William Meyer

Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (12)44.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Desmoid fibromatosis (desmoid tumor, DT) is a soft tissue neoplasm prone to recurrence despite complete surgical resection. Numerous small retrospective reports suggest that non-cytotoxic chemotherapy using tamoxifen and sulindac may be effective for DT. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of tamoxifen and sulindac in a prospective phase II study within the Children's Oncology Group. PROCEDURES: Eligible patients were <19 years of age who had measurable DT that was recurrent or not amenable to surgery or radiation. The primary objective was to estimate progression-free survival (PFS). Patients received tamoxifen and sulindac daily for 12 months or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. Response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Fifty-nine eligible patients were enrolled from 2004 to 2009; 78% were 10-18 years old. Twenty-two (38%) were previously untreated; 15 (41%) of the remaining 37 enrolling with recurrent DT had prior systemic chemotherapy and six (16%) had prior radiation. No life-threatening toxicity was reported. Twelve (40%) of 30 females developed ovarian cysts, which were asymptomatic in 11 cases. Ten patients completed therapy without disease progression or discontinuing treatment. Responses included four partial and one complete (5/59, 8%). The estimated 2-year PFS and survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.48) and 96%, respectively. All three deaths were due to progressive DT. CONCLUSIONS: Tamoxifen and sulindac caused few serious side effects in children with DT, although ovarian cysts were common. However, the combination showed relatively little activity as measured by response and PFS rates. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2013; 60(7). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24457 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2011; 83(2):720-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.06.2011 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were to compare results of clinical/radiographic studies before second-look procedures (SLP) with SLP specimens from patients with gross residual sarcoma at diagnosis and to relate tumor viability to outcome. Seventy-three patients underwent SLP before completing chemotherapy, with (n = 59) or without (n = 14) radiotherapy. Tumor sites were bladder/prostate (n = 27), head/orbit/parameningeal (n = 22), extremity/trunk (n = 14), and retroperitoneum/pelvis (n = 10). Of 14 patients, 1 (7%) with clinical/radiographic complete response (CR) had viable tumor. Of 59 patients, 35 (59%) without CR had viable tumor. Five-year failure-free survival (FFS) rates were 81% in 37 patients without viable tumor and 53% in 36 patients with viable tumor (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .05). Five-year FFS rates were 67% in 15 patients with clear margins and 43% in 21 patients with tumor-involved margins (n = 18) or viable gross tumor (n = 3) (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .04). Five-year survival was 78% to 79% among 73 patients with and 333 patients without SLP during treatment. Second-look procedures can show whether viable tumor is present and may be beneficial in selected patients with rhabdomyosarcoma. Disappearance of tumor (CR) usually correlated with no viable tumor at SLP. However, 41% of patients without CR had no viable tumor. Those without viable tumor had increased FFS but not survival compared to those with viable tumor.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2010; 45(11):2160-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.07.021 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anapalsia is rare in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and has not been included in the International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma (ICR). A recent review of cases from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) suggests that anaplasia might be more common than previously reported and may impact clinical outcome. The prevalence of anaplasia (focal or diffuse) was prospectively assessed in 546 eligible cases who were registered in an Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) or COG therapeutic trial from 1995 through 1998. The incidence of anaplasia in tumor samples and its impact in predicting clinical outcome was assessed. Overall, 71 (13%) of all samples analyzed had anaplasia. Anaplasia was more common in patients with tumors in favorable sites and was less commonly observed in younger patients and in those with stage II, III, or clinical group III disease. Regardless of its distribution (focal or diffuse), on univariate analysis the presence of anaplasia negatively influenced the failure-free survival rate (63% vs 77% at 5 years) and overall survival (68% vs 82% at 5 years) rates in patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This effect was most pronounced in children with intermediate-risk tumors. Anaplasia did not affect outcome in patients with alveolar tumors. The incidence of anaplasia in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma is higher than previously described and may be of prognostic significance in children with intermediate-risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
    Cancer 12/2008; 113(11):3242-7. DOI:10.1002/cncr.23929 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics and outcome of patients with renal sarcomas. The IRSG database includes newly diagnosed patients <21 years old with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or undifferentiated sarcoma (UDS). We identified patients with renal sarcoma and reviewed their charts. Ten of the 5,746 eligible IRSG patients enrolled from 1972 to 2005 had primary renal embryonal RMS (N = 6) or UDS (N = 4). Anaplasia was present in six (60%) of the tumors. Patients' ages ranged from 2.6 to 17.8 years. Tumor diameters ranged from 7 to 15 cm (median, 12 cm). At diagnosis, seven patients had localized disease: four underwent complete removal of tumor (Group I), two had microscopic residual (Group II), and one had gross residual tumor (Group III). Three patients had distant metastases (Group IV) in lungs and bone. Nine patients received vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC). Two Group I patients received no radiation therapy (XRT); others received XRT to the primary tumor and to some metastatic sites. Nine patients achieved complete disappearance of tumor, six due to the initial operation. Tumors recurred in lung (N = 2) or brain (N = 1) in Group IV patients; each died within 16 months. The Group III patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia. The six Group I and II patients survive, continuously disease-free, at 2.7-17.3 years (median, 4.7 years). Patients with renal sarcomas often present with large tumors, many of them containing anaplastic features. Removing all gross disease at diagnosis, if feasible, is a critical component of treatment to curing patients with renal sarcoma.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 09/2008; 51(3):339-43. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21639 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determine outcome of patients with cranial parameningeal sarcoma and concurrent metastases treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols II-IV. We identified 91 patients in the database, which includes newly diagnosed subjects <21 years old with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and undifferentiated sarcoma, and reviewed their charts in detail. The 54 males and 37 females were <1-19 years at diagnosis. Primary sites were nasopharynx-nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid and parapharyngeal area ("better" sites, 55%), paranasal sinus and infratemporal-pterygopalatine area ("worse" sites, 42%), and other (3%). Sixty-eight percent of informative patients had direct intracranial extension. Major metastatic sites at diagnosis were lung (63%), bone marrow (33%), and bone (27%). Treatment included vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the primary tumor and up to five metastatic sites/tissues. The estimated 10-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22%, 42%). Sixty patients had progressive disease (N = 49) or death as a first event (N = 11); another developed myelodysplastic syndrome and died. Sites of first progression/relapse were distant (55%), local (12%), CNS extension (8%), mixed (6%), and uncertain (18%). Factors indicating likelihood of 10-year FFS included tumor arising in "better" versus "worse" sites (FFS 46% vs. 18%, P = 0.02) and embryonal versus other histology (FFS 37% vs. 19%, P = 0.06). Cure was possible for some patients with metastatic cranial parameningeal sarcoma. Patients with the best outlook had embryonal RMS located in the nasopharynx/nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid, or parapharyngeal region. Distant metastases were the most frequent type of recurrence, indicating that more effective systemic agents are needed to eliminate residual disease.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2008; 51(1):17-22. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21492 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the outcome of 47 patients with superficial facial rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols-III, -IV-Pilot, and -IV. We reviewed patients' records. Clinico-pathologic features, treatment, and outcome were examined to identify prognostic factors. Thirty-two patients were males; 35 patients were 1-9 years old at diagnosis. Tumor sites were buccal/cheek (N = 21), external nasal/nasolabial (N = 12), lip/chin (N = 9), and masseter (N = 5). Patients (46/47) had localized disease: 18 biopsy only (Group III), 17 microscopic residual tumor (Group II), and 11 complete resection without residual tumor (Group I). Eight-year estimated event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS) rates were 61% and 65%. Patients <12 months old had inferior EFS, 21%, compared to approximately 68% in older patients (P = 0.077). Eight-year EFS rates were 80% for females and 50% for males (P = 0.096). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% in 33 patients without regional lymph-nodal tumor and 39% in 14 patients with regional nodal tumor (P = 0.07). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% for 22 patients with embryonal RMS and 53% for 23 patients with alveolar RMS (P = 0.28). Location of the primary tumor was not significantly related to outcome. Patients with superficial facial RMS often have localized, grossly resectable lesions at the time of presentation. Favorable prognostic factors include age >12 months, female gender, embryonal histology, and no lymph-nodal tumor.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2008; 50(5):958-64. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21447 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry remains the current ancillary method of choice in the pathologic evaluation of small blue round-cell tumors. In at least 20% of cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), it is considered an essential factor in the final and/or differential diagnosis of the malignancy. Newer immunostains (antimyogenin, MyoD1) generated against intranuclear myogenic transcription factors offer pathologists the best hope for improving the sensitivity and specificity of RMS diagnosis. A large series of RMS (956) were studied consecutively from the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study and children's oncology group files, along with multiple other malignant, benign or reactive lesions. A panel of antibodies to muscle-related antigens (myogenin, MyoD1, desmin, muscle-specific actin) was studied using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, an avidin-biotin/peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique, antigen retrieval technique as appropriate, and automated immunostaining. Myogenin and MyoD1 were equally sensitive (positive for 97% of RMS cases), with both also showing similar specificity (90% vs. 91% of cases) for the diagnosis of RMS. Myogenin and MyoD1 staining were sometimes intact in areas of coagulative tumor necrosis, but negated by B5 fixation. Isolated, rare benign myogenin-positive nuclei were seen infrequently in reactive lymph nodes. Specifically, both myogenin and MyoD1 had significantly greater extent of expression for alveolar RMS (ARMS) than embryonal RMS (ERMS) (both with P < 0.001). Similarly, both myogenin (P = 0.001) and MyoD1 (P < 0.001) had significantly higher expression for ARMS than RMS, not otherwise specified (NOS). They were never expressed in undifferentiated sarcomas; however, reactive or regenerative myocytes did show expression. Immunostains against intranuclear myogenic transcription factors are, at present, the best available markers for confirming the diagnosis of RMS. Their differential expression in reactive myogenic lesions, variability in ARMS versus ERMS, and absence in undifferentiated sarcomas suggest new biologic questions to be explored in future studies.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 08/2006; 30(8):962-968. DOI:10.1097/00000478-200608000-00005 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry remains the current ancillary method of choice in the pathologic evaluation of small blue round-cell tumors. In at least 20% of cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), it is considered an essential factor in the final and/or differential diagnosis of the malignancy. Newer immunostains (antimyogenin, MyoD1) generated against intranuclear myogenic transcription factors offer pathologists the best hope for improving the sensitivity and specificity of RMS diagnosis. A large series of RMS (956) were studied consecutively from the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study and children's oncology group files, along with multiple other malignant, benign or reactive lesions. A panel of antibodies to muscle-related antigens (myogenin, MyoD1, desmin, muscle-specific actin) was studied using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, an avidin-biotin/peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique, antigen retrieval technique as appropriate, and automated immunostaining. Myogenin and MyoD1 were equally sensitive (positive for 97% of RMS cases), with both also showing similar specificity (90% vs. 91% of cases) for the diagnosis of RMS. Myogenin and MyoD1 staining were sometimes intact in areas of coagulative tumor necrosis, but negated by B5 fixation. Isolated, rare benign myogenin-positive nuclei were seen infrequently in reactive lymph nodes. Specifically, both myogenin and MyoD1 had significantly greater extent of expression for alveolar RMS (ARMS) than embryonal RMS (ERMS) (both with P < 0.001). Similarly, both myogenin (P = 0.001) and MyoD1 (P < 0.001) had significantly higher expression for ARMS than RMS, not otherwise specified (NOS). They were never expressed in undifferentiated sarcomas; however, reactive or regenerative myocytes did show expression. Immunostains against intranuclear myogenic transcription factors are, at present, the best available markers for confirming the diagnosis of RMS. Their differential expression in reactive myogenic lesions, variability in ARMS versus ERMS, and absence in undifferentiated sarcomas suggest new biologic questions to be explored in future studies.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 08/2006; 30(8):962-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children. To identify a plasma proteomic signature that can detect OS, we used SELDI MS to perform proteomic profiling on plasma specimens from 29 OS and 20 age-matched osteochondroma (OC) patients. Nineteen statistically significant ion peaks that were differentially expressed in OS when compared with OC patients were identified (p < 0.001 and false discovery rate < 10%). Using the proteomic profiles, we constructed a multivariate 3-nearest neighbors classifier to distinguish OS from OC patients with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 80% based on external leave-one-out crossvalidation. Permutation test showed that the classification result was statistically significant (p < 0.00005). One of the proteins (m/z 11 704) in the proteomic signature was identified as serum amyloid protein A (SAA) by PMF. The higher plasma level of SAA in OS patients was further validated by Western blotting when compared to that of osteochrondroma patients and normal subjects as reference. The classifier based on this plasma proteomic signature may be useful to differentiate malignant bone cancer from benign bone tumors and for early detection of OS in high-risk individuals.
    PROTEOMICS 06/2006; 6(11):3426-35. DOI:10.1002/pmic.200500472 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children. After initial diagnosis is made with a biopsy, treatment consists of preoperative chemotherapy followed by definitive surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. The degree of tumor necrosis in response to preoperative chemotherapy is a reliable prognostic factor and is used to guide the choice of postoperative chemotherapy. Patients with tumors, which reveal > or = 90% necrosis (good responders), have a much better prognosis than those with < 90% necrosis (poor responders). Despite previous attempts to improve the outcome of poor responders by modifying the postoperative chemotherapy, their prognosis remains poor. Therefore, there is a need to predict at the time of diagnosis patients' response to preoperative chemotherapy. This will provide the basis for developing potentially effective therapy that can be given at the outset for those who are likely to have a poor response. Here, we report the analysis of 34 pediatric osteosarcoma samples by expression profiling. Using parametric two-sample t test, we identified 45 genes that discriminate between good and poor responders (P < 0.005) in 20 definitive surgery samples. A support vector machine classifier was built using these predictor genes and was tested for its ability to classify initial biopsy samples. Five of six initial biopsy samples that had corresponding definitive surgery samples in the training set were classified correctly (83%; confidence interval, 36%, 100%). When this classifier was used to predict eight independent initial biopsy samples, there was 100% accuracy (confidence interval, 63%, 100%). Many of the predictor genes are implicated in bone development, drug resistance, and tumorigenesis.
    Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(18):8142-50. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0985 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand outcomes in children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and lung-only metastatic disease, the authors reviewed the experience from Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Studies IV Pilot and IV. Patients with lung-only (n = 46) vs other sites of metastatic disease (n = 234) were reviewed using patient charts and the database of Children's Oncology Group (COG). Sixteen percent of patients with RMS and metastatic disease had isolated lung metastases. Thirty-one (67%) had more than 5 metastatic lung lesions. These were bilateral in 34 (74%). Only 6 patients were biopsied at diagnosis. Sixteen children (35%) did not receive any lung radiotherapy. Patients that received lung radiotherapy had fewer lung recurrences ( P = .04), although this has no significant impact on overall survival (OAS, 47% radiotherapy vs 31% no radiotherapy). Compared with patients with other sites of metastatic disease, patients with lung-only metastases have a greater proportion of favorable histology (67% vs 39%, P = .0017), negative nodal involvement (67% vs 32%, P = .0013), and parameningeal primaries (39% vs 12%) and a smaller proportion of extremity primaries (20% vs 33%, P = .0005 for site of primary tumor). Overall survival at 4 years for lung-only metastases was not significantly different from other single-site metastasis (42% vs 34%). Survival was not improved for unilateral disease or fewer than 5 metastatic lesions. Factors associated with diminished OAS include unfavorable histology (P = .0001) and age >10 years (P = .015). Children with RMS and lung-only metastases usually present with extensive bilateral disease that is frequently not biopsied nor given protocol-recommended radiotherapy (XRT). However, outcome is comparable, although slightly better, than patients with other single-site metastasis.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 01/2005; 40(1):256-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.09.045 · 1.31 Impact Factor