Alfred L Chi

Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (8)54.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. Survivin is overexpressed in human colon cancer and correlate with chemoresistance, angiogenesis and poor prognosis. Oxaliplatin, a platinum derivative cancer drug, has been used for treating human colorectal cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated survivin mutant Thr34Ala [rAAV-Sur-Mut(T34A)] on colon cancer growth. Infection with rAAV-Sur-Mut(T34A) inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, and sensitized colon cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Treatment with rAAV-Sur-Mut(T34A) significantly induced apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis and inhibited colon cancer growth in vivo. More importantly, rAAV-Sur-Mut(T34A) treatment strongly enhanced the anti-tumor activity of oxaliplatin and prolonged animal survival. Thus, the use of rAAV-Sur-Mut(T34A) in combination with chemotherapy may be a promising strategy for colon cancer therapy.
    Oncology Reports 01/2011; 25(4):1039-46. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is associated with increased cell migration, resistance to apoptosis, and possibly increased gastric cancer invasion. Dysregulation of p53 is frequently observed in preneoplastic conditions of the stomach. Here, we investigated the effect of p53 on the expression and function of TFF2 in gastric cancer cell lines. Gene expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and promoter activity was assessed by dual luciferase reporter assays. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and cell migration was evaluated by the Boyden chamber assay. Exogenous expression of p53 dose dependently inhibited endogenous TFF2 mRNA, protein, and promoter activity and resulted in induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration. Downregulation of TFF2 by small interfering RNA sensitized gastric cancer cells to drug-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. Addition of human TFF2 peptide reversed p53-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration. The p53-responsive element was mapped to an AP-1-like cis-element at -182 bp upstream of the TFF2 transcription start site. Mutation of this AP-1-like element abrogated p53-mediated inhibition of TFF2 promoter activity. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that c-Jun and c-Fos bind to this AP-1-like element. Ectopic expression of c-Jun/c-Fos or p300 or treatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated endogenous TFF2 mRNA expression and promoter activity, and p53 inhibited the effects of AP-1 and PMA on TFF2. p53 induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell migration in part by downregulating TFF2 expression through an AP-1-like site, suggesting that TFF2 may be an important downstream target of p53.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 07/2009; 297(2):G385-96. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trefoil family factor 2 (TFF2) is expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells where it serves to maintain mucosal integrity and promote epithelial repair. The peptide hormone, gastrin, stimulates acid secretion but also induces proliferation of the acid-secreting mucosa. Because the relationship between these peptides of overlapping function is not understood, we chose to investigate the regulatory effect of gastrin on TFF2 expression. The expression of mRNA and protein of TFF2 was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. A series of truncated and mutant murine TFF2 promoter constructs was generated. Promoter activity was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays. Gastrin-responsive DNA-binding sites in the TFF2 promoter were evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Gastrin significantly increased the level of endogenous mRNA of TFF2 in the gastrin receptor-expressing AGS-E gastric cancer cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TFF2 protein expression in the gastric fundus was elevated in hypergastrinemic (INS-GAS) transgenic mice and reduced in gastrin-deficient mice. Gastrin treatment increased TFF2 promoter activity through cis-acting regions, containing CCAATA- and GC-rich enhancers. Pretreatment with Y-F476, a gastrin/CCK(B) receptor antagonist, abolished gastrin-dependent promoter activity. Inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) reduced gastrin-dependent TFF2 promoter activity, whereas an epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor had no effect. We found that gastrin regulates TFF2 transcription through a GC-rich DNA-binding site and a PKC-, MEK1- and PI 3-kinase-dependent but EGFR-independent pathway. Regulation of TFF2 by gastrin may play a role in the maintenance and repair of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 07/2007; 292(6):G1726-37. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trefoil family factor 2 (TFF2), also known as spasmolytic peptide, is a low-molecular-weight protein that is upregulated in gastric tissues infected with Helicobacter or having other inflammatory conditions, but a precise function is yet to be elucidated. The role of TFF2 in the development of gastritis, colitis, and inflammatory cytokine responses was examined both in vivo and in vitro using wild-type and TFF2 knockout mice. TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice were infected with Helicobacter felis (H. felis) to induce gastritis. Colitis was induced in TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice by administering dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. Histopathology, clinical disease (colitis), and antibody levels (H. felis) were examined. TFF2 expression in tissues was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and the inflammatory and proliferative responses of TFF2-expressing macrophages and spleen cells were examined by cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, thymidine incorporation, and gene array studies. TFF2 knockout mice have increased susceptibility to H. felis-induced gastritis, with enhanced gastric inflammation. They were also more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis, with prolonged colonic hemorrhage and persistent weight loss. Remarkably, TFF2 expression was not limited to the gastrointestinal tract, as suggested in previous studies, but was also present in macrophages and lymphocytes. The inflammatory and proliferative responses of these immune cell types were dysregulated in TFF2 knockout mice. TFF2-/- cells were hyperresponsive to interleukin 1 beta stimulation but showed normal responses to lipopolysaccharide, suggesting a specific role for TFF2 in interleukin 1 receptor but not Toll-like receptor 4 signaling via their Toll-interleukin 1 resistance domains. TFF2-/- lymphocytes also produced higher levels of interleukin 2 than wild-type cells. Thus, TFF2 was expressed in the gastrointestinal cells and in immune cells and was a negative regulator of gastrointestinal inflammation and immune cell cytokine responses. Our studies suggest that TFF2 not only controls gastrointestinal repair but also regulates mononuclear cell inflammatory responses.
    Infection and Immunity 02/2007; 75(1):471-80. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Alfred L Chi, SeonHee Lim, Timothy C Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Trefoil factors family 2 (TFF2), also known as spasmolytic polypeptide, is primarily expressed in the mucus neck cells of gastrointestinal tracts. It has been proposed that TFF2 plays an important physiological role in protection, repair, and healing of gastrointestinal mucosa. To investigate the cis-acting regulatory element that control TFF2 tissue-specific expression, we studied the basal TFF2 promoter activity through transient transfection in several human cancer cell lines. Expression of TFF2 was found to be significantly greater in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells compared to other cancer cells. Results from TFF2 promoter luciferase reporter constructs revealed that the basal level of TFF2 promoter activity was overall more than two-fold higher in MCF-7 cells compared to that of other cell lines examined. Using EMSA assays and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a cell line-specific transcriptional regulation element located in the TFF2 promoter 5'-flank sequence at -32/-27, and which contains a CCAAT/enhance binding proteins (C/EBPs) consensus-binding site. Mutation of this consensus site reduced the basal promoter activity by more than 50% in MCF-7 cells but had no effect in human gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, we have identified a CCAAT sequence as a cell line-specific cis-acting regulatory element that may contribute to the high level expression of TFF2 in MCF-7 cells. These results also suggest the possibility that TFF2 could play a role in mammary gland tumorigenesis.
    Peptides 06/2004; 25(5):839-47. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify gastrin-sensitive genes that may mediate the effects of this hormone on gastric epithelial architecture. Gastrin-sensitive genes were identified by messenger RNA (mRNA) differential display of the gastric fundus from gastrin-deficient (GAS-KO) or wild-type mice. Gastrin-stimulated expression of the trefoil peptide TFF1 in mouse fundus and in the gastric cancer cell line AGS-G(R) was determined by Northern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Transcriptional regulation of TFF1 in AGS-G(R) cells was studied using promoter-reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Expression of TFF1 and the cholecystokinin(B) receptor in response to gastric mucosal injury was determined by immunohistochemistry. mRNA differential display identified TFF1 as a gastrin-regulated gene. TFF1 mRNA was reversibly reduced in GAS-KO mice and increased in a hypergastrinemic transgenic strain versus respective background strains. TFF1 mRNA expression was rapidly and potently induced by gastrin in a gastric cancer cell line that expresses the gastrin/cholecystokinin(B) receptor. Gastrin responsiveness of the human TFF1 promoter mapped to a G-C rich region 300 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site. This region bound the transcription factors SP3 and MAZ. Gastrin activated transcription through a Raf-, Mek- and Erk-dependent but Ras-independent pathway. TFF1 expression was induced both directly and by transactivation between neighboring cells. Neither direct nor indirect gastrin-induced TFF1 expression required activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Gastrin exerts tonic control of TFF1 expression but also has the potential for rapid up-regulation of this trefoil factor. TFF1 is a potential candidate to counterbalance the proliferative effects of gastrin.
    Gastroenterology 08/2003; 125(2):510-21. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2003; 124(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims:This study aimed to identify gastrin-sensitive genes that may mediate the effects of this hormone on gastric epithelial architecture.
    Gastroenterology 01/2003; 125(2):510-521. · 12.82 Impact Factor