C, V270G (weak D type 1) and G358A (type 2)--in K562 cells. The expression of RhD antigens was examined by flow cytometry using mAbs.
A new mutation resulting in a conversion at amino acid residue 212 (Gly to Cys) was detected in a Japanese weak D sample. K562 cells transduced with mutant RhD cDNA reacted weakly in a type-specific manner with mAbs.
The mutations--G212C (new weak D type), V270G (weak D type 1) and G358A (type 2)-- in transmembranous regions had obvious effects on the D epitopes recognized by mAbs. The results of this study provide direct evidence that these mutations can account for weak D phenotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specificity of autoantibodies in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been studied using the serological procedure and immunoprecipitation technique with rare phenotype red cells. We attempted to analyze specificity using recombinant rhesus (Rh) blood group and band3 antigens expressed on erythroleukemic cell lines, KU812E. The autoantibody eluates were isolated by the acid elution procedure from the red cells of 20 AIHA patients. The recombinant Rh antigens, RhD, cE, ce, CE, and chimera antigens CE-D and D-CE, were obtained by retroviral cDNA transduction into KU812E cells, and the cell line expressing the antigens was cloned. Band3 cDNA was also obtained and introduced into KU812E and cloned KU812 expressing RhcE. The reactivities of AIHA eluates with recombinant Rh and band3 antigens were studied by flow cytometry. Fifteen eluates reacted with at least one of the RhcE, ce, or CE antigens, and four eluates reacted with RhD. Seven eluates with strong Rh specificity were studied further using chimera antigen. Five eluates showed reduced or lost reactivity, although two eluates reacted identically with the chimera antigens as wild type. These results indicated that conformational epitopes constituted by RhD or CE specific exofacial peptide loops are important for autoantibodies in most cases. Seven eluates reacted with band3, five exclusively. The coexpression study of RhcE and band3 did not enhance the expression of either antigen nor the reactivity with patient eluates, indicating that association of Rh and band3 was not involved in the appearance of autoantigen.
American Journal of Hematology 11/2001; 68(2):106-14. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the entire nucleotide sequences of all introns within the RHD and RHCE genes by amplifying genomic DNA using long PCR methods. The RHD and RHCE genes were 57,295 and 57,831 bp in length, respectively. Aligning both genes revealed 138 gaps (insertions and deletions) below 100 bp, 1116 substitutions in all introns and all exons (coding region), and 5 gaps of over 100 bp. Homologies (%) between the RH genes were 93.8% over all introns and coding exons and 91.7% over all exons and introns. Various short tandem repeats (STRs) and many interspersed nuclear elements were identified in both genes. The proportions of Alu sequences in the RHD and RHCE genes were 25.9 and 25.7%, respectively and these Alu sequences were concentrated in several regions. We confirmed multiple recombinations in introns 1 and 2. Such multiple recombination, which probably arose due to the concentrations of Alu sequences and the high level of the homology (%), is one of most important factors in the formation and evolution of RH gene. The variability of the Rh system may be generated because of these features of RH genes. Apparent mutational hotspots and regions with low of K values (the numbers of substitutions per nucleotide site) caused by recombinations as well as true mutational hotspots may be found in human genome. Accordingly, in searching for and identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) especially in noncoding regions, apparent mutational hotspots and areas of low K values by recombination should be noted since the unequal distribution of SNPs will reduce the power of SNPs as genetic maker. Combining the complete sequences' data of both RH genes with serological findings will provide beneficial information with which to elucidate the mechanism of recombination, mutation, polymorphism, and evolution of other genes containing the RH gene as well as to analyze Rh variants and develop new methods of Rh genotyping.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2000; 274(3):670-83. · 2.28 Impact Factor