Kenji Fujieda

Asahikawa Medical University, Asakhigava, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (242)582.54 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resurgence of vitamin D deficiency rickets has been recognized worldwide. While many cases of this disease have been reported in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan, no prevalence data is available. Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency rickets in Hokkaido. A specially designed questionnaire was sent to 84 major pediatric departments of hospitals in Hokkaido to collect information of the confirmed cases between July 1999 and June 2004. Sixty-seven hospitals responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 20 hospitals reported 31 confirmed cases. All the patients were infants and toddlers, less than 4 years of age. The prevalence of cases in a recent year was estimated to be nine in 100,000 children under four years of age. Most of the 31 cases in our study were breast-fed. Eleven cases showed signs of malnutrition due to unbalanced diet or dietary restriction. Furthermore, the prevalence of cases was higher in the northeastern region than in the southwestern region. The number of cases increased gradually from the end of winter to spring. This is the first report ascertaining the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in Hokkaido, Japan. Limited exposure to sunlight and inadequate diet in early childhood are key risk factors of this disease. Thus, it is crucial to introduce active recommendations for vitamin D supplementation based on age, residential area, and to advocate public awareness for preventing this disease.
    Pediatrics International 04/2009; 51(4):559-62. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-containing neurons trophically affect target neurons and modulate central nervous system neuronal activity. We studied effects of neonatal hypoxia on postnatal development of intraspinal 5-HT fibers in spinal motoneuron pools. Postnatal day (PND) 0 Sprague-Dawley rats received a hypoxic load and survivors were used for histological analyzes on PNDs 1, 7, and 14. Spinal motoneurons were labeled using choleratoxin B subunit as a retrograde neurotracer, and 5-HT fibers were detected immunohistochemically. On PND 1, 5-HT fibers were present in the lateral portion of the ventral horn at the cervical level, but were sparsely distributed at the lumbar level. On PND 14, cervical and lumbar level distributions were nearly identical. The 5-HT fibers and varicosities in close apposition to motoneurons increased from PNDs 1-14, however, the close apposition of cervical motoneurons was significantly different from lumbar motoneurons only on PND 1. Density of 5-HT fibers in control and hypoxic rats was not different on PND 1, while those in hypoxic rats were significantly reduced on PND 14. Close appositions of lumbar motoneurons were reduced more than cervical MNs after neonatal hypoxia. Neurodevelopmental deficit after neonatal hypoxia with a rostro-caudal gradient is associated with significant changes in the 5-HT system.
    Brain & development 03/2009; 32(4):268-74. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive tubular disorder that eventually progresses to renal failure, depending upon the extent of nephrocalcinosis. Its basic pathogenesis is impaired tubular resorption of magnesium and calcium in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) due to a genetic defect in paracellin-1 (a tight junction protein expressed in TAL). Mutations of the claudin16 gene (CLDN16), formerly called paracellin-1 gene (PCLN-1), have been linked to FHHNC. An extended Egyptian family with more than one member affection by nephrocalcionsis was included and thoroughly investigated in the current study after giving informed consent. Thorough history was taken for polyuria, polydipsia and hypocalcemia symptoms, as well as clinical examination with stress on anthropometric measurements and radiological evaluation for kidneys and bones. Laboratory workup for the differential diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was done: complete urinalysis, including urinary calcium excretion, urine pH and electrolytes, arterial blood gas (ABG), serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous), renal function tests as well as parathyroid and gonadotropin-sex hormone assay. DNA extraction from peripheral blood leukocytes was done followed by amplification using primers previously described, purification and finally sequencing to analyze each exon of the CLDN16 gene. Two sibs for a consanguineous couple were affected by nephrocalcinosis and showed persistent hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis with persistently alkaline urine and ocular manifestations in the form of congenital cataracts, high myopia and retinal abnormalities. The elder sib showed genitourinary abnormalities in the form of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. These two sibs had a homozygous two-base deletion in exon 1 of the CLDN16 gene (C. 233_234 del GG; Ins C), causing a frame shift mutation (Arg55 fs); however, their parents were heterozygote carriers for that mutation. The above-mentioned clinical data in the two affected sibs together with the family history of end-stage renal disease associated with nephrocalcinosis and high myopia suggested a diagnosis of FHHNC, which was confirmed for the first time in an Egyptian family by a novel mutation in exon 1 of the CLDN16 gene. Genitourinary associations with FHHNC have not yet been reported in the literature. Here, we will try to highlight the principles of mutation detection based on sequencing with the use of the online NCBI databases, statistics and other search tools.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 02/2009; 13(4):288-94. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little data are available on airway humidity during high-frequency ventilation (HFV). Our purpose is to evaluate the airway humidification during HFV. We examined the airway humidification and temperature in a neonatal HFV system using Babylog 8000 plus. The absolute humidity (AH), relative humidity (RH), and temperature at different sites and under different HFV conditions were compared with those during conventional intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). The mean AH and RH at the patient end of the respiratory circuit under 37 degrees C in the humidification chamber (HC) during HFV were less than 35 mg/L and 65%, respectively, while those during IPPV were 42.3 mg/L and 96.8%, respectively. The humidification at the outlet of the HC was similar results. Moreover, during HFV an increase in the bias-flow of ventilator led to a further decrease in the humidity at the patient end of respiratory circuit and the outlet of HC. It was necessary to set the temperature in the HC at >39 degrees C to maintain adequate humidity at the HC and the patient end of respiratory circuit during HFV. An increase in the incubator temperature led to an increase in the temperature at the patient end of the respiratory circuit. The temperature at the patient end of the respiratory circuit was about 39-40 degrees C when the incubator temperature was 35-37 degrees C. The airway humidification at the patient end of respiratory circuit and the outlet of HC in HFV were poorer than those in IPPV. However, the adequacy of humidification and safety in HFV remain to be demonstrated in clinical practice.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 02/2009; 44(3):260-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of life (QoL) of short children is an important issue that has been studied in Western countries, but not fully in Japan. We assessed the psychosocial profiles of Japanese children with short stature using the Japanese version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A higher score in the CBCL means a lower QoL. A total of 116 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and 127 children with GH deficiency (GHD), aged 4 to 15 yr, were enrolled in the study. The total CBCL scores of the children in the GHD/ISS group were found to be higher than those of the normal children group. The QoL subscales for social problems and attention problems of the young (4-11 yr) children in the GHD/ISS group were significantly higher than those of the group of children of normal height. The proportion of children with GHD/ISS classified into the borderline/abnormal range was significantly higher than that of normal children. Children with ISS tended to have higher total scores and more subscale problems, and a greater proportion of these children was classified in the borderline/abnormal range than the children with GHD, although the difference was not significant. These results suggest that QoL is impaired in Japanese children due to short stature.
    Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2009; 18(1):15-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) is a transcription factor necessary for ocular and forebrain development. In humans, heterozygous mutations of OTX2 cause severe ocular malformations. However, whether mutations of OTX2 cause pituitary structural abnormalities or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has not been clarified. We surveyed the functional consequences of a novel OTX2 mutation that was detected in a patient with anophthalmia and CPHD. We examined a Japanese patient with growth disturbance, anophthalamia, and severe developmental delay. He showed deficiencies in GH, TSH, LH, FSH, and ACTH. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small anterior pituitary gland, invisible stalk, ectopic posterior lobe, and Chiari malformation. Sequence analysis of OTX2 demonstrated a heterozygous two bases insertion [S136fsX178 (c.576-577insCT)] in exon 3. The mutant Otx2 protein localized to the nucleus, but did not activate the promoter of the HESX1 and POU1F1 gene, indicating a loss of function mutation. No dominant negative effect in the presence of wild-type Otx2 was observed. This case indicates that the OTX2 mutation is a cause of CPHD. Further study of more patients with OTX2 defects is necessary to clarify the clinical phenotypes and endocrine defects caused by OTX2 mutations.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 11/2008; 94(1):314-9. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a female Japanese infant who was diagnosed with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) on the basis of the clinical and pathological findings of characteristic skin lesions and the detection of deletion in the nuclear factor-kappa B essential modulator gene at Xq28. The patient developed repetitive seizures at the age of 7 months when she was diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that often occurs after vaccination or infection. The causative infectious agent in this patient seemed to be Mycoplasma pneumoniae because of the increased titer of its serum antibody and the detection of its DNA in the initial cerebrospinal fluid sample. This patient showed significant improvement on receiving immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids. This is the second case report presenting an IP patient susceptible to ADEM, and therefore, ADEM should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological illness for IP patients.
    Brain & development 10/2008; 31(8):625-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study surveyed the sleep habits of 3-year-old children in Asahikawa city using questionnaires completed by a parent during children's medical check-ups. Questionnaires were collected from the parents of 404 children (209 males, 195 females; mean age, 3.1 years) enrolled in this survey. Among these children, the mean bedtime was 9.6 PM with 145 children (36%) going to bed after 10 PM. On the other hand, the mean wake-up time was 7.5 AM, with 123 children (30%) waking up after 8 AM. The mean nocturnal sleep duration was 10.1 hours. Nocturnal sleep durations in children that went to bed after 10 PM were significantly shorter than in children who went to bed earlier (p < 0.01). Seventy-three percent of the children had a daily afternoon nap. Twelve percent of these children usually awoke from their nap after 5 PM, and the mean bedtime for these children was 10.1 PM. A late bedtime was significantly correlated with parental complaints such as short-temper and poor appetite (p < 0.05). Although parents were concerned about night-time sleep conditions, they were not concerned about the daytime conditions which regulate children's sleep-wake rhythm, such as daylight exposure, daytime activity, and naps. While 24% of parents had complains regarding their children's sleep, only 3% had consulted with a doctor. Similar to the previous reports, the present findings demonstrate that children in Asahikawa city go to bed late and have decreased sleep duration. Since the establishment of a normal sleep-wake rhythm is essential for both physical and mental development in children, it is necessary to educate parents regarding the importance of children's sleep.
    No to hattatsu. Brain and development 09/2008; 40(5):370-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline therapy has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly; however, the experience in pediatric patients has rarely been reported. We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism. At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital. He also had multiple fibrous dysplasia, so that he was diagnosed as having MAS. The tumor was partially resected, and GNAS1 gene mutation (R201C) was identified in affected tissues. We introduced octreotide to suppress GH secretion (100 mug 2/day s.c). During therapy with octreotide, IGF-1 and GH levels could not be suppressed and the patient frequently complained of nausea from octreotide treatment. Therefore, the therapy was changed to monthly injections of octreotide-LAR at the age of 12.3 years and was partially effective. However, as defect of left visual field worsened due to progressive left optic canal stenosis, he underwent second neurological decompression of the left optic nerve at 13.4 years of age. After surgery, in addition to octreotide-LAR, cabergoline (0.25 mg twice a month) was started. This regimen normalized serum levels of GH and IGF-1; however, he showed impaired glucose tolerance and gallstones at 15.7 years of age. Therefore, the dose of octreotide-LAR was reduced to 10 mg and the dose of cabergoline increased. This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS. The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline should be considered even in pediatric patients; however, adverse events due to octreotide-LAR must be carefully examined.
    Endocrine Journal 08/2008; 55(3):595-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by a deficit in glucose transport to the brain during the pre- and postnatal periods. Here, we report two cases of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, reduced GLUT1 activities, and mutations in the GLUT1 gene. Patient 1 had a novel heterozygous 1bp insertion in exon 7 that resulted in a shift of the reading frame and the introduction of a premature stop codon at amino acid position 380. His clinical phenotype appeared to be more severe than that of Patient 2 who had a missense mutation in exon 8 resulting in an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at amino acid position 333. Patient 1 had no meaningful words and could not walk unassisted, while Patient 2 could speak and walk unassisted. Both the patients developed seizures of various types that have been successfully treated with zonisamide. Although several antiepileptic drugs, including barbiturates, diazepam, chloralhydrate, and valproic acid, have been shown to inhibit GLUT1 function, the present study demonstrated no inhibitory effect of zonisamide on GLUT1-mediated glucose transport. Our data suggested that zonisamide might be preferable if add-on anticonvulsant therapy is required to control the seizures in patients with this disorder.
    Epilepsy Research 08/2008; 80(1):18-22. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of low-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) combined with chemotherapy on non-metastatic embryonal tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), including medulloblastoma and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ST-PNET). All patients were treated according to the following protocol. After surgery, the patients < or =5 years old received 18 Gy and the patients >5 years old received 24 Gy CSI. The dose to the primary tumor bed was 39.6-54 Gy. Chemotherapy consisted of ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide (ICE chemotherapy). Sixteen patients aged 0.5-20.4 (median 6.1) years were enrolled and followed for 11-165 (median 112) months. Both 5-year actuarial overall survival (OAS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 81% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62-100%) for the 16 patients. Both 5-year OAS and PFS were 82% (CI: 59-100%) for the patients with medulloblastoma and 80% (CI: 45-100%) for the patients with ST-PNET. Both 5-year OAS and PFS were 75% for the eight patients < or =5 years old and 88% for the eight patients >5 years old. Both 5-year OAS and PFS were 100% for six average-risk patients (3 years or older, total resection and posterior fossa) and 70% for 10 poor-risk patients (others). The median total intellectual quotient at the last follow-up was 85 (ranging from 48 to 103) in 12 patients who were followed for 3-145 (median 49) months. Eight patients received hormone replacement therapy. Low-dose CSI and ICE chemotherapy may have a role as a treatment option for a subset of patients with non-metastatic embryonal tumors in the CNS.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2008; 38(7):486-92. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carney complex is a rare autosomal-dominant, familial tumor syndrome first described in the mid 80's. This syndrome is multiple neoplasia syndrome featuring cardiac, endocrine, cutaneous, and neural tumor, in addition to a variety of pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosa. We report the case of a 12-year-old female patient with Carney complex who manifested a high value of serum growth hormone (s-GH), cutaneous angiomyxomas and labial pigmented lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic pituitary tumor. We carried out removal of the pituitary tumor via the transsphenoidal approach. In addition to the pituitary adenoma, pathological examination revealed the presence of a Rathke cleft cyst. So far, approximately 500 cases of this disorder have been described, but there have been no cases similar to our case described here. Therefore, the present case seems to be the first case of Carney Complex complicated with pituitary adenoma and Rathke cleft cyst.
    No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery 07/2008; 36(6):535-9. · 0.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) often suffer from sleep disorders, which cause many physiological and psychological problems. Understanding sleep characteristics in children with CFS is important for establishing a therapeutic strategy. We conducted an actigraphic study to clarify the problems in sleep/wake rhythm and physical activity in children with CFS. Actigraphic recordings were performed for 1-2 weeks in 12 CFS children. The obtained data were compared with those of healthy age-matched children used as the control. Sleep patterns were divided into two groups based on subjects' sleep logs: irregular sleep type and delayed sleep phase type. Compared to the control group, total sleep time was longer and physical activity was lower in both groups of CFS. Continuous sleep for more than 10h was not uncommon in CFS. In the irregular sleep type, impaired daily sleep/wake rhythms and disrupted sleep were observed. Using actigraphy, we could identify several characteristics of the sleep patterns in CFS children. Actigraphic analysis proved to be useful in detecting sleep/wake problems in children with CFS.
    Brain and Development 06/2008; 30(5):329-33. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth-promoting effects and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment in prepubertal short-statured children born small for gestational age (SGA) were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, randomized parallel-group comparison study. Patients were randomized to two dose groups; 34 and 33 patients received GH at 0.033 and 0.067 mg/kg/day for one year, respectively. The increase of the mean height velocity standard deviation score (SDS) was significantly (p <0.0001) higher in the 0.067-mg group (from -1.4 to 4.7) than that in the 0.033-mg group (-1.9 to 2.6). A significant (p <0.0001) increase in the mean height SDS was established in the 0.067-mg group; increases of -3.1 to -2.5 vs -3.1 to -2.2 in the 0.033- and 0.067-mg groups, respectively. The trial was non-eventful. Oral glucose tolerance tests indicated a mostly normal pattern of plasma glucose before and after 12-month GH treatment. The growth-promoting effect was significantly higher with GH treatment at 0.067 mg/kg/day.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 05/2008; 21(5):423-31. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of DSS (dosage sensitive sex reversal)-AHC critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 DAX-1(NROB1)] results in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). Here we report four Japanese patients with AHC and HHG caused by the mutations of the DAX-1 gene. All patients manifested adrenal crisis at early childhood. Three patients did not show any pubertal sign and were diagnosed as having HHG. One patient manifested spontaneous pubertal development at 17 years of age. Nevertheless, his puberty did not develop further and his gonadotropin and testosterone levels decreased thereafter. Therefore, he was also diagnosed as having HHG. We performed testicular biopsy in another patient with HHG. Histological examination demonstrated Sertoli cell hypoplasia and no sperm formation in the seminiferous tubules. Molecular analysis demonstrated two novel point mutations (V269D and L278R) in two patients. Transient transfection assays showed that all these mutations (V269D, L271X, L278R, and Q395X) abolished the repression activity to both StAR and LHbeta gene promoter activation. In conclusion, we reported patients with AHC and HHG caused by the loss of function mutations of the DAX-1 gene.
    Endocrine Journal 04/2008; 55(1):97-103. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that exclusively affects girls. Females with the MECP2 mutations exhibit a broad spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from classical Rett syndrome to asymptomatic carriers, which can be explained by differences in X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Here, we report a family with a girl with Rett syndrome in whom a novel missense mutation in the MECP2 gene was transmitted through the maternal germ line. The carrier mother was asymptomatic and presented non-random XCI in the peripheral blood cells, which resulted in the X chromosome harboring the mutant allele that was predominantly active. Thus, the presence of non-random XCI in the peripheral blood cells did not provide an explanation for the normal phenotype of the carrier mother. This result suggests that mechanisms other than XCI may contribute to the phenotypic heterogeneity associated with MECP2 mutations.
    Clinical Genetics 04/2008; 73(3):257-61. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cerebrospinal fluid matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities were measured in infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus to elucidate the intrinsic mechanism for the resolution of ventricular dilation. Increased MMP-9 activities were observed in the patients who escaped a shunt operation, suggesting its potential contribution to the resolution of ventricular dilation.
    Early Human Development 03/2008; 84(2):137-9. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Sapporo, Japan, a neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has employed measurement of free thyroxine (T4) and TSH in the same filter-paper blood spot. This system has enabled us to identify primary CH and central CH during the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of central CH. For this purpose, the screening program requested serum from infants with free T4 concentrations below the cut off value regardless of the TSH levels. Between January 2000 and December 2004, 83,232 newborns were screened and six central CH patients were detected as a result of follow-up of low free T4 and non-elevated TSH screening (1:13,872). This frequency is higher than in other studies. Four patients showed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency with pituitary malformations on magnetic resonance imaging. One patient was diagnosed as having Prader-Willie syndrome. The remaining patient was considered to have isolated central CH. Our study demonstrated that the frequency of central CH is 1:13,872. Free T4 measurement would also be advantageous in early recognition of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.
    Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2008; 17(3):65-69.
  • Toshihiro Tajima, Kenji Fujieda
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) accounts for 90-95% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases. It is classified into three distinct clinical phenotypes: the salt-wasting (SW), simple virilizing (SV) and nonclassical forms (NC). As girls with the SW and SV forms of 21-OHD are exposed to high systemic levels of adrenal androgens during fetal life, they show genital ambiguity. To ameliorate the degree of genital virilization, prenatal dexamethasone treatment has been performed for more than two decades, although mainly in the USA and Europe. This treatment has proven to be effective in preventing or reducing genital virilization. Some data also show that prenatal diagnosis and treatment are safe for the mother and fetus. However, prenatal treatment is still controversial for the following reasons. First, the risk of having an affected female fetus is only one in eight when both parents are known carriers of the autosomal recessive trait. Therefore, seven of eight fetuses will receive dexamethasone unnecessarily, and this raises ethical questions. Furthermore, maternal side effects such as excessive weight gain and hypertension have been observed. Finally, the long-term safety and outcome for dexamethasone-exposed children have not been established. In Japan, prenatal diagnosis and treatment has rarely been reported because of these reasons. Therefore, we must be cautious, and this treatment should be carried out in special centers with the approval of their ethical committees, that are capable of performing chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and subsequently determining the karyotype and genotype of 21-OHD.
    Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2008; 17(4):95-102.
  • Acta Paediatrica 01/2008; 77:180-181. · 1.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
582.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2012
    • Asahikawa Medical University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Asakhigava, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Tanaka Growth Clinic
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • The University of Tokushima
      • • Diabetes Therapeutics and Research Center
      • • Department of Genetic Information
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
    • Osaka City General Hospital
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1982–2010
    • Hokkaido University Hospital
      • • Division of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2009
    • Hokkaido Institute of Public Health
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989–2009
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Chemistry
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 1997–2007
    • Kanagawa Children's Medical Center
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2006
    • Japanese Red Cross Hokkaido College of Nursing
      Notsukeushi, Hokkaidō, Japan
    • National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005
    • National Center for Child Health and Development
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999
    • Toho University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997–1998
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 1991
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan