S M Galloway

University of Otago, Taieri, Otago Region, New Zealand

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Publications (35)171.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have constructed a genetic linkage map of the sheep X chromosome (OARX) containing 22 new gene loci from across the human X chromosome (HSAX). The female OARX linkage map has a total length of 152.6 cM with average gene spacing of 5.5 cM. Comparison with HSAX confirms one previously reported major breakpoint and inversion, and other minor rearrangements between OARX and HSAX. Comparison of the linkage map with sheep sequence data OAR 1.0 reveals a different arrangement of markers on the q arm, which may more accurately reflect the genuine arrangement of this region.
    Animal Genetics 06/2011; 42(3):321-4. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • S. Banerjee, S.M. Galloway, G.H. Davis
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    ABSTRACT: The Garole is a prolific breed of sheep. High prolificacy in sheep carrying the Booroola gene (FecB) is the result of a mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IB (BMPR-IB) (Wilson et al., 2001a,b) which had previously been identified in Garole sheep from the Sunderban region of West Bengal (Davis et al., 2002) . There is evidence that the breed has originated from the sheep brought by the Tibetan traders and traded in the plains of Bengal during the seventeenth till the nineteenth century. The present study was carried out to remap the distribution of the Garole sheep within the state of West Bengal (India) using the presence of the BMPR-IB mutation in the sheep flocks reared at different locations within the state of West Bengal. The breeding tract of Garole sheep was initially thought to be in the districts of 24 Parganas, South and North alone. However, the results from the present study indicate that the sheep is also reared in the district of Midnapur (East), besides in Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts situated in northern parts of the state. The results of the present study indicate that the breeding tract of Garole sheep extends up to Jalpaiguri and CoochBehar districts of West Bengal at 26°16′ and 27°0′ North latitude and 88°4′ and 89°53′ East longitude. This study also indicates that the ancestors of the Garole sheep have migrated from China/Tibet, during the trading between West Bengal and Bangladesh during the seventeenth century till the early-twentieth century.
    Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 04/2011; 48.
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep lines with mutations in single genes that have major effects on ovulation rate have been very useful in gaining a better understanding of pathways important in controlling follicular development and ovulation rate. To date however, all known mutations are in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily. Ovulation rates were measured in 720 progeny of 20 rams that were descendants of a single prolific ewe. Evaluation of ovulation rates of daughters of closely related sires suggests the presence of a segregating major gene Fecundity Davisdale (FECD) that increases ovulation rate between 0.4 and 0.8 in heterozygous daughters. Key features of mutations in genes of the TGFB superfamily pathway, such as synergistic interactions with other family members, infertility in homozygous carriers, and increased responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins, were not observed in this line; thus, the mutation does not appear to be acting in the TGFB pathway. Hence, there is likely a novel mutation being carried in this line of sheep that alters ovulation rate. Future identification of the causative mutation may provide new insights into regulation of follicular development and ovulation rate.
    Biology of Reproduction 03/2011; 85(1):113-20. · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Reproduction Fertility and Development - REPROD FERT DEVELOP. 01/2010; 22(1).
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigated effects of carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the A allele resulting from the g+6723G-A transition in growth differentiation factor gene (GDF8) in New Zealand Texel-cross sheep at different lamb ages and carcass weights. Two Texel-cross sires carrying 1 copy of the A allele were mated to approximately 200 ewes carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the A allele. A total of 187 progeny were generated and genotyped to determine whether they were carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the A allele. The progeny were assigned to 1 of 4 slaughter groups balanced for the 3 genotypes, sex, and sire. The 4 groups were slaughtered commercially when their average BW (across all progeny in the slaughter group) reached 33, 40, 43, and 48 kg, respectively. Measurements of BW, and carcass dimensions and yield were made on all animals using Viascan (a commercial 2-dimensional imaging system that estimates lean content of the carcass as a percentage of total carcass weight). Additional measurements were made on the fourth slaughter group, which was computed tomography scanned at each slaughter time point to obtain 4 serial measures of lean and fat as estimated from the computed tomography images. The A allele did not have an effect on any BW traits. The A allele was associated with increased muscle and decreased fat across the variety of measures of muscling and fat, explaining between 0.2 and 1.1 of a residual SD unit. Estimates for an additive effect were significant and were positive for muscle and negative for fat traits. No dominance effect estimates (positive or negative) were significant. There was no significant interaction between A allele number and carcass weight or slaughter group for any trait. This is the first systematic study of the effect of the A allele copy number over a range of carcass weights (13 to 20 kg) and ages and results suggest the size of the effect across these endpoints is proportionately the same. Testing for the A allele therefore offers breeders the potential to improve rates of genetic gain for lean-meat yield across most production systems.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2009; 87(6):1856-64. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production; 06/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Woodlands sheep have a putative genetic mutation (FecX2(W)) that increases ovulation rate. At present, the identity of FecX2(W) is unknown. The trait does not appear to be due to the previously described mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), or bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B (BMPR1B) that affect ovulation rate in sheep. Potentially, FecX2(W) could be an unidentified genetic mutation in BMP15 or in the closely related GDF9, which interacts with BMP15 to control ovarian function. Alternatively, FecX2(W) may affect ovulation rate by changing the expression patterns in the molecular pathways activated by genes known to regulate ovulation rate. The objectives of these experiments were to sequence the complete coding region of the BMP15 and GDF9 genes, determine the patterns of expression of mRNAs encoding GDF9, BMP15, TGFBR1, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 during follicular development, and characterize the follicular populations in ewes heterozygous for the Woodlands mutation and their wild-type contemporaries. No differences in the coding sequences of BMP15 or GDF9 genes were identified that were associated with enhanced ovulation rate. The expression patterns of GDF9 and BMPR2 mRNAs were not different between genotypes. However, expression of BMP15 mRNA was less in oocytes of FecX2(W) ewes in large preantral and antral follicles. Expression of ALK5 mRNA was significantly higher in the oocytes of FecX2(W) ewes, whereas expression of BMPR1B was decreased in both oocytes and granulosa cells of FecX2(W) ewes. FecX2(W) ewes also had increased numbers of antral follicles <1 mm in diameter. These follicles were smaller in average diameter, with the oocytes also being of a smaller mean diameter. Given that a mutation in BMP15 or BMPR1B results in increased ovulation rates in sheep, the differences in expression levels of BMP15 and BMPR1B may play a role in the increase in ovulation rate observed in Woodlands ewes with the FecX2(W) mutation.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2007; 77(6):990-8. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep chromosome 2q (OAR2q), which is homologous with human chromosome 2q (HSA2q), and cattle chromosome 2 (BTA2), is known to contain several loci contributing to carcass traits. However, the chromosomal rearrangements differentiating these chromosomes among the three species have not yet been determined and thus precise correspondences between the locations of sheep and human genes are not known. Twenty-six genes from HSA2q (2q21.1-->2q36) have been assigned to OAR2q by genetic linkage mapping to refine this area of the sheep genome. Seventy-six genes were initially selected from HSA2q. Sixty-eight percent of the PCR primer sets designed for these genes amplified successfully in sheep, and 34% amplified polymorphic products. Part of the proximal arm of OAR2q was found to be inverted compared with HSA2q. The breakpoint has been localised near the growth differentiation factor 8 gene (GDF8), spanning 380 kb between the positions of the hypothetical protein (FLJ20160) (HSA2:191008944-191075046) and glutaminase (GLS) (HSA2:191453847-191538510) (Build36.1).
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/2007; 116(1-2):85-92. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-one of the world's prolific sheep breeds and strains were tested for the presence of the FecB mutation of BMPR1B and the FecX(I) mutation of BMP15. The breeds studied were Romanov (2 strains), Finn (2 strains), East Friesian, Teeswater, Blueface Leicester, Hu, Han, D'Man, Chios, Mountain Sheep (three breeds), German Whiteheaded Mutton, Lleyn, Loa, Galician, Barbados Blackbelly (pure and crossbred) and St. Croix. The FecB mutation was found in two breeds, Hu and Han from China, but not in any of the other breeds. The 12 Hu sheep sampled were all homozygous carriers of FecB (FecB(B)/FecB(B)) whereas the sample of 12 Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB(B)/FecB(B), FecB(B)/FecB+, FecB+/FecB+) at frequencies of 0.33, 0.58 and 0.08, respectively. There was no evidence of FecX(I) in any of the breeds sampled.
    Animal Reproduction Science 04/2006; 92(1-2):87-96. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ovulation rates were measured in 547 progeny of 24 rams in a Romney flock with a long history of high prolificacy. These sheep were from the same family line and the distribution of ovulation rates suggests the presence of a segregating major gene (FecW) that increases prolificacy. The phenotype differs from those previously described for major genes affecting prolificacy in sheep. The putative gene shows autosomal inheritance and one copy increases ovulation rate by 0.8-1.0 eggs per ewe ovulating. To date, we have found no evidence of infertility among putative homozygous ewes, as described in some autosomal major genes for prolificacy.
    Animal Reproduction Science 04/2006; 92(1-2):65-73. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the transforming growth factor (TGFbeta) superfamily and a TGFbeta receptor, namely bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), otherwise known as the growth differentiation factor 9b (GDF9b), GDF9 and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6) otherwise known as the BMP receptor type IB (BMPRIB). Animals homozygous for the BMP15 or GDF9 mutations are anovulatory whereas animals heterozygous for BMP15 or GDF9 or heterozygous or homozygous for ALK6 have higher than normal ovulation rates. Immunisation of ewes against BMP15 or GDF9 shows that both are essential for normal follicular development and control of ovulation rate. Common features of fertile animals with the BMP15, ALK6 (and possibly GDF9) mutations are changes in oocyte development during early preantral follicular growth, earlier maturation of granulosa cells and ovulation of mature follicles at smaller diameters. In summary, these findings have led to a new paradigm in reproductive biology, namely that the oocyte plays a key role in regulating the ovulation rate.
    Genetics Selection Evolution 02/2005; 37 Suppl 1:S25-38. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, namely growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, also known as GDF9B), have recently been shown to be essential for ovarian follicular growth. In addition, both proteins have been shown to regulate ovulation rate in sheep, and although it is evident that these growth factors interact both with one another and with other intra- and extra-ovarian factors, the precise mechanisms by which they influence follicular growth and ovulation rate have not been thoroughly elucidated.
    Animal Reproduction Science 08/2004; 82-83:447-60. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Belclare and Cambridge are prolific sheep breeds, the origins of which involved selecting ewes with exceptionally high litter size records from commercial flocks. The variation in ovulation rate in both breeds is consistent with segregation of a gene (or genes) with a large effect on this trait. Sterile ewes, due to a failure of normal ovarian follicle development, occur in both breeds. New naturally occurring mutations in genes for the oocyte-derived growth factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are described. These mutations are associated with increased ovulation rate in heterozygous carriers and sterility in homozygous carriers in both breeds. This is the first time that a mutation in the gene for GDF9 has been found that causes increased ovulation rate and infertility in a manner similar to inactivating mutations in BMP15, and shows that GDF9 is essential for normal folliculogenesis in sheep. Furthermore, it is shown, for the first time in any species, that individuals with mutations in both GDF9 and BMP15 have a greater ovulation rate than sheep with either of the mutations separately.
    Biology of Reproduction 05/2004; 70(4):900-9. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological mechanisms controlling ovulation rate in mammals involve a complex exchange of endocrine signals between the pituitary gland and the ovary, and a localized exchange of intraovarian hormones between the oocyte and its adjacent somatic cells. The discoveries in sheep of mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPR-IB) together with recent findings on the physiological effects of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and BMP15 on follicular development and ovulation rate highlight some important differences in the way in which the oocyte may function in mammals with different ovulation rate phenotypes. In sheep, BMP15 and GDF9 have each been shown to be essential for the early and later stages of follicular development. In addition, ovulation rate is sensitive to changes in the dose of either of these two oocyte-derived growth factors. These findings are in contrast to those reported for mice in which GDF9, but not BMP15, is essential for follicular development. The evidence to date is consistent with the hypothesis that the oocyte plays a central role in regulating key events in the process of follicular development and hence, is important in determining ovulation rate. Moreover, it appears that the mechanisms that the oocyte uses to control these processes differ between species with low and high ovulation rate phenotypes.
    Reproduction (Cambridge, England) Supplement 02/2003; 61:339-51.
  • Animal Genetics 07/2002; 33(3):244-5. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent discoveries that high prolificacy in sheep carrying the Booroola gene (FecB) is the result of a mutation in the BMPIB receptor and high prolificacy in Inverdale sheep (FecX(I)) is the result of a mutation in the BMP15 oocyte-derived growth factor gene have allowed direct marker tests to be developed for FecB and FecX(I). These tests were carried out in seven strains of sheep (Javanese, Thoka, Woodlands, Olkuska, Lacaune, Belclare, and Cambridge) in which inheritance patterns have suggested the presence of major genes affecting prolificacy and in the prolific Garole sheep of India, which have been proposed as the ancestor of Australian Booroola Merinos. The FecB mutation was found in the Garole and Javanese sheep but not in Thoka, Woodlands, Olkuska, Lacaune, Belclare, and Cambridge sheep. None of the sheep tested had the FecX(I) mutation. These findings present strong evidence to support historical records that the Booroola gene was introduced into Australian flocks from Garole (Bengal) sheep in the late 18th century. It is unknown whether Javanese Thin-tailed sheep acquired the Booroola gene directly from Garole sheep from India or via Merinos from Australia. The DNA mutation test for FecB will enable breeding plans to be developed that allow the most effective use of this gene in Garole and Javanese Thin-tailed sheep and their crosses.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2002; 66(6):1869-74. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BMP15, also known as growth and differentiation factor 9B (GDF9B), is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily (TGFbeta) which in humans, rodents and sheep is expressed exclusively in the oocyte. BMP15 is closely related to GDF9, another oocyte-specific member of this superfamily which has been shown to be essential for early ovarian folliculogenesis. Inactivation of the BMP15 gene in mice has shown only minor effects on fertility. However, Inverdale and Hanna lines of sheep carry naturally occurring mutations in BMP15 which highlight differences in the action of this gene between mice and other mammals. Sheep which are heterozygous show an increase in ovulation rate whereas homozygotes are infertile. The granulosa cell receptor which mediates the BMP15 response has not yet been identified, but the discovery that a point mutation in the BMP1B receptor in Booroola sheep is responsible for increased ovulation rate highlights the importance of the TGFbeta signalling molecules in early folliculogenesis.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/2002; 191(1):15-8. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative maps between ruminant species and humans are increasingly important tools for the discovery of genes underlying economically important traits. In this article we present a primary linkage map of the deer genome derived from an interspecies hybrid between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). The map is approximately 2500 cM long and contains >600 markers including both evolutionary conserved type I markers and highly polymorphic type II markers (microsatellites). Comparative mapping by annotation and sequence similarity (COMPASS) was demonstrated to be a useful tool for mapping bovine and ovine ESTs in deer. Using marker order as a phylogenetic character and comparative map information from human, mouse, deer, cattle, and sheep, we reconstructed the karyotype of the ancestral Pecoran mammal and identified the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in the sheep, cattle, and deer lineages. The deer map and interspecies hybrid pedigrees described here are a valuable resource for (1) predicting the location of orthologs to human genes in ruminants, (2) mapping QTL in farmed and wild deer populations, and (3) ruminant phylogenetic studies.
    Genetics 04/2002; 160(4):1587-97. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A medium-density linkage map of the ovine genome has been developed. Marker data for 550 new loci were generated and merged with the previous sheep linkage map. The new map comprises 1093 markers representing 1062 unique loci (941 anonymous loci, 121 genes) and spans 3500 cM (sex-averaged) for the autosomes and 132 cM (female) on the X chromosome. There is an average spacing of 3.4 cM between autosomal loci and 8.3 cM between highly polymorphic [polymorphic information content (PIC) > or = 0.7] autosomal loci. The largest gap between markers is 32.5 cM, and the number of gaps of > 20 cM between loci, or regions where loci are missing from chromosome ends, has been reduced from 40 in the previous map to 6. Five hundred and seventy-three of the loci can be ordered on a framework map with odds of > 1000 : 1. The sheep linkage map contains strong links to both the cattle and goat maps. Five hundred and seventy-two of the loci positioned on the sheep linkage map have also been mapped by linkage analysis in cattle, and 209 of the loci mapped on the sheep linkage map have also been placed on the goat linkage map. Inspection of ruminant linkage maps indicates that the genomic coverage by the current sheep linkage map is comparable to that of the available cattle maps. The sheep map provides a valuable resource to the international sheep, cattle, and goat gene mapping community.
    Genome Research 07/2001; 11(7):1275-89. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep provide a valuable model for studying the genetic control of ovulation rate. Recent progress includes the identification of mutations in BMP15 (bone morphogenetic protein 15) that increase ovulation rate in heterozygous carriers and block follicular development in homozygous carriers. The genes characterized to date appear to act principally within the ovary and result in earlier maturity of granulosa cells and reduced follicular size. There may also be other sites of action, and increased FSH concentrations appear to be important in the expression of the FecB phenotype. A new locus on the X chromosome in New Zealand Coopworth sheep increases ovulation rate by about 0.4 and is maternally imprinted. Results from studies in the Cambridge and Belclare breeds indicate that further genes remain to be characterized. Finding the first mutations leading directly to variation in ovulation rate is likely to speed up the identification and molecular analysis of these other genes. There is still much to learn about follicular development and the control of litter size from genetic models in sheep.
    Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 07/2001; 121(6):843-52. · 3.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
171.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2008
    • University of Otago
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Centre for Gene Research
      Taieri, Otago Region, New Zealand
  • 2004
    • TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority
      Carlow, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2001
    • AgResearch
      Hamilton City, Waikato, New Zealand