[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OAMZL) has been associated with Chlamydophila psittaci, an infection that may be transmitted by carrier animals. However, it is still unclear whether exposure to animals affects the risk of OAMZL in comparison with other lymphoma histotypes. We therefore investigated the role of professional and/or domestic exposures to animals in the occurrence of OAMZL, as compared with other types of lymphoma.
A hospital-based case-control study was carried out on 43 consecutive OAMZL patients (cases) and 87 consecutive patients with nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs; controls). Multiple logistic regression (MLR) odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between exposures to animals and OAMZL risk.
A higher proportion of cases reported a lifetime exposure to household animals (79.1% vs 64.4% among controls), with a non-statistical significant MLR-OR of 2.18 (95% CI: 0.85-5.62). The OAMZL cases more frequently reported a history of occupation in breeding and/or slaughtering than controls (34.9% vs 6.9%), with an overall increased risk of 7.69 (95%CI: 2.65-22.34).
These results indicate that, compared with nodal NHLs, the risk of OAMZL is markedly increased by contact with animals, particularly by occupational exposures.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(5):966-9. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.2 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma (OAML) is linked to Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection. Viability and infectivity of Cp, demonstrated by growth in culture, has not been yet investigated in these patients. We conducted a single-center prospective case-control study to assess the prevalence, viability and infectivity of Cp in 20 OAML patients and 42 blood donors registered in a 6-month period. The presence of Cp in conjunctival swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients and donors was assessed by TETR-PCR and in vitro cultures. From an epidemiological point of view, OAML patients often resided in rural areas, and reported a history of chronic conjunctivitis and prolonged contact with household animals (85% vs. 38% of donors; p = 0.00001). Cp was detected in lymphoma tissue in 15 (75%) patients. Cp DNA was detected in conjunctival swabs and/or PBMC from 10 (50%) patients and in PBMC from 1 (2%) donor (p = 0.01). Viability and infectivity of Cp, demonstrated by growth in culture, were confirmed in conjunctival swabs and/or PBMC from 5 (25%) patients, but not in donors (p = 0.002). This prospective study demonstrates, for the first time, that Cp present in the conjunctiva and PBMC of OAML patients is capable to grow and be isolated in cell cultures. Cp infection is common in OAML patients and exceptional in blood donors. Epidemiological data of OAML patients (prolonged contact with household animals and chronic conjunctivitis) are consistent with Cp exposure risk.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2008; 123(5):1089-93. DOI:10.1002/ijc.23596 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some case reports and a Japanese series suggest benefit from the use of rituximab in patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Rituximab efficacy was evaluated in Western patients with IVL, comparing outcome of 10 patients treated with rituximab + chemotherapy (R-CT) and of 20 patients treated with chemotherapy alone (CT). There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics between the two subgroups. The addition of rituximab was associated with improved complete remission rate (90% vs. 50%; P = 0.04), event-free survival (3-year: 89% vs. 35%; P = 0.003) and overall survival (3-year: 89% vs. 38%; P = 0.01). In conclusion, rituximab may substantially change the dismal prognosis of IVL.
British Journal of Haematology 09/2008; 143(2):253-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07338.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas constitute 50% of all orbital malignancies. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma is the most common histology category in this anatomic region. Ocular adnexal lymphoma of MALT-type is an indolent and rarely lethal malignancy that can often be managed with observation alone. Occasionally, lymphomatous lesions determine the symptoms that condition a patient's quality of life, and so require an immediate antineoplastic treatment. Several strategies are available, but reliable indications supported by prospective trials do not exist. Some therapeutic strategies are associated with substantial side effects and require a well-balanced therapeutic decision, which should take into account several variables related to the patient, the lymphoma, and the treatment itself. In this review, the authors analyze related literature and propose therapeutic guidelines for the management of ocular adnexal lymphoma of MALT-type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explored variations in the clinical manifestations of intravascular lymphoma (IVL) on the bases of the association with hemophagocytosis and the country where the diagnosis was made.
The clinical features of 50 Western patients with IVL were compared with those of 123 patients with IVL diagnosed in Eastern countries (87 diagnosed in Japan and 36 in other Asian countries), previously reported in English literature, and collected by an electronic bibliographic search.
Hemophagocytosis was absent in Western patients, but reported in 38 (44%) Japanese patients (p=0.00001) and in seven (19%) patients from other Asian countries (p=0.002). No clinical differences were evident between patients with hemophagocytosis-negative IVL diagnosed in Western countries, Japan and other Asian Countries. Conversely, Japanese and non-Japanese patients with hemophagocytosis-related IVL more frequently had stage IV disease, fever, hepato-splenic involvement, marrow infiltration, dyspnea, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and rarely exhibited cutaneous or central nervous system involvement. Lymph node and peripheral blood involvement was uncommon in all subgroups. In Western patients, anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with a 52% remission rate, and a 2-year overall survival of 46%.
The clinical features of IVL vary according to the association with hemophagocytosis, regardless of the country in which the diagnosis is made. Western, Japanese and other Asian patients with hemophagocytosis-negative IVL display similar clinical characteristics and should be considered as having classical IVL. Patients with hemophagocytosis-related IVL show significantly different clinical features. Both forms have a poor prognosis. Extensive molecular studies are needed to explore whether these clinical differences might reflect discordant biological entities within IVL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach displaying CD20-negative relapse after rituximab-containing treatment and the re-appearance of CD20 expression at the second failure. The loss of CD20 expression in B-cell lymphomas relapsing after rituximab is a well-known phenomenon, but its actual impact in DLBCL is difficult to estimate. This paradigmatic case suggests that CD20-expression reappearance after purging of CD20-positive clones with rituximab might be an underestimated occurrence in B-cell lymphomas. Accordingly, every relapse, whenever possible, should be histologically assessed with diagnostic and immunophenotyping purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma (OAL) and Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) infection has been proposed, and recent reports suggest that doxycycline treatment causes tumor regression in patients with Cp-related OAL. The effectiveness of doxycycline treatment in Cp-negative OAL has not been tested.
In a prospective trial, 27 OAL patients (15 newly diagnosed and 12 having experienced relapse) were given a 3-week course of doxycycline therapy. Objective lymphoma response was assessed by computerized tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, and 6 months after the conclusion of therapy and every 6 months during follow-up. Cp infection in patients was determined by touchdown enzyme time-release polymerase chain reaction (TETR-PCR). Statistical tests were two-sided.
Eleven patients were Cp DNA-positive and 16 were Cp DNA negative. Doxycycline was well tolerated. At a median follow-up of 14 months, lymphoma regression was complete in six patients, and a partial response (> or = 50% reduction of all measurable lesions) was observed in seven patients (overall response rate [complete and partial responses] = 48%). Lymphoma regression was observed in both Cp DNA-positive patients (seven of 11 experienced regression) and Cp DNA-negative patients (six of 16 experienced regression) (64% versus 38%; P = .25, Fisher's exact test). The three patients with regional lymphadenopathies and three of the five patients with bilateral disease achieved objective response. In relapsed patients, response was observed both in previously irradiated and nonirradiated patients. The 2-year failure-free survival rate among the doxycycline-treated patients was 66% (95% confidence interval = 54 to 78), and 20 of the 27 patients were progression free.
Doxycycline is a fast, safe, and active therapy for Cp DNA-positive OAL that was effective even in patients with multiple failures involving previously irradiated areas or regional lymphadenopathies. The responses observed in PCR-negative OAL may suggest a need for development of more sensitive methods for Cp detection and investigation of the potential role of other doxycycline-sensitive bacteria.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 10/2006; 98(19):1375-82. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djj373 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and the clinical impact of gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, as well as its possible correlation with Chlamydia psittaci (Cps) infection and the lymphoma regression rate produced by Hp eradicating antibiotic therapy were investigated in patients with MALT-type lymphoma of the ocular adnexa (OAL).
During staging, the presence of gastric Hp infection was assessed by gastroscopy and multiple biopsies in 31 OAL patients. Immediately after, Hp-positive patients were treated with eradicating antibiotic therapy, alone or associated with other therapies.
Gastric Hp infection was detected in 10 (32%) patients; this feature did not correlate with patients' characteristics and disease. Four Hp-positive patients were treated with Hp-eradicating antibiotics therapy as exclusive strategy (assessable for response), none of them showed lymphoma regression. Conversely, 6 Hp-positive patients were treated with antibiotic therapy concurrently with other therapies, achieving lymphoma regression in all cases. Three Hp-positive patients with Cps-positive lymphoma were treated with doxycycline at relapse, resulting in two CR and one PR, which lasted 24+, 20+, and 18+ months, respectively. One of these patients achieved a CR after doxycycline despite the chronic persistence of Hp infection, whereas Cps-eradication was confirmed in the analysis of PBMC samples.
Gastric Hp infection, even if common among OAL patients, does not influence clinical presentation. Hp-eradicating antibiotic therapy is not active against OAL. Cps-eradicating antibiotic therapy with doxycycline induces lymphoma remission irrespectively of the persistence of Hp infection.