Scott J Miller

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (137)1080.63 Total impact

  • David K Romney, Sean M Colvin, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: We report a peptide-based catalyst that can strongly influence the regio- and enantioselectivity of the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclic ketones bearing amide, urea, or sulfonamide functional groups. Both types of selectivity are thought to arise from a catalystsubstrate hydrogen-bonding interaction. Furthermore, in selected cases, the reactions exhibit the hallmarks of parallel kinetic resolution. The capacity to use catalysis to select between Baeyer-Villiger products during an asymmetric process may have broad utility for both the synthesis and diversification of complex molecules, including natural products.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report X-ray crystal structure of a site-selective peptide catalyst moiety and teicoplanin A2-2 complex. The expressed protein ligation technique was used to couple T4 lysozyme (T4L) and a synthetic peptide catalyst responsible for the selective phosphorylation of the N-acetylglucosamine sugar in teicoplanin A2-2 derivative. The T4L-Pmh-DPro-Aib-DAla-DAla construct was crystallized in the presence of teicoplanin A2-2. The resulting 2.3 Angstrom resolution protein-peptide-teicoplanin complex crystal structure revealed that the nucleophilic nitrogen of N-methylimidazole in the Pmh residue is in closer proximity (7.6 Angstrom) to the N-acetylglucosamine than two other sugar rings present in teicoplanin (9.3 and 20.3 Angstrom, respectively). This molecular arrangement is consistent with the observed selectivity afforded by the peptide-based catalyst when it is applied to a site-selective phosphorylation reaction involving a teicoplanin A2-2 derivative.
    The Journal of organic chemistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We detail an investigation of a peptide-based catalyst (6) that is effective for the site- (>100:1:1) and enantioselective epoxidation (86% ee) of farnesol. Studies of the substrate scope exhibited by the catalyst are included, along with an exploration of optimized reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies are reported, including relative rate determinations for the catalyst and propionic acid, a historical perspective, truncation studies, and modeling using NMR data. Our compiled data advances our understanding of the inner workings of a catalyst that was identified through combinatorial means.
    Chemical Science 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many natural products that contain basic nitrogen atoms--for example alkaloids like morphine and quinine-have the potential to treat a broad range of human diseases. However, the presence of a nitrogen atom in a target molecule can complicate its chemical synthesis because of the basicity of nitrogen atoms and their susceptibility to oxidation. Obtaining such compounds by chemical synthesis can be further complicated by the presence of multiple nitrogen atoms, but it can be done by the selective introduction and removal of functional groups that mitigate basicity. Here we use such a strategy to complete the chemical syntheses of citrinalin B and cyclopiamine B. The chemical connections that have been realized as a result of these syntheses, in addition to the isolation of both 17-hydroxycitrinalin B and citrinalin C (which contains a bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane structural unit) through carbon-13 feeding studies, support the existence of a common bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane-containing biogenetic precursor to these compounds, as has been proposed previously.
    Nature 05/2014; 509(7500):318-24. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most well-recognized stereogenic elements in a chiral molecule is an sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom that is connected to four different substituents. Axes of chirality can also exist about bonds with hindered barriers of rotation; molecules containing such axes are known as atropisomers. Understanding the dynamics of these systems can be useful, for example, in the design of single-atropisomer drugs or molecular switches and motors. For molecules that exhibit a single axis of chirality, rotation about that axis leads to racemization as the system reaches equilibrium. Here we report a two-axis system for which an enantioselective reaction produces four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs): following a catalytic asymmetric transformation, we observe a kinetically controlled product distribution that is perturbed from the system's equilibrium position. As the system undergoes isomerization, one of the diastereomeric pairs drifts spontaneously to a higher enantiomeric ratio. In a compensatory manner, the enantiomeric ratio of the other diastereomeric pair decreases. These observations are made for a class of unsymmetrical amides that exhibits two asymmetric axes-one axis is defined through a benzamide substructure, and the other axis is associated with differentially N,N-disubstituted amides. The stereodynamics of these substrates provides an opportunity to observe a curious interplay of kinetics and thermodynamics intrinsic to a system of stereoisomers that is constrained to a situation of partial equilibrium.
    Nature 04/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • Phillip A Lichtor, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: We describe mechanistic investigations of a catalyst (1) that leads to selective epoxidation of farnesol at the 6,7-position, remote from the hydroxyl directing group. The experimental lineage of peptide 1 and a number of resin-bound peptide analogues were examined to reveal the importance of four N-terminal residues. We examined the selectivity of truncated analogues to find that a trimer is sufficient to furnish the remote selectivity. Both 1D and 2D (1)H NMR studies were used to determine possible catalyst conformations, culminating in proposed models showing possible interactions of farnesol with a protected Thr side chain and backbone NH. The models were used to rationalize the selectivity of a modified catalyst (17) for the 6,7-position relative to an ether moiety in two related substrates.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Curren T Mbofana, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: A selective peptide-catalyzed addition of allenic esters to N-acylimines is reported. Tetrasubstituted allenes were achieved with up to 42:1 diastereomeric ratio and 94:6 enantiomeric ratio (up to 99:1 er after recrystallization of the major diastereomer). An exploration of the role of individual amino acids within the peptide was undertaken. The scope of the reaction was explored and revealed heightened reactivity with thioester-containing allenes. A mechanistic framework that may account for the observed reactivity is also described.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    Anthony J Metrano, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: We report the development and optimization of a tetrapeptide that catalyzes the methanolytic dynamic kinetic resolution of oxazol-5(4H)-ones (azlactones) with high levels of enantioinduction. Oxazolones possessing benzylic-type substituents were found to perform better than others, providing methyl ester products in 88:12 to 98:2 er. The mechanism of this peptide-catalyzed process was investigated through truncation studies and competition experiments. High-field NOESY analysis was performed to elucidate the solution-phase structure of the peptide, and we present a plausible model for catalysis.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 02/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis and biochemical validation of a phosphatidyl inositol-3 phosphate (PI3P) immunogen. The inositol stereochemistry was secured through peptide-catalyzed asymmetric phosphorylation catalysis, and the subsequent incorporation of a cysteine residue was achieved by native chemical ligation (NCL). Conjugation of the PI3P hapten to maleimide-activated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) provided a PI3P immunogen, which was successfully used to generate selective PI3P antibodies. The incorporation of a sulfhydryl nucleophile into a phosphoinositide hapten demonstrates a general strategy to reliably access phosphoinositide immunogens.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • C Liana Allen, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: Catalyst-controlled regioselective functionalization of partially protected saccharide molecules is a highly important yet under-developed area of carbohydrate chemistry. Such reactions allow for the reduction of protecting group manipulation steps required in syntheses involving sugars. Herein, an approach to these processes using enantiopure copper-bis(oxazoline) catalysts to control couplings of electrophiles to various partially protected sugars is reported. In a number of cases, divergent regioselectivity was observed as a function of the enantiomer of catalyst that is used.
    Organic Letters 11/2013; · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored. At the outset, we sought to generate proof of principle for this approach to developing catalytic systems for glycosylation. However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Brønsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein.
    Carbohydrate research 10/2013; 382C:36-42. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite significant progress in the design of receptors and sensors for simple polyols and monosaccharides, few synthetic receptors discriminate among multiple saccharide units simultaneously, especially under physiological conditions. Described here is the three-dimensional structure of a supramolecular complex-a β-peptide bundle-designed for the potential to interact simultaneously with as many as eight discrete monosaccharide units. The preliminary evaluation of this construct as a vehicle for polyol binding is also presented.
    Organic Letters 09/2013; · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier (RC) reaction catalyzed by a cysteine derivative has been explored computationally with density functional theory (M06-2X). Both methanethiol and a chiral cysteine derivative were studied as nucleophiles. The complete reaction pathway involves rate-determining elimination of the thiol catalyst from the Michael addition product. The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier reaction, catalyzed by a cysteine derivative as a nucleophile, has also been studied in detail. This reaction was experimentally found to be extremely sensitive to the reaction conditions, such as the number of water equivalents and the effect of potassium counterion. The E1cB process for catalyst elimination has been explored computationally for the eight possible stereoisomers. The effect of explicit water solvation and the presence of counterion (either K(+) or Na(+) ) has been studied for the lowest energy enantiomer pair (1S, 2R, 3S)/(1R, 2S, 3R).
    Chemistry 09/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
  • Sunkyu Han, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: We report three distinct, peptide-based catalysts that enable site-selective phosphorylation of three distinct hydroxyl groups within the complex glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin A2-2. Two of the catalysts are based on a design that capitalizes on a catalyst-substrate interaction that mimics the biological mechanism of action for teicoplanin. These catalysts are based on a dXaa-dXaa peptide motif that is known to target the teicoplanin structure in a specific manner. The third was identified through evaluation of a set of catalysts that had been developed for historically distinct projects. Each catalyst contains additional functionality designed to dispose a catalytic moiety (a nucleophilic alkylimidazole) at a different region of the glycopeptide structure. A combination of mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR spectroscopy allowed structural assignment of the distinct phosphorylated teicoplanin derivatives. Mechanistic studies are also reported that support the hypotheses that led to the discovery of the catalysts. In this manner, small molecule catalysts have been achieved that allow rational, catalytic control over reactions at sites that are separated by 11.6, 16.5, and nearly 17.7 Å, based on the X-ray crystal structure of teicoplanin A2-2. Finally, we report the biological activity of the new phosphorylated teicoplanin analogs and compare the results to the natural product itself.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein we report a direct and efficient method for the synthesis of four new carboxylate-isostere analogs of daptomycin. The side chain carboxylic acid moieties of the aspartic acids (Asp-3, Asp-7 and Asp-9) and β-methyl glutamic acid (MeGlu-12) were all converted into the corresponding carboxylate isosteres using direct synthetic procedures. The present study also describes an esterification protocol to overcome the possible backbone cyclization of the activated side chain carboxylic acid group of either Asp or Glu onto the backbone amide.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 06/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Tejas P Pathak, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: Semisynthesis of natural product derivatives combines the power of fermentation with orthogonal chemical reactions. Yet, chemical modification of complex structures represents an unmet challenge, as poor selectivity often undermines efficiency. The complex antibiotic teicoplanin eradicates bacterial infections. However, as resistance emerges, the demand for improved analogues grows. We have discovered chemical reactions that achieve site-selective alteration of teicoplanin. Utilizing peptide-based additives that alter reaction selectivities, certain bromo-teicoplanins are accessible. These new compounds are also scaffolds for selective cross-coupling reactions, enabling further molecular diversification. These studies enable two-step access to glycopeptide analogues not available through either biosynthesis or rapid total chemical synthesis alone. The new compounds exhibit a spectrum of activities, revealing that selective chemical alteration of teicoplanin may lead to analogues with attenuated or enhanced antibacterial properties, in particular against vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant strains.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly T Barrett, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: We report the enantioselective synthesis of atropisomeric benzamides employing catalytic electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions involving bromination. The catalyst is a simple tetrapeptide bearing a tertiary amine that may function as a Brønsted base. A series of tri- and dibrominations were accomplished for a range of compounds bearing differential substitution patterns. Tertiary benzamides represent appropriate substrates for the reaction since they exhibit sufficiently high barriers to racemization after ortho functionalization. Mechanism-driven experiments provided some insight into the basis for selectivity. Examination of the observed products at low conversion suggested that the initial catalytic bromination may be regioselective and stereochemistry-determining. A complex between the catalyst and substrate was observed by NMR spectroscopy, revealing a specific association. Finally, the products of these reactions may be subjected to regioselective metal-halogen exchange and trapping with I(2), setting the stage for utility.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2013; 135(8):2963-6. · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Sabesan Yoganathan, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient, one-pot, N-methylimidazole (NMI) accelerated synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic carbamates via the Lossen rearrangement is reported. NMI is a catalyst for the conversion of isocyanate intermediates to the carbamates. Moreover, the utility of arylsulfonyl chloride in combination with NMI minimizes the formation of often-observed hydroxamate-isocyanate dimers during the sequence. Under the present conditions, lowering of temperatures is also possible, enabling a mild protocol.
    Organic Letters 01/2013; · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    Phillip A Lichtor, Scott J Miller
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    ABSTRACT: Selectivity in the catalytic functionalization of complex molecules is a major challenge in chemical synthesis. The problem is magnified when there are several possible stereochemical outcomes and when similar functional groups occur repeatedly within the same molecule. Selective polyene oxidation provides an archetypical example of this challenge. Historically, enzymatic catalysis has provided the only precedents. Although non-enzymatic catalysts that meet some of these challenges became known, a comprehensive solution has remained elusive. Here, we describe low molecular weight peptide-based catalysts, discovered through a combinatorial synthesis and screening protocol, that exhibit site- and enantioselective oxidation of certain positions of various isoprenols. This diversity-based approach, which exhibits features reminiscent of the directed evolution of enzymes, delivers catalysts that compare favourably to the state-of-the-art for the asymmetric oxidation of these compounds. Moreover, the approach culminated in catalysts that exhibit alternative-site selectivity in comparison to oxidation catalysts previously described.
    Nature Chemistry 10/2012; 4(12):990-5. · 21.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have examined peptide-based catalysts for the site-selective thiocarbonylation of a protected form of vancomycin. Several catalysts were identified that either enhanced or altered the inherent selectivity profile exhibited by the substrate. Two catalysts, one identified through screening and another through rational design, were demonstrated to be effective on 0.50-g scale. Deoxygenations led ultimately to two new deoxy-vancomycin derivatives, and surprising conformational consequences of deoxygenation were revealed for one of the new compounds. These effects were mirrored in the biological activities of the new analogues and support a structural role for certain hydroxyls in the native structure.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2012; 134(23):9755-61. · 10.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,080.63 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Yale University
      • Department of Chemistry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • Boston College, USA
      • Chemistry Department
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993–2010
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2006
    • Chestnut Hill College
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States