[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cdc42 is a key regulator of dynamic actin organization. However, little is known about how Cdc42-dependent actin regulation influences steady-state actin structures in differentiated epithelia. We employed inner ear hair cell (HC)-specific conditional knockout to analyze the role of Cdc42 in HCs possessing highly elaborate stable actin protrusions (stereocilia). HCs of Atoh1-Cre;Cdc42(flox/flox) mice developed normally but progressively degenerated after maturation, resulting in progressive hearing loss particularly at high frequencies. Cochlear HC degeneration was more robust in inner HCs than in outer HCs, and began as stereocilia fusion and depletion, accompanied by a thinning and waving circumferential actin belt at apical junctional complexes (AJCs). Adenovirus-encoded GFP-Cdc42 expression in HCs and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of HCs from transgenic mice expressing Cdc42-FRET biosensor indicated Cdc42 presence/activation at stereociliary membranes and AJCs in cochlear HCs. Cdc42-knockdown in MDCK cells produced phenotypes similar to those of Cdc42-deleted HCs, including abnormal microvilli, disrupted AJCs, and downregulated actin-turnover represented by enhanced phospho-cofilin levels. Thus, Cdc42 influenced maintenance of stable actin structures through elaborate tuning of actin-turnover and maintained function and viability of cochlear HCs.
Journal of Cell Science 03/2014; · 5.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-1 regulates vascular angiogenesis and stabilization, and is reported to promote bone formation by facilitating angiogenesis. To estimate the role of Ang1 in odontogenesis, we explored the distribution of Ang1 and the receptor, Tie2 in the mouse developing and mature first molar of the mandible. At embryonic day 18, when differentiation of odontoblasts begins, immunosignals for Ang1 were intensely detected in the basement membrane and the distal side, which faced the basement membrane of odontoblasts. In situ hybridization revealed that Ang1 was expressed in odontoblasts and ameloblasts facing the basement membrane. Tie2 was localized in the distal side of odontoblasts. After birth, Ang1 was detected in the predentin, whereas both Ang1 and Tie2 were colocalized in odontoblasts and odontoblast processes. These distributions were retained up to 8 weeks. In contrast to odontoblasts, ameloblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts expressed Ang1 but did not express Tie2. Colocalization of Ang1 and Tie2 in odontoblasts and selective expression of Tie2 in odontoblasts among cells responsible for calcified tissue formation suggested the involvement of autocrine signals of Ang1-Tie2 in dentinogenesis.
Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 02/2014; 47(1):19-25. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although iron overload is implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis, the precise mechanism was not known yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of iron overload upon the induction of hepatocyte proliferation after 70 % partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats fed with rat chow with 3 % carbonyl iron for 3 months. In normal-diet rats, the increase in Ki-67 labeling index (LI) commenced at 24 h post-PH and the LIs of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) incorporated 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and phospho-histone H3 reached maximum values at 36 and 48 h after PH, respectively. In iron-overload rats, the above parameters occurred 12 h earlier compared to that of normal-diet rats, shortening the G0-G1 transition. Interestingly, nuclear staining for metallothionein (MT), which is essential for hepatocyte proliferation, was noted even at 0 h in iron-overload rats, while MT expression occurred at 6 h in the normal rats. Moreover, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression, which is an essential early event leading to liver regeneration, was detected in Kupffer cells at 0 h in iron-overload rats. These results may indicate that overloaded iron, maybe through the induction of MT and NF-κB, may keep liver as a state ready to regenerate in response to PH, by bypassing signal transduction cascades involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although constipation is very common during pregnancy, the exact mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that the involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) in the regulation of electrolyte transporter in the colon leads to constipation. In this study, the intestines of normal female ICR mouse and pregnant mice were examined for the expression of ERα and ERβ by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. ERβ, but not ERα, was expressed in surface epithelial cells of the proximal, but not distal, colon on pregnancy days 10, 15, and 18, but not day 5, and the number of ERβ-positive cells increased significantly during pregnancy. Expression of NHE3, the gene that harbors estrogen response element, examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, was localized in the surface epithelial cells of the proximal colon and increased in parallel with ERβ expression. In ovariectomized mice, NHE3 expression was only marginal and was up-regulated after treatment with 17β-estradiol (E(2)), but not E(2) + ICI 182,780 (estrogen receptor antagonist). Moreover, knock-down of ERβ expression by electroporetically transfected siRNA resulted in a significant reduction of NHE3 expression. These results indicate that ERβ regulates the expression of NHE3 in the proximal colon of pregnant mice through estrogen action, suggesting the involvement of increased sodium absorption by up-regulated NHE3 in constipation during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) leads to histological changes in the peritoneal membrane. Angiogenesis and inflammation caused by glucose degradation products (GDPs) play crucial roles in peritoneal fibrosis. One such GDP is methylglyoxal (MGO), which enhances the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs bind to their receptor (RAGE) and activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is a key regulator of angiogenesis and inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a tea polyphenol, inhibits angiogenesis and inflammation. Here, we examined whether EGCG suppresses peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Based on preliminary examination, 2mL of 40mM MGO or PD fluid was injected intraperitoneally and EGCG (50mg/kg) or saline was injected subcutaneously for 3weeks. In comparison to PD fluid+saline-treated mice, the peritoneal tissues of MGO+saline-treated mice showed marked thickening of the submesothelial compact zone. In the submesothelial compact zone of the MGO+saline-treated mice, CD31-positive vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased, as were inflammation, F4/80-positive macrophages, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Moreover, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of reactive oxygen species, and NF-κB, determined by Southwestern histochemistry, in the submesothelial compact zone were also increased in MGO+saline-treated mice. These changes were attenuated in MGO+EGCG-treated mice. We demonstrated that EGCG treatment suppresses peritoneal fibrosis via inhibition of NF-κB. Furthermore, EGCG inhibits reactive oxygen species production. The results of this study indicate that EGCG is a potentially novel candidate for the treatment of peritoneal fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone modification has been implicated in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the association of differently modified histone H3 with a specific stage of germ cells during spermatogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the localization of variously modified histone H3 in paraffin-embedded sections of adult mouse testis immunohistochemically, focusing on acetylation at lysine 9 (H3K9ac), lysine 18 (H3K18ac), and lysine 23 (H3K23ac); tri-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3); and phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10phos). As a result, we found that there was a significant fluctuation in the modifications; in spermatogonia, the stainings for H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and H3K23ac were strong while that for H3K4me3 was weak. In spermatocytes, the stainings for H3K9ac, H3K18ac, H3K23ac, and H3K4me3 were reduced in the preleptotene to pachytene stage, but in diplotene stage the stainings for H3K18ac, H3K23ac, and H3K4me3 seemed to become intense again. The staining for H3K27me3 was nearly constant throughout these stages. In the ensuing spermiogenesis, a dramatic acetylation and methylation of histone H3 was found in the early elongated spermatids and then almost all signals disappeared in the late elongated spermatids, in parallel with the replacement from histones to protamines. In addition, we confirmed that the staining of histone H3S10phos was exclusively associated with mitotic and meiotic cell division. Based upon the above results, we indicated that the modification pattern of histone H3 is subject to dynamic change and specific to a certain stage of germ cell differentiation during mouse spermatogenesis.
ACTA HISTOCHEMICA ET CYTOCHEMICA 08/2011; 44(4):183-90. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to test a hypothesis that the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a key factor in the pathologic difference between cholesteatomatous (C-COM) and noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (NC-COM). We compared the expression levels of KGF and its receptor (KGFR) and the proliferation activity of epithelial cells between NC-COM and C-COM.
The epithelial lesion was surgically excised with subepithelial tissue from 18 patients with NC-COM and 70 patients with C-COM, and was processed for immunohistochemistry for KGF and KGFR. We also examined the proportion of proliferating epithelial cells using Ki-67 and the extent of infiltrating B and T cells.
Keratinocyte growth factor was positive in 5 of 18 (28%) NC-COM specimens and in 61 of 69 (88%) C-COM specimens (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 37 (60%) C-COM specimens were positive for KGFR, but none of NC-COM were positive (0%; p < 0.01). The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was significantly smaller in NC-COM than in C-COM (p < 0.001). B-Cell LI was almost similar in the 2 groups. T-Cell LI was significantly higher in C-COM than in NC-COM (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, T-cell LI in NC-COM was higher in KGF-positive tissues than in KGF-negative tissues (p < 0.05).
The results indicated that coexpression of KGF and KGFR seems to explain the pathologic difference between C-COM and NC-COM, and that KGF may play an important role in the development of cholesteatoma.
Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 07/2010; 31(5):745-51. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is involved in the development and regeneration of a variety of tissues. To clarify the role of KGF in cartilage wound healing, we examined the expression of KGF and its receptor (KGFR) immunohistochemically in the wound healing area of rat tracheal cartilage, and the direct effect of recombinant KGF on the proliferation and differentiation of primary cultures of rat chondrocytes. KGF was found in the cytoplasm of both chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. On the other hand, KGFR was detected only in the plasma membrane of chondrocytes. Although the expression of KGF was similar in the cartilage and perichondrial area before and after injury, KGFR expression was induced after injury and limited to proliferating chondrocytes. The staining pattern of KGF and KGFR was same in the mature and the immature rat tracheal cartilage. Moreover, in vitro experiments using primary cultured chondrocytes revealed that KGF at 200 ng/ml significantly increased the number of chondrocytes (~1.5-fold), and significantly reduced acid mucopolysaccharide production. These results indicate that KGF stimulates chondrocyte proliferation, suggesting that KGF could therapeutically modulate the wound healing process in the tracheal cartilage.
ACTA HISTOCHEMICA ET CYTOCHEMICA 06/2010; 43(3):89-98. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the subcellular distributions and gene structures of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor in 50 cases of human primary lung cancer. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed substantially aberrant IRF3 expression specific to the cancer lesions (2 and 6 tumors with nuclear staining, and 4 and 5 tumors with negative staining, in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively), while the morphologically normal region around the tumors exhibited only cytoplasmic staining. In addition, we determined the sequence of the entire IRF3 coding region, and found two novel variants with the amino acid changes (S(175)(AGC)-->R(175)(CGC) and A(208)(GCC)-->D(208)(GAC)). The R(175) variant was also detected in a morphologically normal region around the nuclear staining squamous cell carcinoma, and exhibited almost the same functions as the wild type IRF3. On the other hand, the D(208) variant, found in the negative staining squamous cell carcinoma cases, reduced the nuclear translocation in response to IkappaB kinase epsilon stimulation, as compared to the wild type IRF3, but the same variant was detected in the surrounding morphologically normal region. The aberrant expression of IRF3 and the novel D(208) variant may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of primary lung cancer.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2010; 397(2):202-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC.
American Journal Of Pathology 04/2010; 176(6):2602-6. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that has been shown to play a major role in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. However, the knowledge on which cells are actually synthesizing HSP47 in the lung parenchyma in pulmonary fibrosis was only limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization of HSP47 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in normal lung and in the lungs of mice in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, using in situ hybridization. For the purpose, ICR mice were intravenously injected with 10 mg/kg per day of bleomycin for five consecutive days. The lung cells expressing HSP47 mRNA were identified in control (saline alone) and bleomycin-treated mice by in situ hybridization. The signal for HSP47 mRNA was markedly increased in bleomycin-treated lungs compared with that of controls. HSP47 mRNA was localized in alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive myofibroblasts, surfactant-protein-A-positive type II pneumocytes, and F4/80-positive macrophages in the active fibrotic areas. These results suggest that these cells may synthesize procollagen in the fibrotic process of bleomycin-treated lungs through upregulation of HSP47 mRNA and play an important role in fibrogenesis.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 03/2010; 456(3):309-15. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is the cause of cervical cancer in most countries including Japan, the involvement of cervical cancer with HPV types in Mongolian and Myanmar populations is largely unknown. We examined the expression of HPV in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissues from 40 Japanese, 32 Mongolian, and 30 Myanmar cervical cancer patients. We performed immunohistochemistry using anti-HPV16 and anti-HPV 1, 6, 11, 16, 18 and 31 cocktail and then correlated it with the expression of Ki-67 and p63. HPV 16 was detected in 72%, 65% and 50% of Japanese, Mongolian and Myanmar cervical cancer patients, respectively, whereas 5 (13%) of the 40 patients, 8 (25%) of the 32 patients and 7 (23%) of the 30 patients in HPV 16-negative cancers were positive for other HPV types included in the cocktail, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) as well as p63 LI was significantly higher in HPV 16-positive patients than in HPV 16-negative ones in the Japanese and Mongolian samples. p63 expression was significantly associated with stage III and IV in Japan and Mongolia. These findings suggest that HPV 16 may be associated with cell proliferative activity and tumor progression, possibly depending upon the expression of p63 in the cervical cancer. In addition, immunohistochemical detection for distinguishing the type of HPV may also be useful for cervical cancer in the clinical setting.
ACTA HISTOCHEMICA ET CYTOCHEMICA 12/2009; 42(6):181-90. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rats pulmonary resection is followed by lung compensatory growth. However, the molecular mechanism underlying lung compensatory growth remains unclear. Keratinocyte growth factor is expressed in lung tissue and is considered a possible mitogen for lung epithelial cells. The objectives of this study were to define the role of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in rat lung compensatory growth after trilobectomy and the effect of exogenous keratinocyte growth factor gene transfection.
Adult Lewis rats were used. Right trilobectomy was performed in the operation group and sham thoracotomy in the sham group. In the operation group, keratinocyte growth factor-FLAG or FLAG expression vector was transfected directly into the lung by means of electroporation. Expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor and alveolar cell proliferation index based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels were measured in the right lung at day 14 after the operation.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, keratinocyte growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor receptor expression in lung epithelial cells was significantly increased at day 4 after trilobectomy. Transfection of keratinocyte growth factor-FLAG expression vector resulted in further significant enhancement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at day 4 after trilobectomy; however, the transfection of FLAG expression vector did not alter the enhancement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Exogenous expression of keratinocyte growth factor in the remaining lung by means of electroporation significantly augmented epithelial proliferation and decreased the average airspace distance (mean linear intercept).
Our results implicate keratinocyte growth factor in the induction of alveolar epithelial cell proliferation for compensatory lung growth and indicate that overexpression of keratinocyte growth factor in the remaining lung by means of electroporation significantly augmented lung epithelial proliferation.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2009; 137(6):1499-507. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In situ polymerase chain reaction (in situ PCR), which can detect a few copies of genes within a cell by amplifying the target gene, was developed to better understand the biological functions of tissues. In this study, we optimized the protocol conditions for the detection of X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene in paraffin-embedded sections of mouse reproductive organs. The effects of various concentrations of proteinase K (PK) and PCR cycle numbers were examined. To label the amplified DNA, we used digoxigenin-dUTP (Dig), Cy-3-dUTP (Cy-3), or FluorX-dCTP (FluorX). The optimal concentration of PK was 50 microg/ml for the ovary and 10 microg/ml for the testis. Ten PCR cycles were optimal for Dig and 25 cycles were optimal for FluorX and Cy-3 in the ovary and testis. The signal-to-noise ratio of FluorX and Cy-3 for ovarian tissue was better than that of Dig. Using the above conditions, we detected 1-4 and 1-2 spots of pgk-1 in the nuclei of granulosa and germ cells, respectively. Our results indicate that in situ PCR is useful for detecting a specific gene in paraffin-embedded sections under optimized conditions of both PCR cycle number and PK concentration.
Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 05/2009; 42(2):15-21. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to better understand the biology of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), we aimed to establish a novel method, which allows the primary growth of ATL cells using a co-culture system with murine bone marrow-derived stromal cells, MS-5. ATL cells grew in close contact with MS-5 layers and formed so-called "cobblestone areas" (CAs) without the addition of IL-2. In clinical samples, eight of ten (80.0%) cases of acute or lymphoma type ATL cells formed CAs. The frequency of CA forming cells in ATL cells ranged from 0.03 to 1.04%. The morphology, immunophenotyping, and DNA analysis indicated that cells composing CA were compatible with ATL cells, and clonally identical to primary CD4-positive ATL cells. Furthermore, in ATL cells composing CA, the expression of p40Tax was down-regulated in transcriptional and translational level, while that of HTLV-I basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) gene was comparable to the level of primary ATL cells, resembling expression pattern of proviral genes in in vivo ATL cells. By microarray analysis, several genes which coded products involved in cell-cell interaction, and cellular survival and proliferation, were differentially expressed in ATL cells composing CA compared with primary samples. In conclusion, our co-culture system allows for the first time the growth of primary ATL cells in vitro, and might be useful as an in vitro assay for biological and clinical studies to develop molecular targeting drugs against ATL.
International journal of hematology 01/2009; 88(5):551-64. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a better understanding of epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation, it is important to analyze DNA methylation at
a specific site. Although previous studies described methylation of isolated DNA extracted from cells and tissues using a
combination of appropriate restriction endonucleases, no application to tissue cell level has been reported. Here, we report
a new method, named histo endonuclease-linked detection of methylation sites of DNA (HELMET), designed to detect methylation
sites of DNA with a specific sequences in a tissue section. In this study, we examined changes in the methylation level of
CCGG sites during spermatogenesis in paraffin-embedded sections of mouse testis. In principle, the 3′-OH ends of DNA strand
breaks in a section were firstly labeled with a mixture of dideoxynucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT),
not to be further elongated by TdT. Then the section was digested with Hpa II, resulting in cutting the center portion of non-methylated CCGG. The cutting sites were labeled with biotin-16-dUTP by
TdT. Next, the section was treated with Msp I, which can cut the CCGG sequence irrespective of the presence or absence of methylation of the second cytosine, and the
cutting sites were labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP by TdT. Finally, both biotin and digoxigenin were visualized by enzyme-
or fluorescence-immunohistochemistry. Using this method, we found hypermethylation of CCGG sites in most of the germ cells
although non-methylated CCGG were colocalized in elongated spermatids. Interestingly, some TUNEL-positive germ cells, which
are frequent in mammalian spermatogenesis, became markedly Hpa II-reactive, indicating that the CCGG sites may be demethylated during apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the cell-biological effect of topically applied 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on middle ear cholesteatoma, 12 attic cholesteatomas were treated with topical application of 5-FU cream, two to five times with an interval of 2 weeks (5-FU group). The control group comprised 65 cholesteatoma that were not treated with 5-FU. All lesions were later excised surgically and processed for immunohistochemical analyses of Ki-67, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and its receptor (KGFR). 5-FU significantly reduced the expression of KGF, did not change KGFR expression, and significantly reduced the Ki-67 labeling index, relative to the control group. The effect of 5-FU on cholesteatoma seems to be mediated, at least in part, through downregulation of KGF in stromal cells and reduction of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells.
Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde 03/2008; 265(10):1173-8. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptional initiation is a key step in the control of mRNA synthesis and is intimately related to chromatin structure and histone modification. Here, we show that the ubiquitylation of H2A (ubH2A) correlates with silent chromatin and regulates transcriptional initiation. The levels of ubH2A vary during hepatocyte regeneration, and based on microarray expression data from regenerating liver, we identified USP21, a ubiquitin-specific protease that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ubH2A. When chromatin is assembled in vitro, ubH2A, but not H2A, specifically represses the di- and trimethylation of H3K4. USP21 relieves this ubH2A-specific repression. In addition, in vitro transcription analysis revealed that ubH2A represses transcriptional initiation, but not transcriptional elongation, by inhibiting H3K4 methylation. Notably, ubH2A-mediated repression was not observed when H3 Lys 4 was changed to arginine. Furthermore, overexpression of USP21 in the liver up-regulates a gene that is normally down-regulated during hepatocyte regeneration. Our studies revealed a novel mode of trans-histone cross-talk, in which H2A ubiquitylation controls the di- and trimethylation of H3K4, resulting in regulation of transcriptional initiation.
Genes & Development 02/2008; 22(1):37-49. · 12.64 Impact Factor