J D Pirsch

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (320)1309.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is an important complication following kidney transplantation. Data from the 5-year early steroid withdrawal double-blind randomized trial were analyzed to determine if steroid avoidance reduced the NODAT risk. Incidence, timing and risk factors for NODAT were evaluated using eight definitions. By American Diabetes Association definition, 36.3% of patients on chronic corticosteroids (CCS) and 35.9% on early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD) were diagnosed with NODAT by 5 years. The definition combining fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL on two occasions or treatment identified slightly more cases of NODAT: CCS (39.3%) and CSWD (39.4%). Through 5 years posttransplant, the proportion of NODAT patients requiring treatment were similar (CSWD 22.5% vs. CCS 21.5%); however, insulin therapy was lower with CSWD (3.7% vs. 11.6%; p = 0.049). By multivariate analysis, only age, but not corticosteroid use, was a significant risk factor for NODAT for more than one definition. Numerical, but not statistically significant trends toward lower NODAT rates with CSWD were observed through 5 years for insulin use, HbA1c ≥6.0% and ≥6.5% on two occasions. This prospective, randomized trial of CSWD indicates that CSWD has a limited impact in reducing NODAT when compared to low-dose prednisone (5 mg/day from month 6 to 5 years). © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/ajt.13247 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) are associated with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and graft failure after kidney transplantation. The effects of induction immunosuppression on dnDSA are unknown. The study population comprised 114 consecutive moderately sensitized (positive DSA and negative flow crossmatch) recipients who received deceased donor renal transplants between December 2009 and November 2011. Patients were divided into two groups based on induction immunosuppression: antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n=85) or basiliximab (n=29) and were followed up for 36 months. Patients in the ATG group received a mean dose of 4.98 mg/kg±7.9 mg/kg, had a significantly higher PRA, and received more plasmapheresis and IVIG at the time of transplant. The incidence of dnDSA (P=0.02, HR=0.33, 95% CI 0.09-1.24) and ABMR (P=0.001, HR=0.9, 95% CI 0.04-0.87) was significantly lower in the ATG group. In multivariate regression analyses, ATG induction was the single most important variable associated with both ABMR and dnDSA. In moderately sensitized deceased donor renal transplant recipients, induction with ATG is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of dnDSA and ABMR when compared with basiliximab.
    Transplantation 02/2014; DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000031 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is limited. To evaluate this population, we undertook a retrospective cohort study of all recipients of kidney and liver transplants diagnosed with CDI at a single center over 14 yr. Data pertaining to all episodes of CDI were collected. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors of clinical cure. Overall, 170 patients developed 215 episodes of CDI. Among these patients, 162 episodes (75%) were cured, and in 103 episodes (48%), patients were cured within 14 d. In a multivariate analysis, lack of clinical cure at 14 d was predicted by recurrent episode (0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.72, p = 0.0128), treatment with vancomycin (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.1-0.74, p = 0.011), vasopressor support (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.76, p = 0.0161), and CDI before the year 2004 (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.2-0.98, p = 0.0446). The latter three factors are likely markers for severity of illness. In this cohort, 13 patients (8%) died during hospitalization, and 49 patients (29%) died within one yr. No deaths were attributed to CDI. Recurrent episode was a major predictor of treatment failure, suggesting that research into development of therapeutic options for recurrent disease is needed.
    Clinical Transplantation 01/2014; 28(2). DOI:10.1111/ctr.12309 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after pancreas transplantation is a recently identified entity. We describe the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes after AMR, and the correlation of C4d immunostaining and donor-specific antibody (DSA) in the diagnosis of AMR. We retrospectively analyzed 162 pancreas transplants in 159 patients who underwent 94 pancreas allograft biopsies between 2006 and 2009. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for pancreas graft AMR. One-year rejection rates and survival after rejection were calculated by Kaplan-Meier methods. AMR occurred in 10% of patients by 1-year posttransplant. Multivariate risk factors identified for AMR include nonprimary simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant, primary solitary pancreas (PAN) transplant and race mismatch. After pancreas rejection, patient survival was 100% but 20% (8 of 41) of pancreas grafts failed within 1 year. Graft survival after acute cellular rejection (ACR), AMR and mixed rejection was similar. Of biopsies that stained >5% C4d, 80% were associated with increased Class I DSA. In summary, AMR occurs at a measurable rate after pancreas transplantation, and the diagnosis should be actively sought using C4d staining and DSA levels in patients with graft dysfunction, especially after nonprimary SPK and primary PAN transplantation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 09/2013; 13(11). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12443 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum β2-microglobulin (β2M), a novel marker of kidney function, predicts mortality and kidney failure in the general population, and its elevation following transplantation is a marker of acute rejection. The association between post-transplant serum β2M and outcomes following kidney transplantation, however, is unknown. To help determine this, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2190 individuals receiving a primary kidney transplant with serum β2M measured at discharge. A total of 452 deaths and 347 graft failures before death (669 total graft losses) occurred over a median of 4.1 years of follow-up. After adjustment, the highest quintile of β2M (5.0 mg/l and above), compared with the lowest quintile (<2.3 mg/l), was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 2.8, 7.5) for death, 4.1 (2.4, 7.0) for death-censored graft loss, and 3.8 (2.5, 5.6) for total graft loss. Serum β2M was more strongly associated with each outcome than was serum creatinine. Higher serum β2M at discharge was independently associated with each outcome in models stratified by the presence of delayed graft function, donor type, or estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge. Thus, serum β2M at discharge is a potent predictor of long-term mortality and graft loss in kidney transplant recipients, providing information on allograft function beyond that of serum creatinine.Kidney International advance online publication, 8 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.172.
    Kidney International 05/2013; 84(4). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.172 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This report characterizes acute rejection and rejection outcomes in subjects randomized to continuous corticosteroid therapy (CCS) or early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD; 7 days after transplantation) in the Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial. METHODS: The Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial was a 5-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of early CCS withdrawal in 386 kidney transplant recipients (195 CCS and 191 CSWD). Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were required as well as either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction. Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was grade 1A or higher by Banff criteria. This report also provides borderline changes (BL) that did not meet Banff grade 1A included with BCAR (BCAR+BL). RESULTS: BCAR+BL was 25 (12.8%) in CCS group and 42 (22.0%) in CSWD group (P=0.022). Early BCAR+BL (first 90 days after transplantation) was less frequent in CCS (n=5 [2.6%]) than in CSWD (n=22 [11.5%]; P<0.001). Among non-African-American subjects, early BCAR+BL occurred more often in CSWD (n=20 [12.7%]) versus CCS (n=2 [1.3%]; P<0.001). Late acute rejection (>2 years) occurred more often in African-American subjects in CCS (n=5 [13.9%]) than in CSWD (n=0; P=0.056). Risk factors were CSWD (hazard ratio [HR], 4.72; P<0.002) and human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.48; P<0.005) for early BCAR+BL and CSWD (HR, 1.9; P<0.02), human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.2; P<0.01), and age (HR, 0.97; P<0.002) for 5-year rejection. The HR for graft loss associated with BCAR+BL was 8.8. CONCLUSIONS: BCAR+BL may occur more frequently during the early period after transplantation under an early CSWD regimen with tacrolimus plus induction compared with CCS, particularly among non-African-Americans.
    Transplantation 02/2013; 95(4):573-579. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e3182777efb · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to define the intensity of immunosuppression, we examined risk factors for acute rejection in desensitization protocols that use baseline donor-specific antibody levels measured as mean fluorescence intensity (MFImax). The study included 146 patients transplanted with a negative flow crossmatch and a mean follow-up of 18 months with the majority (83%) followed for at least 1 year. At the time of transplant, mean-calculated panel-reactive antibody and MFImax ranged from 10.3-57.2% and 262-1691, respectively, between low- and high-risk protocols. Mean MFImax increased significantly from transplant to 1 week and 1 year. The incidence of acute rejection (mean 1.65 months) as a combination of clinical and subclinical rejection was 32%, including 14% cellular, 12% antibody-mediated, and 6% mixed rejection. In regression analyses, only C4d staining in post-reperfusion biopsies (hazard ratio 3.3, confidence interval 1.71-6.45) and increased specific antibodies at 1-week post transplant were significant predictors of rejection. A rise in MFImax by 500 was associated with a 2.8-fold risk of rejection. Thus, C4d staining in post-reperfusion biopsies and an early rise in donor specific antibodies after transplantation are risk factors for rejection in moderately sensitized patients.Kidney International advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.44.
    Kidney International 02/2013; 83(6). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.44 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in liver transplant recipients has been estimated to be from 18% to 28% at 10 yr after transplantation. As outcomes from liver transplantation continue to improve, long-term native kidney function in these recipients becomes more critical to patient survival. METHODS: We analyzed 1151 adult, deceased-donor, single-organ primary liver transplantations performed at our center between 7/17/84 and 12/31/07. Analysis of renal function was performed on 972 patients with liver allograft survival >1 yr. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 3%, 7%, and 18% of liver transplant recipients with allograft survival >1 yr developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at five, 10, and 20 yr, respectively. Significant independent risk factors for ESRD included dialysis during the transplant hospitalization, the stage of CKD at one yr, hypercholesterolemia, non-Caucasian race, and hepatitis C as the primary indication for liver transplantation. The initial immunosuppression of essentially all recipients was a calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen. CONCLUSION: Close, long-term follow-up of liver transplant recipients permits optimal management of liver allograft and native renal function and can lead to excellent long-term outcomes despite a calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen.
    Clinical Transplantation 01/2013; 27(2). DOI:10.1111/ctr.12063 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As corticosteroid-sparing protocols are increasingly utilized in kidney transplant recipients, it is crucial to understand potential drug interactions between tacrolimus (TAC) and the effect of corticosteroid withdrawal as well as to characterize dose adjustments of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in this setting. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study included 397 patients who were randomized on posttransplant day 8 to receive either placebo (CSWD) or corticosteroid continuance (CCS). TAC trough levels at week two posttransplant were significantly greater in the CSWD group whereas TAC doses were comparable to the CCS group. This interaction was not observed in the African American subgroup. Higher serum creatinine and potassium levels were also observed in the CSWD group. MMF dose was significantly reduced in the CSWD group by the investigators because of decreased WBC counts, mostly outside of study protocol criteria, despite similar incidence of neutropenia and reported cytomegalovirus infection. Understanding TAC and MMF exposure in the context of corticosteroid-sparing protocols should allow for improved dosing of immunosuppressants and better management of posttransplant patients.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2012; 13(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04327.x · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome with attendant morbid obesity continues to increase nationwide. A concomitant increase in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and associated end-stage liver disease requiring transplantation is expected to parallel this trend. Between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2008, our center performed 813 solitary adult deceased-donor liver transplants. Patients were divided into groups based on the World Health Organization International Classification of obesity. Patients within each obesity class were compared to normal weight recipients. Preoperative demographics among all groups were similar. NASH was more common in higher BMI groups. Operative time, blood product usage, ICU length of stay, infectious complications, and biliary complications requiring intervention were all higher in obese recipients. Deep venous thrombosis occurred more commonly in patients with Class III obesity. Patients with Class II obesity had lower patient (HR 1.82, CI 1.09-3.01, p = 0.02) and allograft survival (HR 1.62, CI 1.02-2.65, p = 0.04). Obesity class did not reach statistical significance on multivariate analysis. Despite increased technical operative challenges and medical complexities associated with increasing recipient BMI, morbid obesity in and of itself should not be an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation as these patients have reasonable long-term outcomes.
    Clinical Transplantation 06/2012; 26(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2012.01669.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expanded-criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are used to expand the number of deceased-donor kidney transplants, often for elderly recipients. This study sought to determine whether older recipients had significantly worse outcomes from receiving ECD kidneys and whether outcomes of ECD versus standard-criteria donor (SCD) kidneys differed in younger recipients. This is a single-center, retrospective review of all primary deceased-donor kidney transplantations performed between 2000 and 2005. Group 1 consisted of patients ≥60 years of age (n=189) who received an ECD (n=96) or an SCD (n=93) kidney. Group 2 consisted of patients 40-59 years of age (n=370) who received an ECD (n=105) or an SCD (n=265) kidney. Older recipients (group 1) who received ECD kidneys demonstrated significantly shortened 5-year actuarial patient and graft survival rates compared with older recipients of SCD allografts. Group 1 ECD recipients also had significantly worse outcomes than younger (group 2) ECD recipients. In multivariate analysis, ECD kidneys remained an independent predictor of poorer outcome in group 1. Morbidity and mortality were increased in elderly recipients of ECD kidneys. These findings may have implications in kidney allocation policy developments that encourage placement of ECD kidneys for older recipients.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2012; 7(7):1163-71. DOI:10.2215/CJN.00150112 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2007, our center performed 1687 adult renal transplants. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare outcomes between patients receiving alemtuzumab (n = 632) and those receiving either basiliximab (n = 690) or thymoglobulin (n = 125). Patients receiving alemtuzumab were younger (49 vs. 51 years, P = 0.02), had fewer HLA matches (1.7 vs. 2.0, P < 0.0001), were more likely to have a cytomegalovirus (CMV) donor(+)/recipient(-) transplant (22% vs. 17%, P = 0.03) and were less likely to receive a living donor allograft (32% vs. 37%, P = 0.04). Alemtuzumab recipients were less likely to receive tacrolimus (35% vs. 47%, P < 0.0001). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in alemtuzumab-treated patients was 19%, 24%, and 27%, vs. 11%, 15%, and 18% for the other group (P < 0.0001). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year allograft survival in the alemtuzumab group was 88%, 75%, and 67%, vs. 91%, 82%, and 74% for the other group (P < 0.0001). Patient survival was equivalent. Alemtuzumab was an independent risk factor for living donor allograft loss (HR 2.0, P = 0.004), opportunistic infections (HR 1.3, P = 0.01), CMV infections (HR 1.6, P = 0.001), and AMR (HR 1.5, P = 0.002). The significantly worse graft survival in the alemtuzumab cohort may be due to the increased rates of AMR and infectious complications.
    Transplant International 03/2012; 25(5):518-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2012.01448.x · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Singh N, Neidlinger N, Djamali A, Leverson G, Voss B, Sollinger HW, Pirsch JD. The impact of hepatitis C virus donor and recipient status on long-term kidney transplant outcomes: University of Wisconsin experience. Abstract:  The survival benefit of transplanting hepatitis C (HCV)-positive donor kidneys into HCV-positive recipients remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of HCV-status of the donor (D) kidney on the long-term outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (R). We evaluated 2169 consecutive recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplants performed between 1991 and 2007. The following HCV cohorts were identified: D-/R- (n = 1897), D-/R+ (n = 59), D+/R- (n = 118), and D+/R+ (n = 95). Patients were followed for a mean of 6.02 (standard deviation = 4.26) yr. In a mulitvariable Cox-proportional hazards model, D+/R+ cohort had significantly lower patient survival (adjusted-hazard ratio [HR] 2.1, 95% CI [1.4-2.9]) with respect to the reference D-/R- group, whereas mortality was not increased in D-/R+ group. The rate of graft loss was increased in both D+/R+ and D-/R+ but was comparable with each other (adjusted-HR 1.8, 95% CI [1.4-2.5]) vs. adjusted-HR 2.0, 95% CI [1.4-2.8], respectively). D-/R+ cohort experienced significantly higher rate of rejection (adjusted-HR 1.7, 95% CI [1.2-2.5]) and chronic allograft nephropathy (adjusted-HR 2.1, 95% CI [1.2-3.7]). Neither donor nor recipient HCV-status impacted the risk of recurrent or de novo GN. Transplanting HCV-positive kidneys as opposed to HCV-negative kidneys into HCV-positive recipients provided similar graft survival but compromised patient survival in the long term.
    Clinical Transplantation 01/2012; 26(5):684-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01583.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over a 23-year period, our center performed 82 renal retransplants in prior simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients with functioning pancreatic allografts. All patients were insulin-independent at retransplantation. We aimed to quantify the risk of returning to insulin therapy and to identify factors that predispose patients to pancreatic allograft failure after renal retransplantation. Among these 82 patients, pancreatic allograft survival after renal retransplantation was 78%, 49% and 40% at 1, 5 and 10 years. When analyzing risk factors, we unexpectedly found no clear relationship between the cause of primary renal allograft failure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting C-peptide level at retransplant and subsequent pancreatic allograft failure. An elevated HbA1c in the month after renal retransplant correlated with subsequent pancreatic graft loss and patients experiencing pancreatic graft loss were more likely to subsequently lose their renal retransplant. Although it is difficult to prospectively identify those patients who will return to insulin therapy after repeat renal transplantation, the relatively high frequency of this event mandates that this risk be conveyed to patients. Nonetheless, the survival benefit associated with renal retransplantation justifies pursuing retransplantation in this population.
    American Journal of Transplantation 01/2012; 12(4):937-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03916.x · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens has provided clinical advantage when kidney transplants are exchanged between siblings but not when mother herself is the donor. This paradox prompted us to revisit the "two-way" hypothesis of transplant tolerance--that the immune status of both the organ recipient and the organ donor critically influences allograft outcome. We obtained peripheral blood monocyte cells from 29 living donor-recipient pairs before transplant and used the trans-vivo-delayed type hypersensitivity assay to measure immune regulation in both the recipient antidonor and donor antirecipient directions. We found preexisting bidirectional regulation in all human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling pairs tested (7/7), and one half (9/18) of the HLA haploidentical pairs. No significant regulation was found in four control living unrelated and two HLA haploidentical living-related donor recipient pairs, whereas unidirectional regulation was found in the remaining seven haploidentical pairs. Of the nine HLA haploidentical transplants with unidirectional or no pretransplant regulation, seven had an acute rejection episode and four of these experienced graft loss. In contrast, of the nine HLA haploidentical transplants with bidirectional regulation, only one had rejection. Renal function for the latter group was similar to HLA-identical kidney recipients at 3 years posttransplant. Significantly (P<0.05) lower mean serum creatinine values in bidirectional regulators were noted as early as 4 months and this difference became more pronounced at 12 (P<0.005) and 36 months (P<0.0001). Contrary to the belief that only the recipient's immune status matters, the data indicate that pretransplant immune status of both donor and recipient influence posttransplant outcome.
    Transplantation 12/2011; 93(3):283-90. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e31823e46a0 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LaMattina JC, Sollinger HW, Becker YT, Mezrich JD, Pirsch JD, Odorico JS. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) retransplantation in prior SPK recipients. Clin Transplant 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01540.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Abstract: Introduction: We have performed 113 renal and 28 isolated pancreas retransplants in our cohort of more than 1200 prior simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) recipients. On the basis of these experiences, we began performing repeat SPK in prior SPK recipients (n = 9).Methods: This retrospective review summarizes our experience with repeat SPK transplantation in prior SPK recipients. Mean age at retransplant was 39 yr; mean interval to retransplant was 7.8 yr. Thirty-three percent were pre-dialysis. Eighty-nine percent of patients underwent transplant nephrectomy (five during the repeat SPK and three prior to it), and 78% underwent transplant pancreatectomy (four during the repeat SPK and three prior to it). Enteric drainage was performed in all repeat SPKs.Results: Median length of stay was 11 d. Perioperative complications included the following: renal artery thrombosis (1), pancreatic portal venous thrombosis (1), enteric leak (1), and hematoma (2). Overall pancreatic allograft survival was 78% at one yr and 67% at two yr. Overall renal allograft survival was 89% at one yr and 78% at two yr. Patient survival at one and three yr was 100%.Conclusions: Survival of repeat SPK allografts is acceptable despite the increased technical and immunologic demands of retransplantation. Graftectomy prior to or at the time of retransplantation is often necessary.
    Clinical Transplantation 10/2011; 26(3):495 - 501. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01540.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information on chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage progression rates and outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Identifying modifiable risk factors may help prevent CKD progression in liver transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective review of 1151 adult, deceased-donor, single-organ primary liver transplants between July 1984 and December 2007 and analyzed kidney outcomes and risk factors for CKD stage progression. Seven hundred twenty-nine patients had an available estimated GFR at 1 year posttransplant to establish a baseline stage. The primary end point was the CKD progression from one stage to a higher stage (lower GFR). Kaplan-Meier estimates of patient survival were 91%, 74%, and 64% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Estimates of liver allograft survival were 89%, 71%, and 60% at the same time points. At 1 year, 7%, 34%, 56%, 3%, and 1% of patients were in CKD stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The incidence of stage progression was 28%, 40%, and 53% at 3, 5, and 10 years. The incidence of ESRD was 2.6%, 7.5%, and 18% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Multivariable Cox regression analyses demonstrated that CKD stage at 1 year, pretransplant diabetes and urinary tract infections/hypercholesterolemia in the first year proved to be independent risk factors for stage progression (hazard ratio 1.9, 0.28, 1.39, and 1.46, respectively, P < 0.05). Future studies will determine whether treatment of risk factors in the first posttransplant year prevent CKD progression in liver transplant recipients.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2011; 6(8):1851-7. DOI:10.2215/CJN.00650111 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that immunodominant donor-specific antibody (DSA) more than 100 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) at the time of transplant is associated with a significantly higher risk of rejection. We now present short-term outcomes of DSA-based desensitization (DSZ) strategies in patients with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch. Between January 1, 2009, and January 1, 2010, live-donor kidney transplant recipients were divided into three protocols based on their immunodominant DSA MFI pretransplant (D1: 100-500, D2: 501-1000, and D3: 1001-3000). Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients were stratified into two protocols (D4: 501-1000 and D5: 1001-3000). The intensity of the conditioning treatment increased with DSA levels and included thymoglobulin induction, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin in the highest risk groups. We compared outcomes between desensitized patients (DSZ) and those undergoing no DSZ (or D0) during the same interval. Forty-eight of 249 (23%) kidney transplants underwent DSZ (n=20, 4, 3, 4, and 17 in D1-D5 protocols, respectively). There was more retransplantation (50% vs. 18%, P<0.001) and live donor transplantation (56% vs. 30%, P<0.001) in the DSZ group. In this group, mean peak panel reactive antibody and MFI at transplant were 51% ± 7% and 960 ± 136, respectively. The incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (25% vs. 12.5%, P=0.008) and acute cellular rejection (23% vs. 14%, P=0.02) was greater in the DSZ group. However, mixed rejection (8%), graft loss (0 vs. 6), patient death (0 vs. 3), cytomegalovirus infection (15% vs. 12%), and 1-year serum creatinine (1.4 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/dL) were similar between DSZ and no-DSZ groups. CONCLUSION.: Long-term follow-up is needed to determine the role of Luminex-based strategies in current preconditioning regimens.
    Transplantation 07/2011; 92(1):12-7. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e31821c93bb · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplant recipients, like other patients with chronic kidney disease, experience excess risk of cardiovascular disease and elevated total homocysteine concentrations. Observational studies of patients with chronic kidney disease suggest increased homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of lowering total homocysteine levels in kidney transplant recipients is unknown. In a double-blind controlled trial, we randomized 4110 stable kidney transplant recipients to a multivitamin that included either a high dose (n=2056) or low dose (n=2054) of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to determine whether decreasing total homocysteine concentrations reduced the rate of the primary composite arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular disease death, resuscitated sudden death, coronary artery or renal artery revascularization, lower-extremity arterial disease, carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair). Mean follow-up was 4.0 years. Treatment with the high-dose multivitamin reduced homocysteine but did not reduce the rates of the primary outcome (n=547 total events; hazards ratio [95 confidence interval]=0.99 [0.84 to 1.17]), secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (n=431 deaths; 1.04 [0.86 to 1.26]), or dialysis-dependent kidney failure (n=343 events; 1.15 [0.93 to 1.43]) compared to the low-dose multivitamin. Treatment with a high-dose folic acid, B6, and B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a composite cardiovascular disease outcome, all-cause mortality, or dialysis-dependent kidney failure despite significant reduction in homocysteine level.
    Circulation 04/2011; 123(16):1763-70. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.000588 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of humoral alloreactivity in ABO-compatible liver transplantation remains unclear. To understand the significance of donor-specific HLA alloantibodies (DSA) in liver rejection, we applied the currently used strategy for detection of antibody-mediated rejection of other solid allografts. For this purpose we reviewed the data on 43 recipients of ABO identical/compatible donor livers who had indication liver biopsy stained for complement element C4d and contemporaneous circulating DSA determination. Seventeen (40%) patients had significant circulating DSA in association with diffuse portal C4d deposition (DSA+/diffuse C4d+). These DSA+/diffuse C4d+ subjects had higher frequency of acute cellular rejection (ACR) 15/17 versus 13/26 (88% vs. 50%), p = 0.02, and steroid resistant rejection 7/17 versus 5/26 (41% vs. 19%), p = 0.03. Based on detection of the combination DSA+/diffuse C4d+, 53.6% of cases of ACR had evidence of concurrent humoral alloreactivity. Six of the 10 patients with ductopenic rejection had circulating DSA and diffuse portal C4d, three of whom (2 early and 1 late posttransplantation) developed unrelenting cholestasis, necessitating specific antibody-depleting therapy to salvage the allografts. Thus, in ABO-compatible liver transplantation humoral alloreactivity mediated by antibodies against donor HLA molecules appears to be frequently intertwined with cellular mechanisms of rejection, and to play a role in ductopenia development.
    American Journal of Transplantation 03/2011; 11(3):500-10. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03414.x · 6.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,309.02 Total Impact Points


  • 1987–2015
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2002
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2000
    • New England Baptist Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999
    • Naval Medical Research Center
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1994
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Neurology
      Nashville, MI, United States
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Surgery
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
    • Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
      • Department of Surgery
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands