[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract— In frozen aqueous solutions at 777deg;K, U.V. irradiation (Λ>250 mμ) photoionises purine, adenosine and guanosine molecules, respectively, In alcoholic solutions, at 777deg;K, photosensitization of alcohol occurs. A biphotonic absorption process involving the lowest triplet state is suggested. The formation of radicals by these processes leads to a decrease of the phosphorescent triplet-state population of the molecules tested. Some consequences for the photochemistry of nucleic acids are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract— In order to test the ability of phosphate groups to quench the tyrosine fluorescence in nucleic acid-protein complexes, we have studied the effect of several phosphate ions on the fluorescence of tyrosine derivatives. Mono and bianions (H2PO4 and HPO42–) which are good proton acceptors quenched the fluorescence of all the phenolic compounds studied except that of O-methyl tyrosine. With the other derivatives (tyrosine, N-acetyl tyrosinamide and lysyl-tyrosyl-α lysine) fluorescence inhibition was accompanied by the appearance of a long wavelength emission (345 nm) attributed to tyrosinate anions. The quenching of tyrosine emission was due to the deprotonation of the phenolic group promoted in the excited state by phosphate ions and leading to the weakly fluorescent tyrosinate ion. Mono and dianions of phosphate mono ester inhibited tyrosine fluorescence as did unesterified phosphates. However, phosphate diester did not have any effect on the fluorescence of tyrosine derivatives. We conclude from this study that in nucleic acid-protein complexes phosphate groups are not able to quench tyrosine fluorescence except at the end of polynucleotide chains. Since monoester and diester monoanions have a different behavior, we propose that quenching of tyrosine fluorescence by monoanions requires the formation of two hydrogen bonds. This complex cannot form with diesters which consequently do not quench tyrosine fluorescence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract—Dimethyldiazaperopyrenium is one of the largest known DNA intercalators. Fluorescence energy transfer occurred between dimethyldiazaperopyrenium (donor) and ethidium (acceptor) when these dyes were bound to a double-stranded polynucleotide such as poly d(A-T). The addition of increasing amounts of ethidium bromide led to a marked shortening of the fluorescence lifetime of the donor, whereas the excited state of the acceptor was progressively populated via energy transfer from the donor. Critical Förster distance between these two chromophores was calculated to be 3.8 nm. The observed transfer efficiency was lower than that calculated on the basis of this critical distance and a statistical distribution of bound drugs. These results are discussed taking into account the conformational change induced by intercalation of dimethyldiazaperopyrenium in the double-stranded polynucleotide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Phosphate anions quench the fluorescence of tyrosine at room temperature as a result of an excited-state proton transfer. At 77 K in frozen solutions the fluorescence of tyrosine is still quenched by phosphate anions but the phosphorescence emission is enhanced. No tyrosinate phosphorescence is detected. A mechanism is proposed to explain these results: excited-state proton transfer from tyrosine to phosphates is followed by intersystem crossing in tyrosinate anions with subsequent back-transfer of the proton in the triplet state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract— Neutral, acidic or basic frozen aqueous solutions of aromatic amino acids undergo photoionisation under u.v. irradiation, at 77°K. In neutral or basic solutions, photo-ejected electrons are trapped in the solvent matrix and exhibit a characteristic absorption band in the visible region. In acidic solutions electrons are trapped by protons and ESR signal spectrum of hydrogen atoms may be observed. Hydrogen atoms are also produced in low yield in neutral or basic frozen aqueous solutions, u.v. irradiated at 77°K. In basic media the ESR spectrum of 0- radical ions is observed. Kinetic studies as a function of light intensity show that photoionisation takes place after absorption of a second photon by the phosphorescent molecule in its lowest triplet state. Recombination of trapped electrons in neutral or basic solutions may be induced using secondary excitation with visible light. In all instances we could record the absorption spectrum of photolytic products of aromatic amino acids and polypeptides which are u.v. irradiated at 77°K.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic polycarboxamides consisting of N-methylpyrrole (Py), N-methylimidazole (Im), N-methyl-3-hydroxypyrrole (Hp) and beta-alanine (beta) show strong and sequence-specific interaction with the DNA minor groove when they form hairpin structures with side-by-side antiparallel motifs. In the present paper, new conjugates containing two ligands linked to the same terminal phosphate of DNA strand were constructed. The paper describes optimized synthesis and properties of oligonucleotide-linked polyamide strands that insert into the minor groove of a duplex in a parallel or antiparallel orientation. Strong stabilization of DNA duplexes by two attached minor groove ligands is demonstrated by the thermal denaturation method. The unmodified duplex 5'-CGTTTATTp-3'/5'-AATAAACG-3' melts at 20 degrees C. When one tetra(Py) residue was attached to the first strand of this duplex, denaturation temperature was increased to 46 degrees C; attachment of the second tetra(Py) in a parallel orientation resulted in denaturation temperature of 60 degrees C. It is even higher than in case of "classic" octapyrrole hairpin ligand (Tm = 58 degrees C). Sequence-specific character of stabilization by two conjugated ligands was demonstrated for G:C-containing oligonucleotides attached to tetracarboxamide and octacarboxamide ligands constructed from Py, Im and beta units according to established recognition rules (deltaTm = 20 degrees C). The two-strand parallel minor groove binder constructions attached to addressing oligonucleotides could be considered as site-specific ligands recognizing single- and double-stranded DNA similarly to already described hairpin MGB structures with antiparallel orientation of carboxamide units.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polyamides based on 4-amino-1-methylpyrrol-2-carboxylic acid, 4-amino-1-methylimidazole-2-carboxylic acid, and ß-alanine that stabilize oligonucleotide duplexes consisting of G•C pairs through parallel packing in the minor groove were studied. The initial duplex TTGCGCp•GCGCAA melts at 28°C; the TTGCGCp[NH(CH2)3COPyImßImNH(CH2)3NH(CH3)2][NH(CH2)3COImßImPyNH(CH2)3N(CH3)2]•GCGCAA duplex (bisphosphoramidate with parallel orientation of ligands, where Py, Im, and ß are the residues of 1-methyl-4-aminopyrrol-2-carboxylic and 1-methyl-4-aminoimidazole-2-carboxylic acids and ß-alanine, respectively), at 48°C; and the TTGCGCp[NH(CH2)3COImßImPyNH(CH2)3COImßImPyNH(CH2)3N(CH3)2]•GCGCAA duplex (a hairpin structure with antiparallel orientation), at 56°C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic polycarboxamide minor groove binders (MGB) consisting of N-methylpyrrole (Py), N-methylimidazole (Im), N-methyl-3-hydroxypyrrole (Hp) and beta-alanine (beta) show strong and sequence-specific interaction with the DNA minor groove in side-by-side antiparallel or parallel orientation. Two MGB moieties covalently linked to the same terminal phosphate of one DNA strand stabilize DNA duplexes formed by this strand with a complementary one in a sequence-specific manner, similarly to the corresponding mono-conjugated hairpin structures. The series of conjugates with the general formula Oligo-(L-MGB-R)m was synthesized, where m = 1 or 2, L = linker, R = terminal charged or neutral group, MGB = -(Py)n-, -(Im)n- or -[(Py/Im)n-(CH2)3CONH-(Py/Im)n-] and I < n < 5. Using thermal denaturation, we studied effects of structural factors such as m and n, linker L length, nature and orientation of the MGB monomers, the group R and the backbone (DNA or RNA), etc. on the stability of the duplexes. Structural factors are more important for linear and hairpin monophosphoroamidates than for parallel bis-phosphoroamidates. No more than two oligocarboxamide strands can be inserted into the duplex minor groove. Attachment of the second sequence-specific parallel ligand [-L(Py)4R] to monophosphoroamidate conjugate CGTTTATT-L(Py)4R leads to the increase of the duplex Tm, whereas attachment of [-L(Im)4R] leads to its decrease. The mode of interaction between oligonucleotide duplex and attached ligands could be different (stacking with the terminal A:T pair of the duplex or its insertion into the minor groove) depending on the length and structure of the MGB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New conjugates containing two parallel or antiparallel carboxamide minor groove binders (MGB) attached to the same terminal phosphate of one oligonucleotide strand were synthesized. The conjugates interact with their target DNA stronger than the individual components. Effect of conjugated MGB on DNA duplex and triplex stability and their sequence specificity was demonstrated on the short oligonucleotide duplexes and on the triplex formed by model 16-mer oligonucleotide with HIV polypurine tract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current achievement of genome sequence projects of a dozen eukaryote organisms (including human genome) and the development of functional genomics are providing the basic knowledge required to utilize gene-specific reagents for both basic understanding of cell physiology and therapeutical development. The field of chemical genomics has the ambitious goal of designing molecules that could act selectively on every single gene or gene product in a cell and in vivo. The progress in oligonucleotide-based approaches will be the topic of this review, however, other nucleic acid- and SELEX-based approaches as well as high sequence-specific low molecular weight DNA-specific ligands will also be discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides covalently linked to topoisomerase I inhibitors, in particular the antitumor agent camptothecin, trigger topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage selectively in the proximity of the binding site of the oligonucleotide vector. In the present study, we have performed a systematic analysis of the DNA cleavage efficiency as a function of the positioning of the camptothecin derivative, either on the 3' or the 5' side of the triplex, and the location of the cleavage site. A previously identified cleavage site was inserted at different positions within two triplex site-containing 59 bp duplexes. Sequence-specific DNA cleavage by topoisomerase I occurs only with triplex conjugates bearing the inhibitor at the 3'-end of the oligonucleotide and on the oligopyrimidine strand of the duplex. The lack of targeted cleavage on the 5' side is attributed to the structural differences of the 3' and 5' duplex-triplex DNA junctions. The changes induced in the double helix by the triple-helical structure interfere with the action of the enzyme according to a preferred spatial organization. Camptothecin conjugates of oligonucleotides provide efficient tools to probe the organization of the topoisomerase I-DNA complex and will be useful to understand the functioning of topoisomerase I in living cells.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/2003; 31(14):4031-40. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkg457 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomeric DNA progressively erodes with each round of cell division in cells that do not express telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase necessary to fully duplicate the chromosomal ends. Telomerase is expressed in tumor cells but not in most somatic cells and thus telomeres and telomerase may be proposed as attractive targets for the discovery of new anticancer agents. In this paper we will present different strategies to inhibit telomerase activity via an interaction with a telomere/telomerase nucleic acid component, with a special emphasis on quadruplex ligands.
Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 03/2003; 3(1):23-36. DOI:10.2174/1389557033405485 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed kinetic study of triple helix formation was performed by surface plasmon resonance. Three systems were investigated involving 15mer pyrimidine oligonucleotides as third strands. Rate constants and activation energies were validated by comparison with thermodynamic values calculated from UV-melting analysis. Replacement of a T.A base pair by a C.G pair at either the 5' or the 3' end of the target sequence allowed us to assess mismatch effects and to delineate the mechanism of triple helix formation. Our data show that the association rate constant is governed by the sequence of base triplets on the 5' side of the triplex (referred to as the 5' side of the target oligopurine strand) and provides evidence that the reaction pathway for triple helix formation in the pyrimidine motif proceeds from the 5' end to the 3' end of the triplex according to the nucleation-zipping model. It seems that this is a general feature for all triple helices formation, probably due to the right-handedness of the DNA double helix that provides a stronger base stacking at the 5' than at the 3' duplex-triplex junction. Understanding the mechanism of triple helix formation is not only of fundamental interest, but may also help in designing better triple helix-forming oligonucleotides for gene targeting and control of gene expression.
Nucleic Acids Research 01/2003; 30(24):5407-15. · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA binding compounds, such as benzo[e] (BePI) and benzo[g] pyridoindole (BgPI) derivatives, exhibit preferential stabilization of triple helices. We report here the synthesis of a series of pyrimidine triple-helix-forming oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotides conjugated with these molecules. BePI was coupled to the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine via two linkers of different sizes attached to its 11-position and placed at either the 5'-end, inside the sequence, or at both the 5'-end and the internal positions using periodate oxidation of a diol-containing oligonucleotide followed by reductive coupling with amino-linked BePI. The same BePI derivatives were also linked to the oligonucleotide chain via internucleotidic phosphorothiolate or phosphoramidate linkages. A mixture of diastereoisomers was prepared as well as separate pure Rp and Sp isomers. A BePI derivative, with two different linkers attached to its 3-position, and BgPI derivatives were also linked to the 5-position of a 2'-deoxyuridine located at either the 5'-end or inside the sequence, as well as to the beta- anomeric position of an additional 2'- deoxyribose placed inside the sequence. The binding properties of these oligonucleotide-benzopyridoindoles conjugates with their double-stranded DNA target was studied by absorption spectroscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently described a new method for attaching padlock oligonucleotides to supercoiled plasmid DNA at specific sequences. A variant of this method has been developed in order to allow the coupling of targeting moieties to plasmids using a convenient strategy. After sequence-specific winding around the double-stranded target DNA sequence by ligand-induced triple helix formation, the extremities of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide hybridize to each other, leaving a dangling single-stranded sequence, which is then ligated to a hairpin oligonucleotide using T4 DNA ligase. Any targeting moiety may be attached to the hairpin oligonucleotide. This strategy was used to attach an NLS peptide to a luciferase-expressing plasmid. Despite the presence of the padlock oligonucleotide, the reporter gene was efficiently expressed after transfection of the plasmid in HeLa or T24 cells, using either cationic lipids or cationic polymers as transfecting agents. However, no increase in gene expression could be observed as a result of peptide attachment. Nevertheless, the coupling strategy described in this paper may find applications as a tool for plasmid functionalization in other targeting experiments, and may lead to the development of improved vectors for gene therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we have shown that peptide nucleic acid (PNA) tridecamers targeted to the codon 74, 128 and 149 regions of Ha-ras mRNA arrested translation elongation in vitro. Our data demonstrated for the first time that PNAs with mixed base sequence targeted to the coding region of a messenger RNA could arrest the translation machinery and polypeptide chain elongation. The peculiarity of the complexes formed with PNA tridecamers and Ha-ras mRNA rests upon the stability of PNA-mRNA hybrids, which are not dissociated by cellular proteins or multiple denaturing conditions. In the present study, we show that shorter PNAs such as a dodecamer or an undecamer targeted to the codon 74 region arrest translation elongation in vitro. The 13, 12, and 11-mer PNAs contain eight and the 10-mer PNA seven contiguous pyrimidine residues. Upon binding with parallel Hoogsteen base-pairing to the PNA-RNA duplex, six of the cytosine bases and one thymine base of a second PNA can form C.G*C(+) and T.A*T triplets. Melting experiments show two well-resolved transitions corresponding to the dissociation of the third strand from the core duplex and to melting of duplex at higher temperature. The enzymatic structure mapping of a target 27-mer RNA revealed a hairpin structure that is disrupted upon binding of tri-, dodeca-, undeca- and decamer PNAs. We show that the non-bonded nucleobase overhangs on the RNA stabilize the PNA-RNA hybrids and probably assist the PNA in overcoming the stable secondary structure of the RNA target. The great stability of PNA-RNA duplex and triplex structures allowed us to identify both 1:1 and 2:1 PNA-RNA complexes using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of -flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, it is possible to successfully target mixed sequences in structured regions of messenger RNA with short PNA oligonucleotides that form duplex and triplex structures that can arrest elongating ribosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A conjugate of a triple helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) and the Lambda and Delta enantiomers of the ruthenium diphenanthroline dipyridophenazine complex [Ru(phen)(2)dppz](2+) was synthesized. The ruthenium complex was attached to the 5'-end of the TFO through the dppz moiety. This conjugate formed a stable triple helix with the polypurine tract (PPT) sequence from HIV proviral DNA. The thermal denaturation temperature of the triplex was increased by 12 degrees C. One remarkable property of the Delta-[Ru(phen)(2)dppz](2+) complex is a strong increase in its fluorescence when it intercalates into DNA. While the fluorescence of the oligonucleotide conjugate was very weak, the formation of a duplex with a complementary sequence or of a triple helix with a target duplex resulted in a large increase in fluorescence of the Delta enantiomer. The increase in fluorescence allowed us to follow the kinetics of duplex and triplex formation by fluorescence spectrometry. In contrast, the Lambda enantiomer gave a much smaller fluorescence change when a triplex was formed, even though the stability of the triplex was comparable to that of the Delta enantiomer. The property was ascribed to intercalation of the dipyridophenazine moiety of the Delta enantiomer into DNA and subsequent threading of the ruthenium complex through the DNA double helix. Salt effects were consistent with the involvement of DNA breathing in the formation of the intercalating complex.