Chiaki Kawanishi

Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (95)301.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A huge number of patients with self-harm and suicide attempt visit emergency departments (EDs). We systematically reviewed studies and examined the effect of interventions to prevent repeat suicidal behavior in patients admitted to EDs for a suicidal attempt. We searched the databases of MEDLINE, PsychoINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE through August 2013. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials assessing the effects on repeat suicidal behavior of interventions initiated in suicidal patients admitted to EDs. Interventions in each trial were classified into groups by consensus. Meta-analyses were performed to determine pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of repetition of suicide attempt for interventions in each group. Out of 5390 retrieved articles, 24 trials were included and classified into four groups (11 trials in the Active contact and follow-up, nine in the Psychotherapy, one in the Pharmacotherapy, and three in the Miscellaneous). Active contact and follow-up type interventions were effective in preventing a repeat suicide within 12 months (n=5319; pooled RR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.97). However, the effect at 24 months was not confirmed (n=925; pooled RR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.76-1.22). The effects of the other interventions on preventing a repetition of suicidal behavior remain unclear. Caution is needed regarding the heterogeneity of the effects. Interventions of active contact and follow-up are recommended to reduce the risk of a repeat suicide attempt at 12 months in patients admitted to EDs with a suicide attempt. However, the long-term effect was not confirmed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 175C:66-78. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Suicide attempts are frequently encountered by emergency department nurses. Such encounters can potentially provide a foundation for secondary suicide prevention. Aims: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 7-hr training program for emergency room nursing personnel in Japan. Method: In all, 52 nurses completed the questionnaires before the workshop and 1 month after the workshop. The nurses' understanding of and willingness to care for suicidal patients positively changed. Results: It is feasible to provide a 7-hr, relatively short, workshop on suicidal prevention aimed at emergency medical staff and to improve attitudes during a follow-up of 1 month. Conclusion: It is uncertain whether the positive attitudes of emergency nurses toward suicide and/or educational interventions could impact the outcomes of these interventions. Further studies are needed to address these important questions in this field.
    Crisis The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 08/2014; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-fatal suicide attempt is the most important risk factor for later suicide. Emergency department visits for attempted suicide are increasingly recognised as opportunities for intervention. However, no strong evidence exists that any intervention is effective at preventing repeated suicide attempts. We aimed to investigate whether assertive case management can reduce repetition of suicide attempts in people with mental health problems who had attempted suicide and were admitted to emergency departments. Methods In this multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 17 hospital emergency departments in Japan, we randomly assigned people aged 20 years and older with mental health problems who had attempted suicide to receive either assertive case management (based on psychiatric diagnoses, social risks, and needs of the patients) or enhanced usual care (control), using an internet-based randomisation system. Interventions were provided until the end of the follow-up period (ie, at least 18 months and up to 5 years). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation, but patients and case managers who provided the interventions were not. The primary outcome was the incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour (attempted suicide or completed suicide); secondary outcomes included completed suicide and all-cause mortality. This study is registered at (NCT00736918) and UMIN-CTR (C000000444). Findings Between July 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2009, 914 eligible participants were randomly assigned, 460 to the assertive case management group and 456 to the enhanced usual care group. We noted no significant difference in incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour between the assertive case management group and the enhanced usual care group over the full study period (log-rank p=0·258). Because the proportional hazards assumption did not hold, we did ad-hoc analyses for cumulative incidence of the primary outcome at months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 after randomisation, adjusting for multiplicity with the Bonferroni method. Assertive case management significantly reduced the incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour up to the 6-month timepoint (6-month risk ratio 0·50, 95% CI 0·32–0·80; p=0·003), but not at the later timepoints. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had a greater effect in women (up to 18 months), and in participants younger than 40 years and those with a history of previous suicide attempts (up to 6 months). We did not identify any differences between the intervention and control groups for completed suicide (27 [6%] of 460 vs 30 [7%] of 454, log-rank p=0·660) or all-cause mortality (46 [10%] of 460 vs 42 [9%] of 454, log-rank p=0·698). Interpretation Our results suggest that assertive case management is feasible in real-world clinical settings. Although it was not effective at reducing the incidence of repetition of suicide attempts in the long term, the results of our ad-hoc analyses suggested that it was effective for up to 6 months. This finding should be investigated in future research. Funding The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 08/2014; 1(3):193–201.
  • Kotaro Otsuka, Chiaki Kawanishi
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide prevention is promoted nationally in Japan. In the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy determined in 2007, the areas in which, psychiatry contributed were shown to be important, for example, psychiatric care, suicide, aftercare program for suicide attempters, mental health promotion, and actual elucidation of the cause of suicide. At a part of these national measures, guidelines on suicide attempters' care are devised by the Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine and the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry, and a training workshop on caring for suicide attempters was held by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Japanese society for Emergency Medicine devised an educational program of care for patients with mental health problems in emergency care in cooperation with the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry and Japanese Society of General Hospital Psychiatry. On the other hand, suicide prevention and staff care at hospitals are important problems, and the Japan Council for Quality Health Care devised a program and conducted a training workshop. Also, the Japanese Association for Suicide Prevention conducted workshops for both the educational program of cognitive-behavioral therapy and facilitator training program for gatekeeper. The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders conducted a training workshop involving clinical high-risk case discussion. Also, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology devised clinical guidelines for suicide prevention and distributed them to all society members. In this society, on-site discussion of the guidelines and the holding of workshops are expected in the future. It is hoped that these guidelines will be utilized and training workshops will be held in the future.
    01/2014; 116(8):677-82.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for repetition of suicidal behavior within a year after admission for drug overdose in Japan. Patients admitted to the emergency department of a general public hospital in Tokyo for drug overdose of prescribed medicine and/or over-the-counter drugs between March 2008 and February 2009 were followed up after 1 year. Demographic characteristics, previous suicide attempts, and mental health state were examined by self-report questionnaire and interview at recovery from the initial attempt. Information about suicidal behavior during the follow-up period was obtained from the outpatient psychiatrists by postal questionnaire 1 year after discharge. Of 190 patients admitted to the emergency department, 132 patients answered the questionnaire and had the interview. Information about thefollow-up period for 66 patients was obtained. Of the 66 patients, 28 patients attempted suicide again and two patients committed suicide during the 1-year follow-up period. Psychiatric diagnosis of personality disorder and denial of suicidal intent at the time of recovery were associated with increased risk for another suicide attempt. Lethality levels of suicidal behaviors before and after admission were associated with each other. The rate of fatal and non-fatal suicide attempt within a year after admission for self-poisoning was substantial. Psychiatric diagnosis of personality disorder was a risk factor for repetition of suicide attempt. Clinicians should pay attention to the means of previous suicide attempts even though the patient denies suicidal intent at recovery.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 08/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 01/2013; 67(1):64. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are considered a trigger factor for autonomic dysregulation, which has been shown to predict potentially fatal arrhythmias in schizophrenia. However, the dose-dependent effect of antipsychotic drugs and other psychotropic drugs on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of antipsychotic drugs and other clinical factors on ANS activity in an adequate sample size of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A total of 211 Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy subjects participated in this study. ANS activity was assessed by means of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectral analysis. Antipsychotic drug treatment and various clinical factors were investigated for each participant. The patient group was categorized into three subgroups according to daily dose of antipsychotic drug, and HRV was compared between groups. RESULTS: The results showed significantly decreased low-frequency and high-frequency components of HRV in the patient group compared to the control group. The high-dose group showed a significantly lower HRV than the medium-dose group and an even lower HRV than the low-dose group. In addition, a significant association between HRV and antipsychotic drug dose was identified by multiple regression analysis. HRV was not associated with age, sex, body mass index, duration of illness, or daily dose of other psychotropic drugs. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that antipsychotic drugs exert a significant dose-dependent effect on the extent of decline in ANS activity, and that optimal antipsychotic medication is required to avoid possible cardiovascular adverse events in patients with schizophrenia.
    BMC Psychiatry 11/2012; 12(1):199. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide. To investigate trait impulsivity among suicide attempters, 93 attempters admitted to an emergency department and 113 healthy controls were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11J). Impulsivity was analyzed in relation to clinical data in the attempters. Total BIS-11J, attention impulsiveness, and motor impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in the attempters than in the controls. Both total BIS-11J and non-planning impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in attempters with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among the diagnostic groups. Control of impulsivity should be considered as one of the targets for suicide prevention.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 09/2012; 66(6):529-32. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Ikuko Kishida, Taku Furuno, Chiaki Kawanishi
    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 08/2012; 70 Suppl 6:612-5.
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    Isao Kaniwa, Chiaki Kawanishi, Akira Suda, Yoshio Hirayasu
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that "suicide can be prevented". Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 03/2012; 9(3):712-21. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the promulgation of the Basic Act for Suicide Prevention, suicide prevention in Japan has developed rapidly. In order to further reinforce such activities, it is necessary to balance universal, selective, and indicated prevention. For the revision of the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy, the Center for Suicide Prevention announced this recommendation with 29 societies. We hope that it will promote suicide prevention in Japan and lead to expansion of the suicide prevention network by academic organizations, NGOs, as well as local and central government.
    Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 01/2012; 114(12):1428-31.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Akathisia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotics and, less commonly, antidepressants. Akathisia can cause great discomfort and is often described by the patient as a most distressing sensation; however, the condition is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In oncological settings, neuroleptics and antidepressants that induce akathisia are also administered. However, reports of akathisia in oncology settings are few and a case of akathisia in a bedridden patient has not been reported as far as we know. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old man with esophageal cancer who could not sit down or stand up was administered 5 mg/day haloperidol to relieve agitation as a symptom of major depressive disorder. Three days after the administration of haloperidol, the agitation had become worse. Careful observation revealed that the patient sometimes showed slight rubbing movement of the lower extremities and slight twisting movements of the body, which were not observed before the administration of haloperidol. The patient moved his body and lower extremities to relieve restlessness, which had developed after the administration of haloperidol. Although symptoms were atypical, akathisia was suspected and discontinuation of haloperidol resolved the symptoms. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: In patients with poor performance status, clues leading to the correct diagnosis of akathisia might be absent, which would not be the case in patients who were able to walk, stand up, or sit down. Careful observations of patients before and after the administration of drugs that may cause akathisia may be required to ensure correct diagnosis.
    Palliative and Supportive Care 12/2010; 8(4):477-80. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suicidality in patients with schizophrenia is high. To clarify the characteristics of suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia, we investigated suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in comparison with patients with mood disorders. One hundred patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 155 patients with mood disorders admitted to an emergency department after a suicide attempt were interviewed in detail on items concerning 1) demographic characteristics, 2) previous suicidal behavior, and 3) index suicidal behavior. Differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showed a lower incidence of previous deliberate self-harm, and a higher incidence of a subsequent suicide attempt more than 1 year after the previous suicide attempt as well as a higher lethality of index suicide attempt compared to patients with mood disorders. Furthermore, the most common motive for making a suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was having a mental problem. This study revealed the factors associated with suicide attempts among Japanese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and the nature of these factors makes it difficult to predict future attempts. This makes clear the importance of continuous long-term follow-up with careful attention to the mental symptoms and psychological burden for such patients.
    Psychiatry Research 10/2010; 188(1):78-82. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    Makiko Nakagawa, Chiaki Kawanishi
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 02/2010; 64(1). · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A previous suicide attempt is a potent risk factor for suicide later on. Crisis intervention, psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation at emergency medical facilities, and follow-up care for suicide attempters are considered important components for suicide prevention. The Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) includes a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of post-suicide attempt case management for the prevention of further attempts (ACTION-J) to address the continuing increase in suicides in Japan. The primary aim of ACTION-J is to examine the effectiveness of an extensive intervention for suicide attempters in prevention of recurrent suicidal behavior, as compared with standard intervention. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of the ACTION-J trial. In this clinical trial, case management intervention will be provided at 19 emergency medical facilities in Japan. After crisis intervention including psychiatric evaluation, psychosocial assessment, and psychological education, subjects will be randomly assigned to either a group receiving continuous case management or a control group receiving standard care. Suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and general health condition will be evaluated as secondary measures. The intervention was initiated in July 2006. By December, 2009, 842 subjects will be randomized. Subject follow-up will continue for 1.5 to 5 years. Suicide is a complex phenomenon that encompasses multiple factors. Case management by multi-sector collaboration is needed. ACTION-J may provide valuable information on suicide attempters and may develop effective case management to reduce future risk for suicide attempters. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000000444. number, NCT00736918.
    BMC Public Health 09/2009; 9:364. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some reports have suggested the involvement of the D2 dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior. Here, we examined associations between suicide attempts and two kinds of functional polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene, namely, TaqIA and -141C Ins/Del. Subjects included 120 suicide attempters and 123 unrelated volunteers. Those who attempted suicide were severely injured and were transferred to the emergency unit in our university hospital. To determine each genotype, we performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We found significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies of -141C Ins/Del and TaqIA polymorphisms between suicide attempters and healthy controls (-141C Ins/Del, p = 0.01; TaqIA,p = 0.036). The Ins allele of -141C Ins/Del was significantly more frequent in suicide attempters (p = 0.011), as well as the A2 allele of TaqIA (p = 0.017). Haplotype analysis revealed no significant linkage disequilibrium between -141C Ins/Del and TaqIA polymorphisms (D' = 0.226, r(2) = 0.016, p = 0.10). These findings suggest that DRD2 gene polymorphisms may be involved in the biological susceptibility to suicide.
    Neuropsychobiology 05/2009; 59(2):130-4. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 03/2009; 63(1):122-3. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Chiaki Kawanishi, Kenji Kawano, Hiroto Ito
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 01/2009; 62(6):754. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Family history of suicide attempt is one of the risks of suicide. We aimed at exploring the characteristics of Japanese suicide attempters with and without a family history of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters admitted to an urban emergency department from 2003 to 2008 were interviewed by two attending psychiatrists on items concerning family history of suicide attempt and other sociodemographic and clinical information. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of a family history of suicide attempt, and differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Out of the 469 suicide attempters, 70 (14.9%) had a family history of suicide attempt. A significantly higher rate of suicide motive connected with family relations (odds ratio 2.21, confidence interval 1.18-4.17, p < .05) as well as a significantly higher rate of deliberate self-harm (odds ratio 2.51, confidence interval 1.38-4.57, p < .05) were observed in patients with a family history of suicide compared to those without such history. No significant differences were observed in other items investigated. The present study has revealed the characteristics of suicide attempters with a family history of suicide attempt. Further understanding of the situation of such individuals is expected to lead to better treatment provision and outcomes, and family function might be a suitable focus in their treatment.
    BMC Psychiatry 01/2009; 9:32. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether there were any differences in responses to patients with suicidal ideation among specialties in general hospitals. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2007. The subjects of the study were chief physicians at 75 emergency departments, 69 internal medicine departments and 154 psychiatry departments in 161 general hospitals with psychiatric beds in Japan. The physicians in internal and emergency medicine reported making arrangements for needed counseling services and recommending to patients that they talk to the people around them, whereas those in psychiatric departments reported asking patients to promise not to commit suicide (no-suicide contract) and making a next appointment for them. Internists and emergency physicians are likely to take different approaches when responding to patients with suicidal ideation than psychiatrists.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 11/2008; 30(6):578-80. · 2.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

636 Citations
301.09 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2012
    • Yokohama City University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2008
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • Department of Social Psychiatry
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2006
    • Kanagawa Cancer Center
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2004
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1997
    • Shonan Fujisawa Tokushukai Hospital
      Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan