Motoaki Nakamura

Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (27)132.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder.
    NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2015; 7:155 - 169.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on autism spectrum condition (ASC) have identified dysfunctions in specific brain networks involved in social and non-social cognition that persist into adulthood. Although increasing numbers of fMRI studies have revealed atypical functional connectivity in the adult ASC brain, such functional alterations at the network level have not yet been fully characterized within the recently developed graph-theoretical framework. Here, we applied a graph-theoretical analysis to resting-state fMRI data acquired from 46 adults with ASC and 46 age- and gender-matched controls, to investigate the topological properties and organization of autistic brain network. Analyses of global metrics revealed that, relative to the controls, participants with ASC exhibited significant decreases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, indicating a shift towards randomized organization. Furthermore, analyses of local metrics revealed a significantly altered organization of the hub nodes in ASC, as shown by analyses of hub disruption indices using multiple local metrics and by a loss of "hubness" in several nodes (e.g., the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and precuneus) that are critical for social and non-social cognitive functions. In particular, local metrics of the anterior cingulate cortex consistently showed significant negative correlations with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Our results demonstrate altered patterns of global and local topological properties that may underlie impaired social and non-social cognition in ASC.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94115. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-lasting effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity are not clear. We aimed to investigate the cumulative rTMS effects on EEG and clinical outcomes in patients with major depression. Twenty-five patients with medication-resistant depression underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured resting EEG and spectrum-power before and after the rTMS course. Clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In an ANOVA model, including all prefrontal electrodes, posthoc analyses revealed significant time effects on the theta (F1,24=7.89, P=0.010; +43%), delta (F1,24=6.58, P=0.017; +26%), and alpha (F1,24=4.64, P=0.042; 31%) bands without site specificity. Clinical correlations were observed between F4 alpha power increases and improvements in HAM-D retardation, F3 alpha power increases and improvements of the absolute changes in perseveration and error number on the WCST, and C3 & C4 theta power increases and improvements of the percent change in perseveration and error number on the WCST following rTMS. Consecutive prefrontal rTMS could induce long-lasting EEG potentiations beyond the aftereffects, resulting in improved cognitive and depressive symptoms.
    Neuroscience Research 07/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural MRI, subtypes of the "H-shaped" sulcus (Type I, II, and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS), and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n=51) and matched normal controls (n=55) based on Chiavaras and Petrides (2000). ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced "attention to detail" subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 02/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sleep structure in major depression are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of prefrontal rTMS on sleep electroencephalography (EEG) in major depression. METHODS: In this open-label pilot study, twelve male patients with relatively mild depression, who had been medication-resistant, underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Polysomnographic (PSG) data were recorded over four nights: Adaptation, Baseline, Post-1 (after the fifth rTMS session), and Post-2 (after the tenth rTMS session). Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) band power analyses were performed to quantify delta and sigma band activities during Stages II-IV, and determine time courses of these activities between Baseline and Post-1 (first five sessions) and between Post-1 and Post-2 (last five sessions). RESULTS: Post-hoc tests based on a three-way ANOVA model indicated significant delta power increase at F3 (t(11) = -2.762, P = 0.018) during the first five sessions; however, sigma power was unchanged. No significant band power changes were observed during the second half. Stages II-IV (percent total sleep time) increased significantly during the first half (t(12) = -2.43, P = 0.033). No other significant changes in sleep parameters or clinical correlations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The first five sessions of high frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC increase slow-wave activity (SWA) at F3, possibly reflecting locally enhanced synaptic plasticity induced by rTMS. This increased activity was not observed during the last half, possibly due to a homeostatic regulation mechanism intrinsic to SWA.
    Brain Stimulation 08/2012; · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined variability in performance on widely-used neuropsychological Wechsler tests of intelligence and memory in a large sample of persons with chronic schizophrenia, a subset of whom had also undergone prior studies of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) gray matter and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the cingulum bundle (CB) and the uncinate fasiculus (UF) white matter. In comparison to controls, persons with schizophrenia showed lower scores across neuropsychological tests, with most pronounced drops in processing speed and immediate memory, in relation to oral reading. For patients, greater declines in intelligence and memory each correlated with reduced CB white matter fractional anisotropy and reduced OFC gray matter, respectively. However, only memory decline correlated with severity of negative symptoms. Taken together, these data raise the intriguing question as to whether communication and motivational deficits expressed in negative symptoms may contribute to the relationship of auditory memory decline and OFC volume observed in this patient sample.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 07/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined social cognition in a sample of healthy participants who had prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) that was parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus and lateral orbital gyrus. These subjects also completed a self-report measure of Machiavelli personality traits, along with psychometric tests of social comprehension and declarative episodic memory, all of which we used as proxy measures to examine various features of social cognition. The data pointed to distinct functional-anatomical relationships highlighted by strong correlations of left lateral orbital gyrus and Machiavellian scores and right middle orbital gyrus with social comprehension and declarative episodic memory. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed statistical evidence of a double dissociation between Machiavellian scores and left lateral orbital gyrus on one hand, and social comprehension with right middle orbital gyrus, on the other hand. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to show evidence linking normal variation in OFC subregions and different aspects of social cognition.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 02/2012; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sulcogyral pattern of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is characterized by a remarkable inter-individual variability that likely reflects neurobehavioral traits and genetic aspects of neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the OFC sulcogyral pattern of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) to determine group differences in OFC sulcogyral pattern as well as gender differences between groups. Forty-seven SZ patients (M/F, 23/24) and forty-seven HC (M/F, 17/30), matched on age and gender, were analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging. The sulcogyral pattern was classified into type I, II, or III based on the guidelines set by Chiavaras and Petrides in a previous paper. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate group and gender differences in the sulcogyral pattern distribution, and categorical regression was used to explore clinical correlations. The distribution of OFC sulcogyral pattern in HC replicated the results found in the previous study (left, χ(2) = 0.02, P = 0.989; right, χ(2) = 0.97, P = 0.616), in that there were no gender differences. Moreover, the distribution in SZ-M was in accordance with that in the previous study (left, χ(2) = 1.59, P = 0.451; right, χ(2) = 0.14, P = 0.933). Additionally, within SZ-M, patients with the type III pattern had a higher total positive and negative syndrome scale score (β = 0.902, F = 14.75, P = 0.001). In contrast, the distribution in the right hemisphere in the SZ-F group differed significantly from that observed in SZ-M (χ(2) = 6.017, P = 0.046), but did not differ from HC (χ(2) = 2.557, P = 0.110). OFC sulcogyral pattern is altered in SZ-M but not in SZ-F, possibly reflecting gender differences in early neurodevelopment.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 08/2011; 65(5):483-9. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although recent studies suggest abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, limbic structures, and brain stem regions in panic disorder (PD), the extent to which the midbrain is associated with PD pathophysiology is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate structural abnormalities of the midbrain using magnetic resonance imaging and to determine if there is a clinical correlation between midbrain volume and clinical measurements in patients with PD. Thirty-eight patients with PD (PD group) and 38 healthy controls (HC group) participated in this study. The midbrain was measured with a manual tracing method with high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning were used to examine the correlation between volume abnormality and clinical symptoms and functioning in the PD group. Relative midbrain volume was larger in the PD group than in the HC group. The relative volume of the dorsal midbrain was larger in the PD group, while the volume of the ventral midbrain was not. We found a significant positive correlation between relative dorsal midbrain volume and total Panic Disorder Severity Scale score, and a significant negative correlation between relative dorsal midbrain volume and Global Assessment of Functioning score in the PD group. Our findings suggest that the dorsal midbrain is associated with PD pathophysiology. The midbrain volume increase may reflect PD severity.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 06/2011; 65(4):365-73. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2011; 71.
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    ABSTRACT: The posterior region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which forms its sulcogyral pattern during neurodevelopment, receives multisensory inputs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between posterior OFC sulcogyral pattern and OFC volume difference in patients with panic disorder. The anatomical pattern of the posterior orbital sulcus (POS) was classified into three subtypes (absent POS, single POS, double POS) using 3-D high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance images obtained from 28 patients with panic disorder and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to assess OFC volume differences between the two groups by subtype. Categorical regression analysis was applied to examine the association of POS subtypes with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory scores. No significant difference was found in POS subtype distribution between control subjects and patients with panic disorder. VBM, however, indicated volume reduction in the right posterior-medial OFC region in panic disorder patients with absent POS and single POS. Single POS was positively associated with Trait-Anxiety (beta = 0.446, F = 6.409, P = 0.020), and absent POS was negatively associated with Trait-Anxiety (beta = -0.394, F = 5.341, P = 0.032) and Neuroticism trait (beta = -0.492, F = 6.989, P = 0.017). POS subtypes may be relevant to volume reduction in OFC and the anxiety trait in patients with panic disorder. These findings suggest that volume reduction in OFC in panic disorder may be associated with neurodevelopment.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 06/2010; 64(3):318-26. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors examined the relationship between neuropsychological performance and MRI of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the cingulum bundle (CB) within groups of patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. The authors analyzed data from subjects, who had participated in prior MRI, DTI, and neuropsychological studies (Nakamura et al., 2008; Nestor et al., 2008). In comparison to healthy subjects, patients showed the expected reductions across CB fractional anisotropy (white matter) and OFC gray matter volume as well as lower neuropsychological scores. In addition, in comparison to healthy subjects, patients showed a very different pattern of functional-anatomical correlates. For patients, CB white matter but not OFC gray matter correlated with various aspects of intelligence, including general abilities and working memory. For controls, OFC gray matter but not CB white matter correlated with scores on tests of intelligence and decision making. These results point to the potentially important role of CB white matter in the neuropsychological disturbance in schizophrenia.
    Neuropsychology 01/2010; 24(1):121-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A progressive post-onset decrease in gray matter volume 1.5 years after first hospitalization in schizophrenia has been shown in superior temporal gyrus (STG). However, it is still controversial whether progressive volume reduction occurs in chronic schizophrenia in the STG and amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC), structures found to be abnormal in chronic schizophrenia. These structures were measured at two time points in 16 chronic schizophrenia patients and 20 normal comparison subjects using manual tracing with high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Average interscan interval was 3.1 years for schizophrenia patients and 1.4 years for healthy comparison subjects. Cross-sectional comparisons showed smaller relative volumes in schizophrenia compared with controls in posterior STG and AHC. An ANCOVA with interscan interval as a covariate showed there was no statistically significant progression of volume reduction in either the STG or AHC in the schizophrenia group compared with normal subjects. In the schizophrenia group, volume change in the left anterior AHC significantly correlated with PANSS negative symptoms. These data, and separately reported first episode data from our laboratory, suggest marked progression at the initial stage of schizophrenia, but less in chronic schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 07/2009; 113(1):84-94. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While clinical features of panic disorder show significant sexual dimorphism, previous structural MRI studies have not sufficiently controlled for sex when looking at regional brain abnormalities in panic disorder. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), regional gray matter volume was compared between 24 patients (male/female: 9/15) with panic disorder and 24 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Significant gray matter volume reductions were found in the bilateral dorsomedial and right ventromedial prefrontal cortices, right amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insular cortex, occipitotemporal gyrus and left cerebellar vermis in the patients compared with the controls. Among these regions, the VBM revealed significant sexual dimorphism: volume reduction in the right amygdala and the bilateral insular cortex was significantly greater in the males, while reduction in the right superior temporal gyrus was greater in females. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, thalamus, and parietal cortex was specific to the female patients. The present study demonstrated the morphological changes in extensive brain regions of patients with panic disorder compared with the sex-matched controls. The current results further suggested that the sexually dimorphic clinical phenotypes of panic disorder might have a neurobiological background even at the structural level of the brain.
    Psychiatry Research 07/2009; 173(2):128-34. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims:  Anxiety a core feature of panic disorder, is linked to function of the amygdala. Volume alterations in the brain of patients with panic disorder have previously been reported, but there has been no report of amygdala volume association with anxiety.Methods:  Volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were manually measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 27 patients with panic disorder and 30 healthy comparison subjects. In addition the amygdala was focused on, applying small volume correction to optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). State–Trait Anxiety Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised were also used to evaluate anxiety.Results:  Amygdala volumes in both hemispheres were significantly smaller in patients with panic disorder compared with control subjects (left: t = −2.248, d.f. = 55, P = 0.029; right: t = −2.892, d.f. = 55, P = 0.005). VBM showed that structural alteration in the panic disorder group occurred on the corticomedial nuclear group within the right amygdala (coordinates [x,y,z (mm)]: [26,−6,−16], Z score = 3.92, family-wise error-corrected P = 0.002). The state anxiety was negatively correlated with the left amygdala volume in patients with panic disorder (r = −0.545, P = 0.016).Conclusions:  These findings suggested that the smaller volume of the amygdala may be associated with anxiety in panic disorder. Of note, the smaller subregion in the amygdala estimated on VBM could correspond to the corticomedial nuclear group including the central nucleus, which may play a crucial role in panic attack.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 05/2009; 63(3):266 - 276. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two of the most frequently investigated regions in diffusion tensor imaging studies in chronic schizophrenia are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether UF and CB white matter integrity were altered at the early stage of illness and specific to schizophrenia. Fifteen schizophrenia subjects and 15 affective psychosis within 4 years of first hospitalization (12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with affective psychosis during their first hospitalization), and 15 psychiatrically healthy controls underwent line-scan diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (D(m)) were used to quantify water diffusion, and cross-sectional area was defined with a directional threshold method. Bilaterally reduced FA, but not D(m), was present in the UF of schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Affective psychosis was intermediate between schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls, but not significantly different from either. For CB, there was no significant group difference for FA or D(m). These findings suggest that UF, but not CB, white matter integrity is altered at the early stage of illness in schizophrenia although it may not be specific to schizophrenia. The CB abnormalities reported in chronic schizophrenia may develop during the later course of the disease.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2009; 110(1-3):119-26. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have demonstrated psychopathological symptom-related smaller gray matter volumes in various cingulate gyrus subregions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, it is unclear whether these gray matter abnormalities show a subregional specificity to either disorder and whether they show postonset progression. To determine whether there are initial and progressive gray matter volume deficits in cingulate gyrus subregions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and patients with first-episode affective psychosis (FEAFF, mainly manic) and their specificity to FESZ or FEAFF. A naturalistic cross-sectional study at first hospitalization for psychosis and a longitudinal follow-up approximately 1(1/2) years later. Setting and Patients were from a private psychiatric hospital. Thirty-nine patients with FESZ and 41 with FEAFF at first hospitalization for psychosis and 40 healthy control subjects (HCs) recruited from the community underwent high-spatial-resolution MRI, with follow-up scans in 17 FESZ patients, 18 FEAFF patients, and 18 HCs. Individual subjects were matched for age, sex, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. Cingulate gyrus gray matter volumes in 3 anterior subregions (subgenual, affective, and cognitive) and 1 posterior subregion, and whether there was a paracingulate sulcus. At first hospitalization, patients with FESZ showed significantly smaller left subgenual (P = .03), left (P = .03) and right (P = .005) affective, right cognitive (P = .04), and right posterior (P = .003) cingulate gyrus gray matter subregions compared with HCs. Moreover, at the 1(1/2)-year follow-up, patients with FESZ showed progressive gray matter volume decreases in the subgenual (P = .002), affective (P < .001), cognitive (P < .001), and posterior (P = .02) cingulate subregions compared with HCs. In contrast, patients with FEAFF showed only initial (left, P < .001; right, P = .002) and progressive subgenual subregion abnormalities (P < .001). Finally, patients with FESZ showed a less asymmetric paracingulate pattern than HCs (P = .02). Patients with FEAFF and FESZ showed differences in initial gray matter volumes and in their progression. Initial and progressive changes in patients with FEAFF were confined to the subgenual cingulate, a region strongly associated with affective disorder, whereas patients with FESZ evinced widespread initial and progressively smaller volumes.
    Archives of general psychiatry 08/2008; 65(7):746-60. · 12.26 Impact Factor
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    Schizophrenia Research 06/2008; 102(1):16-17. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electrical activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the event-related potentials extracted from the EEG provide the greatest temporal resolution for examining brain function. When coupled with the high spatial resolution of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), the combined techniques provide a powerful tool for neuroscience in the examination of brain abnormalities in major psychiatric illnesses. Over the last 20 years, our work has examined brain structure and function in schizophrenia. Both EEG and MRI measures have indicated profound abnormalities in schizophrenia within the temporal lobe, particularly marked over the left hemisphere. Our studies of patients first hospitalized due to psychosis revealed the early course of the disease to be characterized by progressive impairment and cortical gray matter reduction, most intense near the time of first hospitalization. Knowledge of those locations and brain signals affected early should help understand the basic physiological defect underlying this progression, with potential implications for new therapeutic interventions.
    Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) 05/2008; 39(2):57-60. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) structural abnormality in schizophrenia has not been well characterized, probably due to marked anatomical variability and lack of consistent definitions. We previously reported OFC sulcogyral pattern alteration and its associations with social disturbance in schizophrenia, but OFC volume associations with psychopathology and cognition have not been investigated. We compared chronically treated schizophrenia patients with healthy control (HC) subjects, using a novel, reliable parcellation of OFC subregions and their association with cognition, especially the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and with schizophrenic psychopathology including thought disorder. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia and 25 age-matched HC subjects underwent MRI. OFC Regions of Interest (ROI) were manually delineated according to anatomical boundaries: Gyrus Rectus (GR); Middle Orbital Gyrus (MiOG); and Lateral Orbital Gyrus (LOG). The OFC sulcogyral pattern was also classified. Additionally, MiOG probability maps were created and compared between groups in a voxel-wise manner. Both groups underwent cognitive evaluations using the IGT, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Trail Making Test (TMT). An 11% bilaterally smaller MiOG volume was observed in schizophrenia, compared with HC (F(1,47) = 17.4, P = 0.0001). GR and LOG did not differ, although GR showed a rightward asymmetry in both groups (F(1,47) = 19.2, P < 0.0001). The smaller MiOG volume was independent of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, which differed in schizophrenia and HC (chi2 = 12.49, P = 0.002). A comparison of MiOG probability maps suggested that the anterior heteromodal region was more affected in the schizophrenia group than the posterior paralimbic region. In the schizophrenia group, a smaller left MiOG was strongly associated with worse 'positive formal thought disorder' (r = -0.638, P = 0.001), and a smaller right MiOG with a longer duration of the illness (r = -0.618, P = 0.002). While schizophrenics showed poorer performance than HC in the IGT, performance was not correlated with OFC volume. However, within the HC group, the larger the right hemisphere MiOG volume, the better the performance in the IGT (r = 0.541, P = 0.005), and the larger the left hemisphere volume, the faster the switching attention performance for the TMT, Trails B (r = -0.608, P = 0.003). The present study, applying a new anatomical parcellation method, demonstrated a subregion-specific OFC grey matter volume deficit in patients with schizophrenia, which was independent of OFC sulcogyral pattern. This volume deficit was associated with a longer duration of illness and greater formal thought disorder. In HC the finding of a quantitative association between OFC volume and IGT performance constitutes, to our knowledge, the first report of this association.
    Brain 01/2008; 131(Pt 1):180-95. · 10.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

607 Citations
132.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Kanagawa Cancer Center
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      • • Faculty & Graduate School of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Yokohama City University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2010
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States