[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, implicated in health care-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understand factors that influence growth in their environmental source, clinical RGM and slowly growing MAC isolates were grown as biofilm in a laboratory batch system. High and low nutrient levels were compared, as well as stainless steel and polycarbonate surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured after 72 h of incubation by enumeration of bacteria from disrupted biofilms and by direct quantitative image analysis of biofilm microcolony structure. RGM biofilm development was influenced more by nutrient level than by substrate material, though both affected biofilm growth for most of the isolates tested. Microcolony structure revealed that RGM develop several different biofilm structures under high-nutrient growth conditions, including pillars of various shapes (M. abscessus and M. fortuitum) and extensive cording (M. abscessus and M. chelonae). Although it is a slowly growing species in the laboratory, a clinical isolate of M. avium developed more culturable biofilm in potable water in 72 h than any of the 10 RGM examined. This indicates that M. avium is better adapted for growth in potable water systems than in laboratory incubation conditions and suggests some advantage that MAC has over RGM in low-nutrient environments.
Applied and environmental microbiology 03/2009; 75(7):2091-8. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the etiologic organism, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) can be of great value in optimizing strategies to control and prevent its development and transmission.
One hundred and fifty-five Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Cairo, Egypt were studied. In vitro drug susceptibility testing against rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (SM), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) was performed. Resistance was studied by the standard agar proportion method. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequence analysis were used to detect mutations in the genes that encode resistance to rpoB, katG, rpsL, and embB.
Among 155 consecutive M. tuberculosis isolates, 25 (16.1%) were MDR-TB; 13 of these were from newly diagnosed untreated cases, 12 were from re-treated cases, and none of the MDR-TB isolates had matching IS6110 fingerprints. Among the MDR-TB isolates, rpoB mutations were found in 76% of RIF-resistant isolates, katG mutations were found in 47.1% of INH-resistant isolates, rpsL mutations were found in 55.6% of SM-resistant isolates, and embB mutations were found in 36.4% of EMB-resistant isolates.
No major differences were found in the frequencies of mutations or types of amino acid substitution between newly diagnosed untreated cases and re-treated cases. The high prevalence of MDR-TB at this hospital underscores the need for continuous monitoring of strains and antimicrobial resistance.
International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 02/2009; 13(6):673-8. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study represents an early attempt to determine the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Egypt, particularly of drug-resistant strains.
We characterized 45 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from sputum samples of Egyptian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, in order to establish a database of strain types and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
One Mycobacterium bovis and 44 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the oxyR gene. Twenty-five (56.8%) of the 44 MTB isolates were susceptible in vitro to all anti-tuberculosis drugs tested; five (11.4%) were mono-resistant to isoniazid or streptomycin (four were resistant to streptomycin and only one was resistant to isoniazid) and 14 (31.8%) were resistant to more than one drug (multidrug-resistant, MDR). Among the 44 MTB isolates tested by RFLP analysis in this study, 40 different RFLP patterns were obtained. The number of IS6110 copies ranged from 5 to 16. Studying the IS6110 RFLP patterns indicated that the 44 isolates did not cluster together but were generally scattered. None of the 14 MDR isolates were clustered. Twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified among the 44 MTB isolates, of which 13 were unique. The remaining 31 isolates were grouped into nine clusters of strains sharing identical spoligotypes.
We have demonstrated evidence of diversity among the drug-susceptible and resistant MTB strains. Continued surveillance for strains of MTB involved in pulmonary tuberculosis in Egypt, and especially for drug-resistant strains, is warranted.
International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 11/2008; 13(2):236-42. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the first "Mycobacterium paraffinicum" (unofficial taxon) pseudo-outbreak in a tertiary-care medical center. Fifteen clinical nontuberculous mycobacterium isolates from 10 patients were initially identified by biochemical tests and high-performance liquid chromatography as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. However, further testing by molecular analysis revealed "M. paraffinicum." Epidemiological and environmental investigation determined that the ice machine was the source of the pseudo-outbreak.
Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2008; 46(5):1850-3. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between March and May 2006, a Texas hospital identified five Mycobacterium mucogenicum bloodstream infections among hospitalized oncology patients using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of mycolic acids. Isolates from blood cultures were compared to 16 isolates from environmental sites or water associated with this ward. These isolates were further characterized by hsp65, 16S rRNA, and rpoB gene sequencing, hsp65 PCR restriction analysis, and molecular typing methods, including repetitive element PCR, random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of large restriction fragments. Three of five patient isolates were confirmed as M. mucogenicum and were in a single cluster as determined by all identification and typing methods. The remaining two patient isolates were identified as different strains of Mycobacterium phocaicum by rpoB sequence analysis. One of these matched an environmental isolate from a swab of a hand shower in the patient's room, while none of the clinical isolates of M. mucogenicum matched environmental strains. Among the other 15 environmental isolates, 11 were identified as M. mucogenicum and 4 as M. phocaicum strains, all of which were unrelated by typing methods. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequences matched for all 14 M. mucogenicum isolates, there were two each of the hsp65 and rpoB sequevars, seven PCR typing patterns, and 12 PFGE patterns. Among the seven M. phocaicum isolates were three 16S rRNA sequevars, two hsp65 sequevars, two rpoB sequevars, six PCR typing patterns, and six PFGE patterns. This outbreak represents the first case of catheter-associated bacteremia caused by M. phocaicum and the first report of clinical isolates from a U.S. hospital. The investigation highlights important differences in the available typing methods for mycobacteria and demonstrates the genetic diversity of these organisms even within narrow confines of time and space.
Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2008; 74(8):2480-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some US residents travel abroad to undergo cosmetic surgery for fat removal, a practice referred to as "lipotourism." Mycobacterium abscessus can cause postsurgical wound infection.
US residents who developed M. abscessus wound infection after undergoing cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic in 2003 and 2004 were identified using the Emerging Infections Network listserv.
Twenty returning US travelers with M. abscessus infection were detected. Eight patients had matching isolates, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction. All 8 patients, who had previously been healthy Hispanic women, underwent abdominoplasties at the same clinic in the Dominican Republic. Symptoms first developed 2-18 weeks after the procedure (median interval, 7 weeks). Only 2 of the 8 patients received a correct diagnosis at the initial presentation. Most patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous abdominal nodules. Seven patients underwent drainage procedures. Six patients received a combination of antibiotics that included a macrolide plus cefoxitin, imipenem, amikacin, and/or linezolid; 2 received clarithromycin monotherapy. All patients but 1 were cured after a median of 9 months of therapy (range, 2-12 months). Because of a lack of access to the surgical clinic, the cause of the outbreak of infection was not identified. The patients who were infected with nonmatching isolates underwent surgeries in different facilities but otherwise had demographic characteristics and clinical presentations similar to those of the 8 patients infected with matching isolates.
This case series of M. abscessus infection in US "lipotourists" highlights the risks of traveling abroad for surgery and the potential role of the Internet in identifying and investigating outbreaks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four strains of novel, rapidly growing, acid-alcohol-fast-staining bacteria were characterized with a polyphasic approach. Isolates were received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from domestic health department laboratories for reference testing as unidentifiable, clinical mycobacteria. Bacteria were rod-shaped and produced non-pigmented (white to beige), non-photochromogenic, smooth or wrinkled-rough colonies on Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 media at 33 degrees C. The smooth and wrinkled colony forms were representative of two species with 68.0 and 72.0 mol% DNA G+C content. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and mycolic acids. Species were characterized by cellular fatty acids of C10:0, C14:0, C16:1omega9t, C16:0, C18:1omega9c and 10-methyl C18:0 (tuberculostearic acid). HPLC analysis of mycolic acids produced a novel late-emerging, genus-specific mycolate pattern. TLC analysis demonstrated a novel alpha(+)-mycolate. Species were 98.9% similar by comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences; however, the DNA-DNA association was <28 %. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated an association with Rhodococcus equi, although a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 2% did not support a close relationship. PCR analysis of a proposed, selected actinomycete-specific 439 bp fragment of the 65 kDa heat-shock protein was negative for three of the four isolates. The creation of Segniliparaceae fam. nov. is proposed to encompass the genus Segniliparus gen. nov., including two novel species, the type species Segniliparus rotundus sp. nov. and Segniliparus rugosus sp. nov., with the respective type strains CDC 1076(T) (=ATCC BAA-972(T)=CIP 108378(T)) and CDC 945(T) (=ATCC BAA-974(T)=CIP 108380(T)).
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 08/2005; 55(Pt 4):1615-24. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate and determine the cause of an outbreak of Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteremias in bone marrow transplant (BMT) and oncology patients.
Case-control study and culturing of hospital water sources. Isolates were typed using molecular methods.
University-affiliated, tertiary-care medical center.
Case-patients were adult and pediatric BMT patients or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (BMT) (n = 5) and oncology (n = 1) patients who were diagnosed as having M. mucogenicum bacteremia during the study period of August through November 1998. Two control-patients were selected for each case-patient matched by age, time of hospitalization, inpatient unit, and type of patient (BMT or oncology).
There were no significant differences between case-patients and control-patients regarding intravenous products received or procedures performed, frequency of bathing, neutropenia, or steroid use. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated from several water sources at the medical center including tap water from sinks and showerheads, the hospital hot water source, and the city water supply to the hospital. Analysis by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA showed a match between one patient's blood isolate and an isolate from shower water from that patient's prior hospital room.
The cause of the outbreak seemed to be water contamination of central venous catheters (CVCs) during bathing. A recommendation in early 2001 that CVCs be protected from water during bathing was followed by no M. mucogenicum bacteremias during the second half of 2001, only one in 2002, and none at all during 2003.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 01/2005; 25(12):1042-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four isolates of a rapidly growing Mycobacterium species had a mycolic acid pattern similar to that of Mycobacterium smegmatis, as determined by HPLC analyses. Three of the isolates were from footbath drains and a sink at a nail salon located in Atlanta, GA, USA; the fourth was obtained from a granulomatous subdermal lesion of a female patient in Venezuela who was undergoing mesotherapy. By random amplified polymorphic DNA electrophoresis and PFGE of large restriction fragments, the three isolates from the nail salon were shown to be the same strain but different from the strain from the patient in Venezuela. Polymorphisms in regions of the rpoB, hsp65 and 16S rRNA genes that were shown to be useful for species identification matched for the two strains but were different from those of other Mycobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the strains in a taxonomic group along with Mycobacterium frederiksbergense, Mycobacterium hodleri, Mycobacterium diernhoferi and Mycobacterium neoaurum. The strains produced a pale-yellow pigment when grown in the dark at the optimal temperature of 35 degrees C. Biochemical testing showed that the strains were positive for iron uptake, nitrate reduction and utilization of d-mannitol, d-xylose, iso-myo-inositol, l-arabinose, citrate and d-trehalose. The strains were negative for d-sorbitol utilization and production of niacin and 3-day arylsulfatase, although arylsulfatase activity was observed after 14 days. The isolates grew on MacConkey agar without crystal violet but not on media containing 5 % (w/v) NaCl or at 45 degrees C. They were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole and imipenem. The name Mycobacterium cosmeticum sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; two strains, LTA-388(T) (=ATCC BAA-878(T)=CIP 108170(T)) (the type strain) and 2003-11-06 (=ATCC BAA-879=CIP 108169) have been designated, respectively, for the strains of the patient in Venezuela and from the nail salon in Atlanta, GA, USA.
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 12/2004; 54(Pt 6):2385-91. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From February to October 2003, Mycobacterium goodii wound infections were identified among three patients who received surgical implants at a Colorado hospital. This report summarizes the investigation of the first reported nosocomial outbreak of M. goodii. Increased awareness is needed about the potential for nontuberculous mycobacteria to cause postoperative wound infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated mutations in the genes katG, inhA (regulatory and structural regions), and kasA and the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region of 97 isoniazid (INH)-resistant and 60 INH-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained in two states in Brazil: São Paulo and Paraná. PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was evaluated for screening mutations in regions of prevalence, including codons 315 and 463 of katG, the regulatory region and codons 16 and 94 of inhA, kasA, and the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons was performed for all isolates with altered PCR-SSCP profiles. Mutations in katG were found in 83 (85.6%) of the 97 INH-resistant isolates, including mutations in codon 315 that occurred in 60 (61.9%) of the INH-resistant isolates and 23 previously unreported katG mutations. Mutations in the inhA promoter region occurred in 25 (25.8%) of the INH-resistant isolates; 6.2% of the isolates had inhA structural gene mutations, and 10.3% had mutations in the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region (one, nucleotide -48, previously unreported). Polymorphisms in the kasA gene occurred in both INH-resistant and INH-susceptible isolates. The most frequent polymorphism encoded a G(269)A substitution. Although KatG(315) substitutions are predominant, novel mutations also appear to be responsible for INH resistance in the two states in Brazil. Since ca. 90.7% of the INH-resistant isolates had mutations identified by SSCP electrophoresis, this method may be a useful genotypic screen for INH resistance.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2004; 48(9):3373-81. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to apply temperature-mediated heteroduplex analysis using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to identify pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and simultaneously differentiate between M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Features that contributed to an optimal assay included the use of two different reference probes for the pncA gene targets from wild-type M. tuberculosis and wild-type M. bovis, optimization of the column temperature, increasing the starting concentration of the elution buffer, and reducing the rate of elution buffer increase (slope). A total of 69 strains were studied, including 48 wild-type M. tuberculosis strains (13 were PZA-resistant strains) and 21 M. bovis strains (8 were BCG strains). In all isolates tested, wild-type M. tuberculosis generated a single-peak pattern when mixed with the M. tuberculosis probe and a double-peak pattern with the M. bovis probe. In contrast, all M. bovis isolates generated a double-peak pattern when mixed with the M. tuberculosis probe and a single-peak pattern with the M. bovis probe. PZA-resistant mutant M. tuberculosis isolates generated characteristic patterns that were easily distinguishable from both wild-type M. tuberculosis and M. bovis isolates. Chromatographic patterns generated by the two reference probes allowed the rapid detection of PZA resistance with the simultaneous ability to distinguish between M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This approach may allow the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations, with potential application to clinical and epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis control.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2004; 42(3):1016-23. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Just as tuberculosis has persisted for many centuries as one of most serious and deadly infectious diseases in many parts of the world, so has the motivation to develop improved laboratory methods for characterizing M. tuberculosis isolates. Modern technology has lead to great improvements in mycobacteriology laboratory procedures, particularly in detection, identification, epidemiologic strain typing, and drug susceptibility testing. Although the usefulness of some of these newer methods is under evaluation, many already are showing potential as adjuncts to clinical diagnostic procedures.
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 01/2004; 23(4):801-21. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethionamide (ETH) is a structural analog of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid (INH). Both of these drugs target InhA, an enzyme involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis. INH requires catalase-peroxidase (KatG) activation, and mutations in katG are a major INH resistance mechanism. Recently an enzyme (EthA) capable of activating ETH has been identified. We sequenced the entire ethA structural gene of 41 ETH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. We also sequenced two regions of inhA and all or part of katG. The MICs of ETH and INH were determined in order to associate the mutations identified with a resistance phenotype. Fifteen isolates were found to possess ethA mutations, for all of which the ETH MICs were > or =50 microg/ml. The ethA mutations were all different, previously unreported, and distributed throughout the gene. In eight of the isolates, a missense mutation in the inhA structural gene occurred. The ETH MICs for seven of the InhA mutants were > or =100 microg/ml, and these isolates were also resistant to > or =8 microg of INH per ml. Only a single point mutation in the inhA promoter was identified in 14 isolates. A katG mutation occurred in 15 isolates, for which the INH MICs for all but 1 were > or =32 microg/ml. As expected, we found no association between katG mutation and the level of ETH resistance. Mutations within the ethA and inhA structural genes were associated with relatively high levels of ETH resistance. Approximately 76% of isolates resistant to > or =50 microg of ETH per ml had such mutations.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2003; 47(12):3799-805. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed schemes for rapid identification of Mycobacterium species and strain typing using a microfluidic labchip instrument. A 439-bp region of the gene that codes for the 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65), which has sequence polymorphisms specific for most mycobacterial species, was examined using PCR-restriction analysis (PRA). We performed PRA in duplicate, using 2 strains each of 12 species, and observed that fragment sizes (bp) determined automatically by the instrument were consistently smaller than the correct sizes for each of the species as determined by sequence analysis (mean variance, < 7 bp). Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were typed with the labchip instrument using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, which determines the number of copies of repeated units at 12 loci in the genome based on product size after PCR amplification. Seven strains with one to six repeat copies at each locus were examined. Sizes were smaller by a mean of 13.47 bp compared with correct sizes predicted by sequence analysis, but could be used to correctly identify all strains types. Isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus were typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) electrophoresis, and patterns obtained using the labchip instrument were compared with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) types. Patterns were distinct and reproducible for all strains except those with closely related MEE types. The labchip instrument is a versatile alternative for sizing mycobacterial DNA fragments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of mutations in specific regions of the katG, inhA, and ahpC genes was analyzed with 69 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoniazid-resistant isolates from three Brazilian states. Point mutations in codon 315 of the katG gene were observed in 87.1, 60.9, and 60% of the isolates from Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, respectively. Mutations in the inhA gene were identified only in one isolate from RJ State, and the ahpC promoter region revealed mutations in distinct positions in 12.9, 21.7, and 6.7% of the isolates from RS, RJ and SP, respectively.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2003; 41(9):4471-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacterial species in livestock specimens and milk was evaluated. An emphasis was placed upon the distribution of these organisms in milk that is readily available to the public that was either untreated, pasteurized, or treated using ultra high temperature. Twenty-two pathologic specimens from livestock (bovine, swine and bubaline) in five Brazilian states and 128 bovine milk samples from retail markets in the State of S o Paulo were examined for mycobacteria. Identification was made by classical biochemical tests, thin layer chromatography of mycolic acids and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Mycobacteria were isolated from 15 (68.2%) caseous lesions and from 23 (18%) milk samples. Eleven isolates were identified as M. bovis, and the remaining 27 nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates were represented by five species and six unidentified rapidly growing mycobacterial strains. The data demonstrate that animal products in Brazil are frequent reservoirs of mycobacteria and may pose a risk to the public.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 05/2003; 98(3):319-23. · 1.36 Impact Factor