T L Neville

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, United States

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Publications (26)44.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P < 0.04) in HSeM than ASeM group, and in stroma was less (P < 0.05) in R and E groups than M group. Maternal diet did not affect the LI of any follicle types. For all groups combined, LI was the greatest (P < 0.001) in antral, less in early antral and secondary, and the least in atretic follicles. Our results demonstrate that maternal diet influenced ovarian but not uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring.
    Theriogenology 01/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P < 0.05) in RES ewes and decreased (P < 0.05) in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 10/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impacts of Se supply and maternal dietary intake on ewe organ mass and endocrine and metabolic changes throughout gestation, pregnant first parity ewes (n=77) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2×3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe; 9.5μg/kg BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 81.8μg/kg BW)] initiated at breeding and dietary intake [60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements] initiated on d 50 of gestation. Ewes were individually fed and blood samples from the jugular vein were obtained approximately every 14 d from d 50 until parturition. Maternal Se supply did not impact endocrine or metabolic status. There was a nutritional intake by day interaction for NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17β (E2). As expected, with increased maternal intake, NEFA concentrations were reduced. During the last weeks of gestation, BUN and insulin were elevated in EXC compared with RES ewes. Although the pattern of T3 and T4 differed throughout gestation within a treatment group, as maternal intake increased, circulating T3 and T4 were increased. For P4 and E2, as maternal dietary intake increased, there was a reduction in the steroid concentrations in jugular blood. There was only a main effect of maternal nutrition (P<0.001) for cortisol concentrations with EXC ewes having greater concentrations than RES and CON ewes, which did not differ. Although Se is known to influence thyroid hormone metabolism, supranutritional levels during pregnancy did not alter circulating T3 and T4 concentrations. Alterations in maternal endocrine status may have influenced placental transport of nutrients to the developing fetus, which we have shown previously is affected by maternal dietary Se and intake. In addition, the alterations in mammary gland weight that we observed may explain the impact of maternal nutrition on mammary gland function and colostrum production, thereby further impairing growth of developing neonates.
    Animal reproduction science 08/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on neonatal offspring visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularity, 84 nulliparous Rambouillet ewes (age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg), were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design. Ewes were fed 1 of 2 Se diets [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)] initiated at breeding and 1 of 3 nutritional planes [60% (restricted; RES), 100% (control; CON), or 140% (high; HIH) of NRC requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually and remained on treatments through parturition. All lambs were removed from their dams at birth and fed milk replacer. At d 20.6 ± 0.9 of age, lambs were necropsied, visceral organs were dissected, and jejunal samples were collected. Lambs born to ewes fed CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.04) BW, gastrointestinal tract, stomach complex, and liver masses at necropsy than RES. Large intestinal and pancreatic masses, as well as stomach complex, large intestinal, and liver proportional masses, demonstrated (P ≤ 0.08) a nutritional plane × Se supply interaction. Proportional pancreatic mass was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs born to RES ewes than HIH. Although small intestinal mass was not affected (P ≥ 0.18) by gestational treatments, lambs born to HIH-fed ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.09) jejunal DNA concentration than RES and CON and greater (P = 0.01) total DNA than RES. Nutritional plane and Se supply interacted to affect (P ≤ 0.003) jejunal percent proliferation and total proliferating small intestinal cells, although jejunal crypt depth and villus length were not affected by gestational treatment (P ≥ 0.17). Jejunal glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) mRNA expression was greater (P ≤ 0.07) in lambs born to ewes fed RES compared with CON and HIH. Jejunal capillary size was affected (P = 0.09) by the interaction of nutritional plane × Se supply. Lambs from CON ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.04) jejunal capillary surface density than RES. Nutritional plane and Se supply interacted to affect (P = 0.07) jejunal soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA expression in a manner opposite of capillary size. In conclusion, neonatal lamb visceral organ mass was affected by gestational nutrition, even when lambs had ad libitum intake and similar management postnatally. Despite similar small intestinal mass at d 20 of age, jejunal growth, vascularity, and gene expression were altered by maternal nutrition during gestation.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives were to investigate the effects of maternal Se supply and nutritional plane during gestation on offspring visceral tissues and indices of intestinal growth, vascularity, and function at 180 d of age. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 82, approximately 240 d of age; 52 ± 0.8 kg BW at breeding) were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments included dietary Se (adequate Se [ASe, 9.5 μg/kg BW] or high Se [HSe, 81.8 μg/kg BW]) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane (60% [restricted, RES], 100% [control, CON], and 140% [ high, HI] of requirements) initiated at d 50 of gestation. Ewes were fed pelleted diets and housed individually indoors. At parturition, lambs were immediately removed and fed artificial colostrum for the first 20 h followed by ad libitum access to milk replacer. At 180 ± 2 d of age, lambs were euthanized and tissues harvested. Birth weight was affected by nutritional treatments (P < 0.001) with decreased birth weight in RES and HI compared with CON. Offspring from RES and HI ewes had decreased (P = 0.07) blood volume compared to CON, and those born to HSe ewes had increased (P < 0.04) total visceral adiposity. Within offspring from CON ewes, those from HSe ewes had greater (P < 0.02) intestinal mass compared with ASe ewes. Within offspring from HSe ewes, both RES and HI had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) intestinal mass compared with CON. Jejunal capillary area density was greater (P = 0.08) in offspring from ewes fed HSe compared with ASe. In addition, area per capillary was greater (P ≤ 0.09) in CON compared with RES. Maternal nutritional plane tended (P ≤ 0.11) to alter total small intestinal vascularity, with lambs from CON being greater than RES. Expression of most mRNA for measured angiogenic factors and receptors was not altered (P ≥ 0.13) by maternal treatments; however, expression of glucagon like peptide -2 (GLP-2) was lower (P = 0.07) in offspring from RES compared with CON ewes. Offspring from ewes fed HI diets had increased (P = 0.08) jejunal mucosal maltase activity. In conclusion, maternal Se supply and nutritional plane during gestation resulted in measurable changes in offspring visceral tissues and intestinal biology including perirenal fat, blood volume, intestinal mass, total jejunal crypt cell proliferation, area per capillary in jejunal villi, GLP-2 mRNA expression, and maltase activity at 180 d. Additional work is needed to determine impacts on intestinal function and nutrient uptake.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Objectives were to examine the effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on mammary gland growth, cellular proliferation, and vascularity at parturition and d 20 of lactation. Rambouillet primiparous ewes (n = 84) were allocated to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial. Factors were dietary Se (adequate Se [ASe, 11.5 mug/kg BW] or high Se [HSe, 77.0 mug/kg BW]) and nutritional plane (60% [RES], 100% [CON], or 140% [EXC]). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7/treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were fed a common diet meeting requirements for lactation and mechanically milked twice daily until necropsy on d 20. At both necropsy periods, mammary glands were dissected and tissues harvested. Samples were analyzed for RNA, DNA, and protein content, cell proliferation, and vascularity. Where interactions were present (P <= 0.05), least squares means from the highest-order interaction are presented. RESULTS: Final body weight of ewes was least (P <= 0.002) in RES, intermediate for CON, and greatest for EXC, regardless of stage of the ewe at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). In ewes necropsied at parturition, mammary glands were heavier (P = 0.02) in EXC compared to RES, with CON intermediate. Concentration of RNA (mg/g) was decreased (P = 0.01) in EXC compared to CON at parturition. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for a Se by nutrition interaction in percentage of cells proliferating where ASe-EXC ewes had greater (P <= 0.02) number of proliferating cells then all other treatments. Mammary vascular area tended (P = 0.08) to be affected by a Se by nutrition interaction where ASe-CON had less (P = 0.007) vascular area than HSe-CON ewes. In ewes necropsied at d 20 of lactation, the number of alveoli per area was decreased (P <= 0.05) in RES compared to CON and EXC-fed ewes. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate that proper maternal nutritional plane during gestation is important for mammary gland development, even out to d 20 of lactation.
    Journal of animal science and biotechnology. 02/2013; 4(1):6.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of maternal supranutritional selenium (Se) supplementation and maternal nutritional plane on offspring growth potential, ewes were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement [dietary Se (adequate Se; 9.5 μg/kg body weight vs. high Se; 81.8 μg/kg body weight initiated at breeding) and plane of nutrition [60%, 100%, or 140% of requirements; initiated on day 50 of gestation]]. Lambs were immediately removed from dams at birth and reared. Cortisol concentrations at birth were similar, but by 24 h, a relationship (P = 0.02) between maternal Se supplementation and nutritional plane on cortisol concentrations was observed in lambs. A sex of offspring × day of age interaction (P = 0.01) and a maternal Se supplementation × nutritional plane × day of age interaction (P = 0.04) was observed for thyroxine concentrations. Differences in growth may be influenced by thyroid hormone production early in neonatal life.
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 01/2013; 6:11-21.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of maternal selenium (Se) supplementation and nutritional intake during gestation on hormone changes, percentage body weight (BW) change, and organ mass in neonatal lambs, ewes were allocated to differing Se levels (adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)) initiated at breeding and nutritional intake (60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (HIGH) of NRC requirements) initiated at day 40 of gestation. At parturition, all lambs were removed from dams, fed common diets, and BW and blood samples were collected until day 19. There was a Se × nutritional intake × day interaction for percentage BW change from birth. Lambs born to ASe-HIGH ewes tended to have decreased BW change compared with ASe-CON and ASe-RES groups on day 7. Lambs from HSe-HIGH ewes tended to have increased BW change compared with HSe-RES and HSe-CON groups from days 7 to 19. At birth, there was a Se × sex of offspring interaction, in which male lambs from HSe ewes had decreased cortisol concentrations compared with all other lambs. By 24 h, lambs from RES ewes had decreased cortisol compared with those from HIGH ewes, with lambs from CON ewes being intermediate. Lambs from RES- and CON-fed ewes had greater thyroxine than HIGH ewes at 24 h. Organ masses on day 19 were mainly impacted by maternal nutritional intake and sex of the offspring. Birth weight alone did not predict growth performance during neonatal life. Moreover, despite a similar postnatal diet, maternal nutritional plane and Se status did impact neonatal endocrine profiles. Exact mechanisms of how neonatal endocrine status can influence later growth and development need to be determined.
    Reproduction 04/2012; 144(1):23-35. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)], nutritional plane [60% (restricted; RES), 100% (control; CON), or 140% (high; HIH)], and physiological stage at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7 per treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were transitioned to a common diet which met lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. In the absence of interactions (P > 0.10), main effects are reported. At parturition, stomach complex and liver masses were greatest for HIH, intermediate for CON, and least for RES (P < 0.02). Small intestinal mass was greater (P ≤ 0.002) for HIH than RES and CON, and greater (P < 0.01) for ASe than HSe. During early lactation, RES and CON gastrointestinal masses increased disproportionally to BW (P < 0.05). At parturition, jejunal mucosal density was less (P ≤ 0.01) for RES than CON and HIH, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.003) jejunal mucosal RNA concentration and RNA:DNA than RES and HIH. Although there were no differences (P > 0.17) at parturition, jejunal cell percent proliferation was greatest in RES, intermediate in CON, and least in HIH (P ≤ 0.09) at d 20 lactation. At both stages, RES had less (P = 0.01) jejunal capillary area density than HIH and less (P ≤ 0.03) capillary surface density than CON and HIH. During lactation, jejunal capillary size was greater (P = 0.04) for ewes previously fed HSe compared with ASe. At parturition, ASe-HIH had greater (P < 0.02) jejunal mucosal endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 mRNA than all other treatments and greater (P = 0.10) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than all treatments, except ASe-RES. In addition, CON had less (P ≤ 0.08) jejunal VEGF receptor-1 (FLT1) mRNA compared with RES and HIH, and ASe had greater (P = 0.003) FLT1 than HSe at parturition. Ewes fed HIH had greater (P = 0.04) jejunal VEGF receptor-2 mRNA compared with RES. Results indicate that maternal intestinal growth and vascularization are responsive to nutritional plane and dietary Se during gestation and undergo changes postpartum when under similar lactational management.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2012; 90(8):2733-49. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a mid- to late-gestation ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we examined uteroplacental blood flow and fetal growth during melatonin supplementation as a 2 × 2 factorial design. At day 50 of gestation, 32 ewes were supplemented with 5 mg of melatonin (MEL) or no melatonin (CON) and were allocated to receive 100% [adequate; (ADQ)] or 60% [restricted (RES)] of nutrient requirements until day 130 of gestation. Umbilical artery blood flow was increased from day 60 to day 110 of gestation in MEL vs. CON dams, while umbilical artery blood flow was decreased from day 80 to day 110 of gestation in RES vs. ADQ dams. At day 130 of gestation, uteroplacental hemodynamics, measured under general anesthesia, and fetal growth were evaluated. Uterine artery blood flow was decreased in RES vs. ADQ dams, while melatonin supplementation did not affect uterine artery blood flow. Total placentome weight and placentome number were not different between treatment groups. Fetal weight was decreased by nutrient restriction. Abdominal girth and ponderal index were increased in fetuses from MEL-ADQ dams vs. all other groups. Fetal biparietal distance was decreased in CON-RES vs. CON-ADQ dams, while melatonin supplementation rescued fetal biparietal distance. Fetal kidney length and width were increased by maternal melatonin treatment. Fetal cardiomyocyte area was altered by both maternal melatonin treatment and nutritional plane. In summary, melatonin may negate the consequences of IUGR during specific abnormalities in umbilical blood flow as long as sufficient uterine blood perfusion is maintained during pregnancy.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 11/2011; 302(4):R454-67. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of maternal Se supply and plane of nutrition on lamb morbidity, mortality, and passive transfer of IgG, pregnant ewe lambs were used in 2 experiments with 2 × 3 factorial treatment arrangements. Supplementation of Se began at breeding and was either adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 μg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 81.8 μg/kg of BW) in Exp. 1 or ASe (11.5 µg/kg of BW) or HSe (77.0 µg/kg of BW) in Exp. 2. On d 50 or 40 of gestation for Exp. 1 or 2, respectively, ewes were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 nutritional planes: 60% (RES), 100% (control, CON), or 140% (HI) of NRC requirements. This resulted in the following treatments: ASe-RES, ASe-CON, ASe-HI, HSe-RES, HSe-CON, and HSe-HI. Upon parturition, lambs were separated from their dams and serum samples obtained. Lambs were fed artificial colostrum for the first 20 h and then placed on milk replacer and grain pellets until completion of the study (Exp. 1, 57 d; Exp. 2, 21 d). Twenty-four hours after parturition, lamb serum samples were collected for IgG analysis. All lambs were reared similarly and morbidity and mortality assessed. Main effects were considered significant when P ≤ 0.05. In Exp. 1, there was a Se × plane of nutrition interaction (P ≤ 0.01) for lamb morbidity from birth to weaning and for 24-h IgG concentration. Lambs from ASe-RES and HSe-HI ewes were treated more frequently (P < 0.01) for respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, and lambs from HSe-HI ewes had the smallest (P < 0.01) 24-h serum IgG concentration. In Exp. 1, lambs from HI ewes also had the greatest (P < 0.01) mortality rates from birth to weaning compared with lambs from CON and RES ewes. In Exp. 2, there was an effect (P < 0.01) of maternal plane of nutrition with lambs from RES ewes having increased 24-h IgG compared with lambs from CON and HI ewes. There was no effect of maternal Se supplementation on lamb 24-h IgG in Exp. 2; however, there was a Se × plane of nutrition interaction (P < 0.01) for morbidity. From birth to 21 d of age, lambs from ASe-CON ewes had fewer (P < 0.01) treatment days compared with lambs from any of the other treatment groups. There also tended (P = 0.08) to be an effect of maternal Se supplementation on lamb mortality with increased mortality observed in lambs from HSe ewes. Results from the studies show a restricted maternal plane of nutrition can increase lamb serum IgG concentration. Selenium results were not consistent between the 2 experiments and may be due to differences in maternal Se.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2011; 89(11):3690-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives were to determine the effects of maternal dietary supranutritional Se and nutritional plane during gestation on capillary surface density, capillary area density, and angiogenic factor expression in the developing mammary gland of primiparous ewes. Selenium treatments were initiated at breeding [adequate Se (ASe; 9.5 μg/kg of body weight) vs. high Se (HSe; 81.8 μg/kg of body weight)] and nutritional planes at d 50 of gestation [Low, 60%; moderate (Mod), 100%; and High, 140% of requirements). Mammary glands were collected within 24h postpartum. Vascular development was assessed in the glandular portion of the mammary gland. Vascularity was determined for mammary tissue with the following measurements taken: the cross-sectional capillary area density (total capillary area as a proportion of tissue area) and capillary surface density (CSD; total capillary circumference per unit of tissue area). High-Se ewes had greater capillary surface and area densities compared with ASe ewes. A tendency existed for an Se × plane of nutrition interaction for CSD with maternal diet not affecting CSD in HSe ewes, but Low ewes had a decreased CSD compared with Mod ewes, with High being intermediate in ASe ewes. Moreover, HSe-Low and HSe-High ewes had increased CSD compared with ASe-Low and ASe-High, respectively. Although Se status did not influence angiogenic factor mRNA expression, mammary glands from Low ewes tended to have increased VEGF and FLT1 mRNA expression compared with High ewes, with Mod being intermediate. Maternal plane of nutrition did not affect mammary gland glutathione peroxidase activity, but it was increased in HSe compared with ASe ewes. Increased mammary capillary nutrient exchange area may contribute to previously observed changes in colostrum quality.
    Journal of Dairy Science 06/2011; 94(6):2850-8. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of maternal nutrition on offspring wool production (quality and quantity) were evaluated. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Selenium treatment [adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 μg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe, 81.8 μg/kg of BW)] was initiated at breeding, and maternal nutritional intake [control (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted (60% of CON) vs. overfed (140% of CON)] was initiated at d 50 of gestation. Lamb birth weight was recorded at delivery, and all lambs were placed on the same diet immediately after birth to determine the effects of prenatal nutrition on postnatal wool production and follicle development. At 180 ± 2.2 d of age, lambs were necropsied and pelt weights were recorded. Wool samples were collected from the side and britch areas, whereas skin samples were collected from the side of each lamb only. Although Se status did not influence side staple length in males, female lambs born from ewes on the ASe treatment had a shorter staple length (P < 0.05) when compared with females from ewes on the HSe treatment. Maternal nutritional intake and Se status did not influence (P ≥ 0.23) wool characteristics on the britch. However, at the britch, wool from female lambs had a reduced comfort factor (P = 0.01) and a greater (P = 0.02) fiber diameter compared with wool from male lambs. Maternal Se supplementation, maternal nutritional plane, sex of the offspring, or their interactions had no effect (P > 0.13) on primary (29.10 ± 1.40/100 µm(2)) and secondary (529.84 ± 21.57/100 µm(2)) wool follicle numbers. Lambs from ASe ewes had a greater (P = 0.03) secondary:primary wool follicle ratio compared with lambs from HSe ewes (20.93 vs. 18.01 ± 1.00). Despite similar postnatal diets, wool quality was affected by maternal Se status and the maternal nutritional plane.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2011; 89(11):3819-23. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 µg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 µg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, and nutritional plane [60 (RES), 100 (CON), or 140% (HIH) of requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually from d 40, and lambs were removed at parturition. Colostrum was milked from all ewes at 3 h postpartum, and one-half of the ewes (n = 42) were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. Colostrum yield was greater (P = 0.02) for HSe ewes than ASe, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.05) colostrum yield than RES and HIH. Colostrum Se (%) was greater (P < 0.01) for HSe than ASe. Colostrum from ewes fed HSe had less (P = 0.03) butterfat (%), but greater (P ≤ 0.05) total butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, milk urea N, and Se than ASe. Colostrum from HIH ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) solids-not-fat (%) than RES, whereas RES had greater (P ≤ 0.04) butterfat (%) than CON and HIH. Colostrum from ewes fed the CON diet had greater (P = 0.01) total butterfat than HIH. Total solids-not-fat, lactose, and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in colostrum from CON than RES and HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk yield (g/d and mL/d) than ASe, and CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.01) yield than RES. Milk protein (%) was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in RES compared with CON or HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk Se (µg/g and mg/d) than ASe on each sampling day. Milk from CON and HIH ewes had greater (P < 0.01) total solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, and milk urea N than RES. Total Se was greater (P = 0.02) in milk from ewes fed the CON diet compared with RES. Somatic cell count and total somatic cells were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in milk from CON than RES. A cubic effect of day (P ≥ 0.01) was observed for milk yield (g and mL). Butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, milk urea N, and Se concentration responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.01) to day. Protein (%), total butterfat, and total Se, and somatic cells (cells/mL and cells/d) decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with day. Results indicate that gestational nutrition affects colostrum and milk yield and nutrient content, even when lactational nutrient requirements are met.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2011; 89(5):1627-39. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lambs born from feed-restricted or overfed ewes can be lighter at birth, whereas maternal Se supplementation can increase fetal size near term. We hypothesized that birth weight would be inversely related to feed efficiency and growth rates during postnatal development. To examine the effects of maternal dietary Se and nutrient restriction or excess on postnatal lamb growth, diet digestibility, and N retention, 82 ewe lambs (52.2 ± 0.8 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Factors were dietary Se [adequate Se (9.5 μg/kg of BW; ASe) vs. high Se (Se-enriched yeast; 81.8 μg/kg of BW; HSe)] and maternal nutritional intake [60% (restricted, RES), 100% (control, CON), or 140% (high, HI) of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments began at breeding. Nutritional treatments began on d 50 of gestation. Lambs were immediately removed from their dams at parturition, provided artificial colostrum, and fed milk replacer until weaning. After weaning, lambs were maintained using common management and on common diets until necropsy at 180 d. Male and female lambs from RES-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.03) at birth than lambs from CON-fed ewes, with lambs from HI-fed ewes being intermediate. Although maternal nutritional intake influenced (P < 0.06) BW gain before weaning on d 57, both maternal nutritional intake and sex of offspring influenced (P ≤ 0.09) BW gain from d 57 to 180. Although maternal nutritional intake did not influence (P ≥ 0.35) female lamb BW gain, male lambs from RES-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.09) than those from CON-fed ewes until d 162. By d 180, male lambs from RES- and HI-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.09) than those from CON-fed ewes. In a subset of lambs used in a feed efficiency study, namely, those born to ASe ewes, HI maternal nutritional intake decreased (P ≤ 0.09) ADG and G:F compared with lambs born to RES- and CON-fed ewes, which did not differ (P ≥ 0.60). Conversely, when lambs were born to HSe ewes, HI maternal nutritional intake increased (P ≤ 0.01) ADG and G:F compared with CON, with RES being intermediate. Moreover, lambs born to ASe-HI ewes had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F compared with lambs born to HSe-HI ewes. Furthermore, male lambs had a greater (P < 0.01) G:F than female lambs. Maternal diet did not affect (P ≥ 0.11) N retention in male lambs. These data indicate that maternal nutrition during gestation and sex of the offspring alter postnatal growth and efficiency of growth in offspring despite similar postnatal management.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2010; 88(11):3645-56. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of maternal dietary restriction and Se supply on angiogenic factor mRNA expression in intestinal and mammary tissues, and jejunal crypt cell proliferation and vascularity in late-term fetal intestines. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; initial BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Treatments (initiated d 50 +/- 5 of gestation) were control (3.5 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1)), Se-wheat (75 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1)), selenate (Se3; providing 75 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1)), selenate (Se15; providing 375 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1)). Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; initial BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of controls) and dietary Se (adequate Se; 6 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1) vs. high Se; 80 microg of Se.kg of BW(-1).d(-1)). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets (DM basis) were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME. In Exp. 1, Se15 increased (P = 0.07) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression, whereas Se supplementation decreased (P = 0.06) kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) mRNA in maternal mucosal scrape on d 134 of gestation. Expression of VEGF mRNA was decreased by Se (P = 0.10) in fetal jejunum. In mammary tissue, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 and KDR mRNA were greater in Se-wheat compared with Se3, and KDR expression was increased (P = 0.10) in Se15 compared with Se3. In Exp. 2, dietary restriction increased (P < or = 0.07) expression of mRNA for VEGF, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1, KDR, neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit in mucosal scrapes from maternal jejunum. In fetal jejunum, soluble guanylate cyclase, was decreased (P = 0.01) by maternal dietary restriction from d 64 to 135 of gestation. Total microvascularity in fetal jejunum was reduced (P = 0.002) by maternal dietary restriction. Mammary gland expression of VEGF, neuropilin 1, angiopoietin receptor (endothelial tyrosine kinase), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 increased (P < or = 0.09), whereas angiopoietin 1 decreased (P = 0.05) due to nutrient restriction. Data indicate that expression of angiogenic factors and receptors in maternal intestine, mammary gland, and fetal jejunum are responsive to maternal nutrition and likely explain observed changes in tissue vascularity.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2010; 88(8):2692-702. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on ewe and offspring performance and body composition, 84 Rambouillet ewe lambs (age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg) were allocated to a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 microg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 microg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, nutritional plane [60% (restricted, RES), 100% (control, CON), or 140% (high, HIH) of NRC requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation, and physiological stage at necropsy [3 to 24 h postpartum or d 20 of lactation]. Ewes were fed and housed individually in a temperature-controlled facility. At parturition, all lambs were removed and artificially reared until necropsy on d 20.6 +/- 0.9 of age. Ewes assigned to the treatment at d 20 of lactation were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and were mechanically milked. From d 95 of gestation through parturition and d 20 of lactation, ewe BW and BCS were least (P <or= 0.01) in the RES treatment, intermediate in the CON treatment, and greatest in the HIH treatment. Ewes fed HSe had a greater (P <or= 0.05) BCS increase than those fed ASe during mid- and late gestation. During gestation, ewes in the HIH treatment had the greatest (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F, those in the CON treatment were intermediate, and those in the RES treatment were least, whereas ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than those fed ASe during midgestation. Ewe backfat and LM area on d 135 of gestation were least (P < 0.001) in the RES treatment, intermediate in the CON treatment, and greatest in the HIH treatment, with ewes fed HSe having greater (P <or= 0.03) backfat than those fed ASe. During the first 20 d of lactation, ewes fed the RES diet had greater (P < 0.09) G:F than those fed the CON and HIH diets. Physiological stage had no effect on ewe omental and mesenteric fat or perirenal fat weights, although both were greater (P < 0.001) for ewes fed the HIH diet than for those fed the RES and CON diets. At birth, lambs born to ewes in the RES group weighed less and had decreased curved crown rump lengths (P = 0.08) compared with those born to ewes in the CON and HIH groups, and lambs from ewes in the ASe-RES treatment were lighter (P < 0.08) than those from ewes in the HSe-RES, ASe-CON, and ASe-HIH treatments. Lambs from dams in the RES group had less (P < 0.05) BW from d 7 to 19 and decreased (P < 0.07) overall ADG compared with lambs from dams in the CON and HIH groups. Additionally, lambs from dams in the RES group had less (P <or= 0.08) perirenal fat than their counterparts, and lambs from dams in the HIH group had greater (P = 0.01) omental and mesenteric fat than lambs from dams in the RES group. Postpartum serum Se of ewes and lambs (birth and d 19) was increased (P < 0.001) by HSe feeding during gestation. Results indicate that BW differences in pregnant ewes attributable to nutritional plane are accompanied by changes in body composition and offspring BW, both of which may be affected by Se supply.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2010; 88(5):1786-800. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P < or = 0.05) and perirenal fat (P < or = 0.06) compared with ASe. Total stomach complex mass was decreased (P < 0.01) by all the nutrient restriction treatments, but was reduced to a greater extent in CR and RR compared with RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P < 0.01) in CR and RR ewes. The mass of the stomach complex and the small and large intestine relative to MBW was greater (P = 0.01) for RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared with ASe. These data indicate that increased dietary Se affected whole-body and organ growth of pregnant ewes, but the results differed depending on the plane of nutrition. In addition, the timing and duration of nutrient restriction relative to stage of pregnancy affected visceral organ mass in a markedly different fashion.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2008; 87(2):669-80. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine effects of nutritional plane and Se supplementation on colostrum quality and mammary development, individually fed, pregnant Rambouillet ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Main effects included dietary Se level, which began at breeding (d = 0) [adequate Se (9.5 mug/kg of BW) vs. high Se (81.8 mug/kg of BW)], and plane of nutrition, which began at d 50 of gestation [60% (RES), 100% (CON), and 140% (HIGH) of requirements]. Upon parturition, lambs were immediately separated from dams and weighed. Three hours after lambing, colostrum yield was determined, and samples were obtained for components and immunoglobulin G (IgG) analysis. Ewes were slaughtered within 24 h of parturition, and mammary tissues were collected for determination of alveolar secretory epithelial cell proliferation index and luminal area. Gestation length was reduced (P < 0.01) in HIGH ewes compared with RES and CON ewes. Although birth weights were reduced (P < 0.01) in RES and HIGH compared with CON ewes, there was little effect of diet on placental size. Mammary gland weight was reduced (P </= 0.05) in RES compared with CON and HIGH, which were similar. However, when expressed as grams per kilogram of BW, mammary gland weight in HIGH ewes was less (P = 0.03) compared with RES and CON. Colostrum weight and volume were reduced (P < 0.01) in RES and HIGH ewes compared with CON. Although colostrum IgG concentration was greater in RES ewes compared with CON and HIGH, total IgG was lower (P </= 0.06) in RES and HIGH compared with CON ewes. The percentage of alveolar cells proliferating was increased (P < 0.04) in HIGH compared with RES ewes, with CON being intermediate. Percentage of alveoli luminal area per unit tissue area was increased (P = 0.04) in RES compared with HIGH and CON ewes, which did not differ. Selenium had no effect (P >/= 0.15) on mammary gland weight, colostrum quantity, or IgG concentration in pregnant ewe lambs. Improper nutrition from mid to late pregnancy in ewe lambs altered colostrum quality and quantity and reduced offspring birth weight, which may have negative implications for lamb health and survival during the early postnatal period.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2008; 86(9):2415-23. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se added as high-Se wheat at 3.0 mg/kg (Se-wheat), or sodium selenate at 3 (Se3) and 15 (Se15) mg/kg of Se. Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). Treatments were initiated at 50 +/- 5 d of gestation. The control, Se-wheat, Se3, and Se15 treatments provided 2.5, 75, 75, and 375 microg/kg of BW of Se, respectively. Ewe jugular blood samples were collected at 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, and 134 d of gestation. Fetal serum samples were collected at necropsy on d 134. In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of control) and dietary Se (adequate Se, 6 microg/kg of BW vs. high Se, 80 microg/kg of BW). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis). Blood samples were collected from the ewes at 62, 76, 90, 104, 118, 132, and 135 d of gestation. Fetal blood was collected at necropsy on d 135. In Exp.1, dietary Se source and concentration had no effect (P > 0.17) on maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations. Selenium supplementation increased (P = 0.06) the T(4):T(3) ratio vs. controls. In Exp. 2, dietary Se had no impact (P > 0.33) on main effect means for maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, T(3), or T(4) concentrations from d 62 to 132; however, at d 135, high-Se ewes had lower (P = 0.01) serum T(4) concentrations than adequate-Se ewes. A nutrition by Se interaction (P = 0.06) was detected for the T(4):T(3) ratios; ewes fed restricted and adequate-Se diets had greater (P = 0.10) T(4):T(3) ratios compared with the other treatments. Nutrient-restricted ewes had lower (P < 0.05) serum IGF-I, T(3), and T(4) concentrations. Fetal serum IGF-I concentrations were lower (P = 0.01) in restricted-vs. control-fed ewes; however, fetal T(3) and T(4) concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.13) by dietary Se or maternal plane of nutrition. These data indicate that dietary Se may alter maternal T(4):T(3) ratios. In addition, nutrient restriction during gestation reduces maternal IGF-I, T(3), and T(4) and fetal IGF-I concentrations.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2008; 86(5):1254-62. · 2.09 Impact Factor