Rohan Jagathesan

MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (6)44.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of 13 randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrated a benefit for dipyridamole therapy, particularly with longer duration of treatment. Although the mechanism of this effect is not well understood, dipyridamole increases endogenous tissue adenosine, which may have a beneficial effect on myocardial perfusion. Therefore, we measured the effects of dipyridamole on myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) by using positron emission tomography and H2O in patients with coronary artery disease. Forty-four patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease were double-blind randomized to either oral dipyridamole [200 milligrams (mg) twice daily (bd)] or placebo as add-on to conventional antianginal treatment for 24 weeks. MBF was measured at rest and during dobutamine stress at baseline and study completion for the region subtended by the most severe coronary artery stenosis (Isc) and remote myocardium subtended by arteries with minimal or no disease (Rem). CFR was calculated as MBF-peak/MBF-rest. Thirty-five patients completed the study. Isc MBF-rest decreased in patients receiving dipyridamole (0.10 mL/minute/g; P = 0.03) and increased in the placebo group (0.16 mL/minute/g; P = 0.01) during the 24-week study. No significant change in MBF-peak was demonstrated in either group. Consequently, Isc-CFR increased significantly in patients receiving dipyridamole (1.65 +/- 0.47 vs 1.83 +/- 0.67; P < 0.05). By contrast, Isc-CFR decreased significantly in those receiving placebo (1.74 +/- 0.44 versus 1.38 +/- 0.46; P < 0.03). No change was seen in Rem-CFR territories. At the end of treatment, a reduction in baseline MBF but no significant changes in hyperemic MBF were observed in ischemic myocardial territories, and therefore the significance of the observed improvement in CFR remains unclear.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 10/2006; 48(3):110-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the relationship between dobutamine myocardial blood flow (MBF), rate-pressure product (RPP) and stenosis severity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). 27 patients with single-vessel CAD were allocated to three groups based on stenosis severity: group 1, 50-69% (n = 9); group 2, 70-89% (n = 9); and group 3, >or= 90% (n = 9). Nine normal volunteers served as controls. Resting and dobutamine MBF were measured by positron emission tomography in the territory subtended by the stenosis (Isc) and remote myocardium (Rem). Mean left ventricular MBF was used for controls. In group 1, mean dobutamine MBF-Isc (2.48 (SD 0.48 ml/min/g)) and dobutamine MBF-Rem (2.70 (0.50) ml/min/g, NS) were comparable. In groups 2 and 3, dobutamine MBF-Isc (1.91 (0.44) and 1.22 (0.21) ml/min/g) was significantly lower than dobutamine MBF-Rem (2.27 (0.28) and 1.98 (0.25) ml/min/g, p < 0.02 and p < 0.005, respectively). An inverse relation between dobutamine MBF and stenosis severity existed both in Isc (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and in Rem territories (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). For any given RPP, dobutamine MBF was greater in controls than in Rem (p < 0.05), which in turn was greater than in Isc (p < 0.05). Dobutamine MBF inversely correlated with stenosis severity and achieved significant flow heterogeneity for coronary stenoses > 70%. Dobutamine MBF and RPP were dissociated in both Isc and Rem segments in patients compared with controls.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 09/2006; 92(9):1230-7. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanistic differences between pharmacologic stressors may offer different clinical benefits. Therefore the effects of dobutamine and adenosine on absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were compared. We divided 36 patients (mean age, 61 +/- 8 years) with coronary artery disease into 2 groups based on stenosis severity as follows: greater than 50% but less than 75% (n = 16) and greater than 75% (n = 20). In addition, 18 normal volunteers (mean age, 46 +/- 7 years) served as control subjects. Groups of equal sizes received either dobutamine or adenosine. MBF at rest and peak MBF were measured by use of positron emission tomography in territories subtended by the stenosis (ischemic) and remote myocardium (remote), whereas left ventricular MBF was used in control subjects. CFR was calculated as peak MBF divided by MBF at rest. CFR was significantly greater with adenosine than with dobutamine stress in control subjects and remote CFR. Ischemic CFR was blunted to a similar degree with each stressor. Therefore adenosine achieved flow heterogeneity across all coronary stenosis severities greater than 50%. However, dobutamine achieved flow heterogeneity only in the presence of a severe coronary stenosis greater than 75% despite provoking a greater ischemic stimulus. Adenosine stress demonstrated a higher sensitivity and dobutamine demonstrated a higher specificity with quantitative perfusion imaging. Therefore adenosine is superior for diagnostic perfusion imaging, whereas dobutamine is better suited in combination with visual imaging and in the functional assessment of a known coronary stenosis.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2006; 13(3):324-32. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although physical exercise is the preferred stimulus for cardiac stress testing, pharmacologic agents are useful in patients who are unable to exercise. Previous studies have demonstrated short-term repeatability of exercise and adenosine stress, but little data exist regarding dobutamine (Dob) stress or the long-term reproducibility of pharmacologic stressors in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PET allows accurate, noninvasive quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term reproducibility of Dob stress on MBF and CFR in CAD patients using PET. Fifteen patients with chronic stable angina and angiographically proven CAD (>70% stenosis in at least 1 major coronary artery) underwent PET with (15)O-labeled water and Dob stress at baseline (time [t] = 0) and after 24 wk (t = 24). MBF at rest and MBF during Dob stress were calculated for the whole left ventricle, the region subtended by the most severe coronary artery stenosis (Isc), and remote myocardium subtended by arteries with minimal or no disease (Rem). Reproducibility was assessed using the Bland-Altman (BA) repeatability coefficient and was also expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the 2 measurements (%BA). Dob dose (30 +/- 11 vs. 031 +/- 11 microg/kg/min; P = not significant [ns]) and peak Dob rate.pressure product (20,738 +/- 3,947 vs. 20,047 +/- 3,455 mm Hg x beats/min; P = ns) were comparable at t = 0 and t = 24. There was no significant difference in resting or Dob MBF (mL/min/g) between t = 0 and t = 24 for the whole left ventricle (1.03 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.20 and 2.02 +/- 0.44 vs. 2.09 +/- 0.57; P = ns for both), Isc (1.05 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.26 and 1.79 +/- 0.53 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.62; P = ns for both), or Rem (1.03 +/- 0.23 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.26 and 2.27 +/- 0.63 vs. 2.26 +/- 0.63; P = ns for both) territories. Global (1.98 +/- 0.40 vs. 1.90 +/- 0.46; P = ns) and regional CFR (Isc: 1.65 +/- 0.40 vs. 1.67 +/- 0.47, and Rem: 2.25 +/- 0.57 vs. 2.06 +/- 0.51; P = ns) were reproducible. The BA repeatability coefficients (and %BA) for MBF in ischemic and remote territories were 0.3 (28%) and 0.26 (24%) at rest and 0.49 (27%) and 0.58 (26%) during Dob stress. In patients with clinically stable CAD, Dob induces reproducible changes in both global and regional MBF and CFR over a time interval of 24 wk. The reproducibility of MBF and CFR with Dob was comparable with the short-term repeatability reported for adenosine and physical exercise in healthy subjects.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2005; 46(2):212-9. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether myocardial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) downregulation precedes and predicts left ventricular (LV) dilation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we measured beta-AR density within four weeks of AMI and correlated it with serial measurements of LV volumes. Patients who develop heart failure following AMI have an increased sympathetic drive to the heart within the first four weeks after infarction. We prospectively studied 61 patients in whom AMI was the first presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and with no signs of heart failure. The LV volumes were measured one, three, and six months after AMI by echocardiography. Beta-AR density was measured using positron emission tomography with S-[(11)C]CGP 12177. Seventeen matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Whole heart beta-AR density was lower in patients than in controls (6.25 +/- 0.98 pmol/g vs. 8.32 +/- 2.14 pmol/g, p < 0.0001). In patients, beta-AR density was inversely correlated with end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes six months after AMI. Patients whose LV was dilated at six months had a lower beta-AR density in noninfarcted myocardium than patients without dilation (6.15 pmol/g vs. 6.98 pmol/g, p = 0.008). In addition, beta-AR density in noninfarcted myocardium was higher when the infarct-related artery was patent (6.87 +/- 1.14 pmol/g vs. 5.76 +/- 0.86 pmol/g occluded, p < 0.01). Myocardial beta-AR density is reduced after AMI in the absence of heart failure, and the reduction predicts later LV dilation. These data are suggestive of an enhanced sympathetic drive to the heart, having an important etiologic role in LV remodeling after AMI.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2002; 40(7):1216-24. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate whether myocardial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) downregulation precedes and predicts left ventricular (LV) dilation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we measured beta-AR density within four weeks of AMI and correlated it with serial measurements of LV volumes.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2002; 40(7):1216-1224. · 14.09 Impact Factor