Ming-Yie Jan

Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (25)24.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pulse examination ( mài zhěn) is a unique diagnostic approach of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The description of pulse examination in the history of Traditional Chinese Medicine is full of amazement and mythology. After researching in hemodynamics and investigating in clinical application for three decades, this article describes the development and the merits and demerits of pulse examination. The experiences of the ancients are tried to be illustrated with modern knowledge and language. As the theory of resonant blood circulation is discovered, Traditional Chinese Medicine could be on the shoulder of Newton and then lead the development of modern medicine. Hope the tool of pulse examination constructed according to eigen-vector with specific time domain and position can bring the running water for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Quantitative research could overcome the plight of analog logic qualitative research, and therefore bring new health revolution.
    Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 01/2012; 2(3):164-185.
  • Hsin Hsiu, Chia-Liang Hsu, Ming-Yie Jan
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    ABSTRACT: Analyzing the beat-to-beat cardiovascular variability (e.g., heart-rate variability analysis) provides important information regarding circulatory autonomic control. The present study aimed to use laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and beat-to-beat analysis to elucidate changes in the microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) and variations (MBFV) therein induced by local heating stimulation. For each experiment, we applied nonpainful local heating and recorded a 20-min heating effect, which was segmented into four measurements separated by 5 min as M1-M4. DCflux (average LDF flux) was calculated for each pulse, and the coefficient of variance of DCflux (DCCV) was then calculated to evaluate the beat-to-beat MBFV. In the linear regression analysis of the M2-M4 data sequence, the slope between relative changes (compared with M1 values) in DCCV and DCflux, and those between the proceeding DCCV and the subsequent DCflux, were negative (R(2) > 0.40 for all; p < 0.05). This is the first study to reveal a possible time-domain relationship between changes in MBF and MBFV parameters. Our results suggest that MBFV evaluated from the beat-to-beat LDF waveform is useful for monitoring the microcirculatory regulatory activities of arteriolar openings, and might therefore be particularly meaningful when evaluating treatment techniques or drugs aimed at improving microcirculatory perfusion.
    Photomedicine and laser surgery 12/2010; 28(6):785-92. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There were evidences that the blood pressure measured on the radial artery under some vasodilators treatments will overestimate than which measured on the central artery. Our previous studies infer that the harmonic proportion of the 4th harmonic (C4) of the peripheral pressure pulse waveform could be an index related to the peripheral vascular tone. In this study, we used a vasodilator drug, captopril to verify the relationship between C4 and vasoactive drug. Thirteen male Wistar Kyoto rats weighing 270 to 350 grams were studied. The blood pressure waveforms measured on the tail artery were averaged every 10 minutes and Fourier transformed into frequency domain. The data measured 20 minutes before captopril (0.83mg/1kg) injection was used as control. Four 10 minutes after-drug data sets were compared with the control. The diastolic (DBP) and systolic (SBP) blood pressures decreased rapidly after captopril injection. The mean pulse pressure A0 has the same decreasing trend but less conspicuously. The harmonic proportion of the 4th harmonic decreases at the beginning but then increases dramatically. These results suggest that C4 could be an index related to the peripheral vascular tone. We present a harmonic based pulse waveform analysis method to provide a peripheral pressure waveform index which may be used to estimate the cardiovascular risk.
    Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE), 2010 4th International Conference on; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: The central elastic arteries and the peripheral muscular arteries are different in their responses to aging. Aorta stiffens in much larger extent with age than peripheral arteries do. Peripheral blood pressure indices such as pulse pressure (PP) or augmentation index (AI) were preferred as surrogates in assessing arterial stiffness for clinical convenience. AI and PP both increase progressively with age. In this study, we present a harmonic based pulse waveform analysis method which may give similar result about central pressure as augmentation index. This method avoids the extra but necessary manipulations such as flow measuring, 4th derivative of pressure wave in determining the inflection point, the second systolic peak for augmentation index calculating, all these manipulations can introduce error. The non-invasive peripheral pulse waveforms copied from published reports for several ageing studies were analyzed. The mean pulse height A0 and the harmonic proportion of the 1st harmonic C1 increased but the harmonic proportion of the 3rd harmonic C3 and the harmonic proportion of the 4th harmonic C4 decreased with ageing. Aging had no significant effect on the harmonic proportion of the 2nd harmonic C2. Among all these harmonic indices, A0, the mean pulse pressure increased dramatically since the 6th decade. These results suggest that A0 is related to aorta stiffen or PP sensitive. The gradual increasing of C1 and gradual decreasing of C3 and C4 by ageing suggest that C1, C3 and C4 could be similar to AI; it corresponds to the pressure pulse waveform affected from ageing. The harmonic indices could be clinically useful in noninvasive cardio risk assessing for the elderly patients.
    12/2008: pages 183-185;
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the effects of acupuncture by analyzing the alternating current (AC) component of skin blood-flow signals (around the heartbeat frequency) simultaneously recorded at the Hoku acupoint, which is an important acupoint in oriental medicine, and two nearby non-acupoints following acupuncture stimulation (AS). Laser Doppler flowmetry signals were measured in 28 experiments on nine volunteers. Each experiment involved the recording of a 20-min control-data sequence and two sets of effects data recorded 0-20 min and 50-70 min after the AS had been stopped. The direct current (DC) and AC components (DCflux and ACflux, respectively), pulse width (PW), and foot delay time (FDT) of the flux signal were calculated. The DCflux, ACflux, PW, and FDT were all significantly increased only at Hoku following AS. Regression analysis between the DCflux and ACflux revealed that the slope was largest (>1) at Hoku among the measurement sites. Our results indicated that both the DCflux and ACflux in the microcirculatory perfusion were increased by stimulation at the Hoku acupoint, with the change being greatest for the latter. Parameters calculated from the pulsatile flux waveform, such as the PW and FDT, could contribute to noninvasive evaluations of the sympathetic neural activities and of the improvement in perfusion following AS.
    Lasers in Medical Science 09/2008; 24(4):553-60. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the conditions for optimizing measurements obtained with a noninvasive blood glucose monitor using the optical signal of pulsatile microcirculation (OSPM) in both prediabetic and diabetic subjects receiving medication. Eighteen subjects (3 prediabetic, 15 diabetic) aged 61.8 [15.9] years (mean [S.D.]) were studied. OSPM was the pulsatile component (P) of the signal obtained and analyzed by a blood glucose monitor. The measurement was calibrated to the fingerstick meter for each subject for personal calibration. Data were obtained from all subjects using both meters. A total of 179 data pairs were measured and analyzed. The validity of the position of the tested finger was assessed using the position criterion, which resulted in the removal of 38 data pairs. The criterion for the intensity of the P signal was satisfied by 141 data pairs, with nonconforming data (with a much lower P signal) mainly occurring below 26 degrees C. A total of 113 data points passed both criteria, and 100% of them fell within Zones A and B of the Clarke error grid. Data in Zones A and B exhibited a linear relationship (r=.81; slope=0.82; intercept=28.0) between noninvasive and fingerstick measurements. Environmental temperature has the greatest influence on the capability of the OSPM technique to monitoring blood glucose concentration, which is subject dependent. The position of the tested finger is the second major factor, hence a carefully designed finger adaptor is essential.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 05/2008; 22(6):371-6. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In response to harmonic forces generated by the heart, the arterial system executes strong coupled distributed oscillatory motions. These oscillations are described by a pressure-area wave equation, which is solvable subject to appropriate Sturm–Liouville boundary conditions. The response pressure can be represented as a sum of stationary waves which are the eigenmodes of the whole arterial system. Natural frequencies of the system are related to the eigenvalues and the phase velocity. Matching of these natural frequencies with heart rate or its harmonics is important in ventricular-arterial coupling. Transfer functions for the pressure can be constructed from the corresponding eigenfunctions.
    Applied Physics Letters 04/2008; 92(15):153901-153901-3. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study used laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to investigate the connection between skin microcirculatory flow and the length of the RR interval (LRR). Local heating was performed on healthy volunteers to further elucidate its effect on LDF index. ECG and LDF signals were measured in 102 trials on seven volunteers. Each experiment involved a 5 min control and a 5 min heating-effect sequence. Each laser Doppler flux pulse was categorized into four groups according to its LRR compared with the 5 min average LRR. Synchronized averaging analysis was applied to the four groups of pulses to obtain their averaged waveforms, from which four flux parameters were calculated. The ac component of the flux increased significantly with increasing LRR, and the differences therein between the groups with LRR more than 4% smaller and more than 4% larger than the average LRR increased from 15.8% during the control period to 23.9% during the heating period. Understanding of the different flux responses between the control and local-heating experiments may aid the development of a new index, which helps to avoid LDF's main drawback of providing only qualitative measurement.
    Physiological Measurement 03/2008; 29(2):245-54. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to characterize the frequency spectra of skin blood flow signals simultaneously recorded at Hoku, an important acupoint in oriental medicine, and two nearby nonacupoints to understand the underlying physiological mechanism of acupuncture points. ECG and laser Doppler flowmetry signals were measured simultaneously. A four-level Haar wavelet transform was applied to the measured 20-minute LDF signals, and periodic oscillations with five characteristic frequency peaks were obtained within the following frequency bands: 0.0095-0.021, 0.021-0.052, 0.052-0.145, 0.145-0.6, and 0.6-1.6 Hz (defined as FR1-FR5), respectively. The power in FR3 was significantly larger at Hoku than at the two nonacupoints. Spectral analysis of the flux signal revealed that one of the major microcirculatory differences between acupoints and nonacupoints was in the different myogenic responses of their vascular beds. This information may aid the development of a method to noninvasively study the microcirculatory characteristics of the acupoint.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2008; 2008:1084-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture points (acupoints) form part of the meridian system that constitutes the most fundamental concept in oriental medicine, but their physiological basis has not been clarified. In this study we employed laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to extract the microcirculatory characteristics of acupoints and their surrounding tissues, and we interpreted the results from the viewpoint of microcirculatory physiology. Three groups of measurements were performed focusing on the following two important acupoints in oriental medicine in healthy volunteers (n = 13 for group A and n = 9 for groups B and C, respectively): Hoh-Ku (Li4, on the hand) and Ching-Ku (B64, on the foot). The two groups of measurements around Hoh-Ku (Groups A and B) were so designed as to examine the effect of the direction of the nonacupoint away from the acupoint, whereas comparison between the Hoh-Ku and the Ching-Ku measurements was to verify whether the phenomenon was consistent in the upper and the lower extremities. We found that the mean LDF signals were significantly larger at the acupoints than in their surrounding tissues (all p < 0.05), which indicates a larger blood supply into the microvascular beds of acupoints. The results indicate that the physical properties of the vascular structure of acupoints may affect the perfusion resistance, and thereby modulate the microcirculatory perfusion in accordance with tissue needs. This finding facilitates the localization of acupoints, helps in identifying the connection between microcirculatory physiology and responses to acupoint stimulation, and introduces an objective research method for understanding the mechanisms that underlie oriental medicine.
    Physiological Measurement 11/2007; 28(10):N77-86. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A general axial momentum equation for fluid inside a transverse vibrating elastic tube is derived here. In a system with high pressure and low elastic modulus, transverse motion of the wall contributes important nonlinear forces, and the longitudinal fluid wave which assumes that flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation cannot describe the pulse wave completely. By comparing the transverse elastic wave with the longitudinal fluid wave, we conclude that transverse wave is a significant wave mode in large arteries. The longitudinal stress force, commonly ignored in the literature, can be considered as a significant factor that influences the propagation of the arterial pulse.
    Journal of Applied Physics 09/2007; 102(6):064702-064702-4. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse parameters calculated from the LDF waveform based on time-domain synchronized averaging analysis were shown to be able to discriminate the difference in microvascular resistance, however its applicability depends seriously on the assumption of signal stationarity. In this study, our aim is to investigate the effect of pulse number, which may destroy the signal stationarity, on the pulse LDF parameters. The study presented here has established the criteria for pulse number to achieve the signal stationarity so that the microcirculatory discriminability of the pulse-based time-averaging analysis on LDF signal can be improved. The proposed quantitative method to verify the assumption of signal stationarity when utilizing time-averaging can also be applied to analysis of other bio-signals.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2007; 2007:982-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Meridian system composed of acupoints is the most fundamental concept to build oriental medicine. In this study, we employ LDF measurement to compare the microcirculatory blood velocity of acupuncture point and its surrounding tissues. Measurements were performed around an important acupoint in oriental medicine, Hoh-Ku (Li4, on the hand), in healthy volunteers. The study presented has shown that the acupoints have significantly slower mean blood velocity than their surrounding tissues (p all < 0.005). This finding facilitates the detection of the position of acupuncture point and helps us to provide a possible connection between microcirculatory physiology and the underlying mechanism of acupoints.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 01/2007; 2007:959-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse parameters calculated from the LDF waveform based on a time-domain synchronized averaging analysis were shown to be able to discriminate the difference in microvascular resistance. However, its applicability may depend on the validation of signal stationarity. In this study, our aim is to investigate the effect of pulse number, which may destroy the signal stationarity, on various pulse LDF parameters. Analysis was performed in data obtained on healthy volunteers. When one pulse parameter is deviated from the standard value for more than 10%, it was regarded as an error; EP (error probability) was then defined as the occurring probability of error. It was revealed in this study that average parameter deviations for FDT and PDT were smaller than 5% for all tested pulse numbers. If we set 10% as the parameter-deviation criterion as well as the acceptable EP range, there should be at least 120 pulses for FDT and PDT, and 210 pulses for FNA and PW. The study presented here has established the criteria for appropriate pulse number to achieve the signal stationarity; we can thus get accurate pulse parameters so that the microcirculatory discriminability of the pulse-based time-averaging analysis on LDF signal can be improved. The proposed quantitative method to verify the validation of signal stationarity when utilizing time-averaging can also be applied to analysis of other bio-signals.
    Biomedical Engineering Applications Basis and Communications 01/2007; 19(03). · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that arteries in their natural position are always subject to a longitudinal stress. However, the effect of this strong longitudinal tension has seldom been addressed. In this paper, we point out that the traditional pulse wave velocity formulae considering only the circumferential elasticity fail to include all the important energies. We present a vigorous derivation of a pressure wave equation, the pressure wave equation with total energy, which considers all the important energies of the whole arterial system by treating the arterial wall and the blood as one system. Our model proposes that the energy transport in the main arterial system is primarily via the transverse vibration motion of the elastic wall. The final equation indicates that the longitudinal stress is essential and the high frequency phase velocity is related to the longitudinal tension along the arterial wall and its Young's shearing modulus. By applying this equation, we suggest that longitudinal elastic property is an important factor in hemodynamics and in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
    Physiological Measurement 01/2005; 25(6):1397-403. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the coefficient of variation of the harmonic magnitude (HCV) of the radial arterial pulse before death of cancer patients. We non-invasively recorded the radical arterial pulse of 21 end-stage cancer patients, 31 healthy subjects, and 47 outpatient department (OPD) patients. During the 2-week study, eight cancer patients expired. There were no considerable differences in diastolic or systolic blood pressure between cancer patients and other subjects; however, all six HCVs were significantly higher in the cancer patients (P<0.05). Within the cancer patient group, the first and second HCV were notably higher in the patients that expired (P<0.05), and the first to fourth HCVs were significantly increased on their last day (P<0.05). In the control healthy subjects and the OPD group, the HCVs were below 5 and 8%, respectively. In the cancer patients, the third to sixth HCVs were higher than 15%. On the last day of the cancer patients that expired, even the first and second HCVs were higher than 15%. During the dying process, the traditional diastolic and systolic blood pressure did not show significant changes; however, all the harmonic components gradually lost their stability. The HCVs, which increased first for the high-frequency components and then the low-frequency components, could quantitatively reflect the severity of different stages of illness.
    Blood Pressure Monitoring 10/2004; 9(5):255-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse wave velocity is mostly related to the young's modulus by the Moens and Korteweg's formula. In deriving this formula, the wall's effect on the blood was ignored at the first step and the pressure gradient was considered as the only driving force in the axial flow of the blood. The local area gradient was assumed to be zero. However, for a real arterial system with compliance, the area gradient is automatically accompanied with the pressure gradient and it will contribute an area gradient force. This force has been omitted so far without any justification because it will contribute a nonlinear term and also leads an obstacle for the analogy with the transmission line theory. We give a quantitative evaluation of the ratio of the area gradient force to the pressure gradient force and find that it is more than 50% in the main artery. This shows the inadequacy and the inaccuracy of the pulse wave velocity derived based on this axial flow equation. We propose that starting from the radial equation of motion might provide an alternate, feasible method to study hemodynamics by energy concern.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2004; 5:3681-3.
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    ABSTRACT: We assume the major function of the arterial system is transporting energy via its transverse vibration to facilitate the blood flowing all the way down to the microcirculation. A highly efficient system is related to maintaining a large pressure pulse along the artery for a given ventricular power. The arterial system is described as a composition of many infinitesimal Windkessels. The strong tethering in the longitudinal direction connects all the Windkessels together and makes them vibrate in coupled modes. It was assumed that at rest condition, the arterial system is in a steady distributed oscillatory state, which is the superposition of many harmonic modes of the transverse vibration in the arterial wall and the adherent blood. Every vibration mode has its own characteristic frequency, which depends on the geometry, the mass density, the elasticity, and the tethering of the arterial system. If the heart rate is near the fundamental natural frequency, the system is in a good resonance condition, we call this "frequency matching." In this condition, the pulsatile pressure wave is maximized. A pressure wave equation derived previously was used to predict this fundamental frequency. The theoretical result gave that heart rate is proportional to the average high-frequency phase velocity of the pressure wave and the inverse of the animal body length dimension. The area compliance related to the efficiency of the circulatory system is also mentioned.
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 02/2004; 51(1):193-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We try to solve the hemodynamic inverse problem of the internal organs in terms of the peripheral pressure pulse spectrum analysis. Side-branch organs are approximated as resonators with own natural frequencies. They are depicted not as ordinary reflection sites but as antennas that receive energy from the main artery and undergo forced oscillations with selective frequencies. Every organ also reacts back to the main artery as a secondary small heart source that generated harmonic forces with maximum amplitude near its own natural frequency. The whole arterial system is in a steady distributed oscillatory state that is the superposition result of encountering the forces generated by the heart and many internal organs. A frequency matching theory of the organ and the main artery is proposed. The Fourier components of the pressure pulse in the arterial system are related to the matching conditions of different organs. In vivo studies in kidney and spleen of rats are provided.
    Cardiovascular Engineering 02/2003; 3(1):21-29. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The arterial vessel is considered together with the blood as a whole system. Taking all the potential energies into account, the system is subjected not only to the pressure gradient force but also to the elastic forces arising from the longitudinal stretching and the circumferential stretching. It is the longitudinal stretching force that takes the whole arterial system together, and makes the energy traveling from one Windkessel unit to the adjacent Windkessel unit.
    Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2002. 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society EMBS/BMES Conference, 2002. Proceedings of the Second Joint; 02/2002

Publication Stats

126 Citations
24.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2010
    • Yuan Ze University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 1998–2008
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Physics
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2003–2005
    • National Taiwan Normal University
      • Department of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004
    • Taipei Medical University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1998–2000
    • National Taiwan University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan