[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to microbial infection, expression of the defensin-like peptide hepcidin (encoded by Hamp) is induced in hepatocytes to decrease iron release from macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism by which Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), an intramacrophage bacterium, alters host iron metabolism for its own survival, we examined the role of nuclear receptor family members belonging to the NR3B subfamily in mouse hepatocytes. Here, we report that estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ, encoded by Esrrg) modulates the intramacrophage proliferation of S. typhimurium by altering host iron homeostasis, and we demonstrate an antimicrobial effect of an ERRγ inverse agonist. Hepatic ERRγ expression was induced by S. typhimurium-stimulated interleukin-6 signaling, resulting in an induction of hepcidin and eventual hypoferremia in mice. Conversely, ablation of ERRγ mRNA expression in liver attenuated the S. typhimurium-mediated induction of hepcidin and normalized the hypoferremia caused by S. typhimurium infection. An inverse agonist of ERRγ ameliorated S. typhimurium-mediated hypoferremia through reduction of ERRγ-mediated hepcidin mRNA expression and exerted a potent antimicrobial effect on the S. typhimurium infection, thereby improving host survival. Taken together, these findings suggest an alternative approach to control multidrug-resistant intracellular bacteria by modulating host iron homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterolateral fusion (PLF) with an autogenous iliac bone graft is the most common procedure for treating various lumbar spinal diseases. However, the limited success and associated morbidity from an iliac crest graft demands new biologically competent graft enhancers or substitutes.
To investigate the feasibility of tubular mesh container made of bioabsorbable sutures (poly-1,4-dioxane-2-one, PDO) for spinal fusion.
Experimental animal study.
A biodegradable PDO tubular mesh container was used to contain small pieces of bone grafts. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent PLF between L4 and L5 transverse processes with bilateral iliac grafts. Experimental animals were assigned into two different groups: autograft-only group (N=10) that underwent PLF with autograft-only or mesh container group (N=10) that underwent PLF with tubular mesh container filled with autogenous bone grafts. The rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks postoperatively, and the lumbar spines were removed. Spinal fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, microcomputed tomography, three-point bending test, and histological examination.
Solid fusion was achieved in all cases of the mesh container group, whereas the autograft-only group showed 60% of solid fusion. New bone mass was higher and more solidly fused in the mesh container group than the autograft-only group (p<.01). Volume of fusion mass and density of bone were significantly higher in the mesh container group (p<.05). In all cases, inflammatory response was minimal.
This study demonstrated that a tubular mesh container made of bioabsorbable suture is useful to hold small pieces of bone grafts and to enhance spinal fusion.
The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 11/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of recent reports have demonstrated that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium are capable of targeting both primary and metastatic tumors. The use of bacteria as a vehicle for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs requires a mechanism that precisely regulates and visualizes gene expression to ensure the appropriate timing and location of drug production. To integrate these functions into bacteria, we used a repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system, in which the expression of a therapeutic gene and an imaging reporter gene were controlled by divergent promoters (tetAP and tetRP) in response to extracellular tetracycline.Attenuated S.typhimurium was transformed with the expression plasmids encoding cytolysin A, a therapeutic gene, and renilla luciferase variant 8, an imaging reporter gene, and administered intravenously to tumor-bearing mice. The engineered Salmonella successfully localized to tumor tissue and gene expression was dependent on the concentration of inducer, indicating the feasibility of peripheral control of bacterial gene expression. The bioluminescence signal permitted the localization of gene expression from the bacteria. The engineered bacteria significantly suppressed both primary and metastatic tumors and prolonged survival in mice. Thus, engineered bacteria that carry a therapeutic and an imaging reporter gene for targeted anti-cancer therapy can be designed as a theranostic agent.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.183.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven to be a useful approach to studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the proteins whose expression was altered in gingival soft tissue and alveolar bone following tooth extraction. For target identification and validation, hard and soft tissue were extracted from mini-pigs at the indicated times after tooth extraction. From triplicate experiments, 56 proteins in soft tissue and 27 proteins in alveolar bone were found to be differentially expressed before and after tooth extraction. Expression of 21 of those proteins was altered in both soft tissue and bone. Comparison of the activated networks in soft tissue and alveolar bone highlighted their distinct responsibilities in bone and tissue healing. Moreover, we found that there is crosstalk between identified proteins in soft tissue and alveolar bone with respect to cellular assembly, organization and communication. Among these proteins, we examined in detail the expression patterns and associated networks of ATP5B and FN1. ATP5B is involved in nucleic acid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and neurological disease, while fibronectin 1 is involved in cellular assembly and organization and cellular maintenance. Collectively, our findings indicate that bone regeneration is accompanied by a profound interaction among networks regulating cellular resources, and provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in healing of periodontal tissue after tooth extraction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was the immunological characterization of glioblastoma cells. Glioblastoma cell lines were cultured in serum and serum-free neurobasal (NBE) medium conditions. These cell lines were characterized by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and natural killer (NK) cell-cytotoxicity assays. A previously described NK cell expansion method that uses K562 cells expressing interleukin (IL)-15 and 4-1 BB Ligand (BBL) (K562-mb15-41BBL) was used. RT-PCR and western blots for the expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), were carried out in 32 glioblastoma and seven normal brain tissues. U87 and U343 tumor cell lines showed increased expression for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and -II molecules. No significant differences in the levels of CD133, MHC class I/II, MHC class I-related chain A (MICA), MICB, UL16 binding protein 1-3 (ULBP 1-3) expression in these cell lines and in NK cell cytotoxicity were observed between serum and NBE conditions. Regardless of culture conditions, U87 and U343 cell lines were sensitive to expanded NK cells, with median cytotoxicities at 4:1 effector/target ratio of 43.2% and 46.5%, respectively. In RT-PCR, U343 and U87 showed the expression of most TAAs at a high ratio compared with U251. Western blots demonstrated positive expression for BIRC5, CD99 and ERBB2 in U251, U87 and U343 cell lines and tissues. These highly-expressed TAAs such as BIRC5, CD99 and ERBB2 in glioblastoma tissue could be the targets for immunotherapy. U87 and U343 cell lines could be useful for studying the efficacy of immunotherapy related to various TAAs and NK cell immunotherapy.
Anticancer research 06/2013; 33(6):2525-33. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The accumulation of toxic free radicals plays a pivotal role in the early molecular cascades of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation in ischemic stroke. Theoretically, it is expected that early blockade of activation of MMPs may provide protective effects from secondary neural tissue damage. The present study was designed to determine the ability of melatonin to influence MMP-9 activity and BBB disruption, in a focal ischemia rat model induced by photothrombosis. METHODS: Adult, male, 8-week Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-300g received focal cerebral ischemia by photothrombosis using Rose Bengal (RB). The injured animals were divided into two groups. One group received 50mg/kg of melatonin intraperitoneally, starting 1h after injury and at 12h intervals for 3days. The control group received weight-adjusted doses of saline vehicle. In each group, MMP-9 expression and activity were assessed by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, at various times. The effects of melatonin on BBB disruption and brain edema were also determined. RESULTS: MMP-9 activity and expression were significantly elevated at 24h in the ischemic cortex, which remained up-regulated at least until 72h after injury. Melatonin treatment significantly attenuated MMP-9 activity and expression at 24, 48, and 72h after ischemic injury. Relative to control group, BBB permeability was significantly reduced in the melatonin-treated group. The water content was decreased by melatonin treatment, although there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin treatment starting 1h after injury attenuated BBB disruption during focal ischemia, which is at least partly due to inhibition of MMP-9 activity. Melatonin might have a potential role in clinical trials aimed to improve the outcome of patients suffering cerebral ischemia.
Journal of the neurological sciences 10/2012; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiolabeled lipophilic cationic compounds, such as (18)F-labeled phosphonium salt, accumulate in the mitochondria through a negative inner transmembrane potential. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate ((18)F-fluoropentyl)triphenylphosphonium salt ((18)F-FPTP) as a myocardial PET agent. METHODS: A reference compound of (18)F-FPTP was synthesized via 3-step nucleophilic substitution reactions and was radiolabeled via 2-step nucleophilic substitution reactions of no-carrier-added (18)F-fluoride. Accumulations of (18)F-FPTP, (3)H-tetraphenylphosphonium, and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were compared in a cultured embryonic cardiomyoblast cell line (H9c2). The biodistribution of (18)F-FPTP was assessed using BALB/c mice. The (18)F-FPTP small-animal PET study was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with or without left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. RESULTS: (18)F-FPTP was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 15%-20% and radiochemical purity of greater than 98%. Specific activity was greater than 6.3 TBq/μmol. Cell uptake of (18)F-FPTP was more than 15-fold higher in H9c2 than in normal fibroblasts (human normal foreskin fibroblasts). Selective collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential substantially decreased cellular uptake for (18)F-FPTP and (3)H-tetraphenylphosphonium, compared with that for (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The biodistribution data in mice (n = 24) showed rapid blood clearance and high accumulation in the heart. Heart-to-blood ratios at 10 and 30 min were 54 and 133, respectively. Heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver ratios at 10, 30, and 60 min were 4, 4, and 7 and 4, 5, and 7, respectively. Dynamic small-animal PET for 60 min after injection of (18)F-FPTP showed an initial spike of radioactivity, followed by retention in the myocardium and rapid clearance from the background. (18)F-FPTP small-animal PET images in LCA-occluded rats demonstrated sharply defined myocardial defects in the corresponding area of the myocardium. The myocardial defect size measured by (18)F-FPTP small-animal PET correlated closely with the hypoperfused area measured by quantitative 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (r(2) = 0.92, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The excellent pharmacokinetics of (18)F-FPTP and its correlation with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining in normal and LCA-occluded rats suggest that this molecular probe may have a high potential as a mitochondrial voltage sensor for PET. This probe may also allow high throughput, with multiple daily studies and a wide distribution of PET myocardial imaging in the clinic.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2012; · 5.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas are the most malignant tumors of central nervous system neoplasms and are well known for their biological heterogeneity. Contrary to the putative hypothesis of purely glial differentiation in glioblastomas, they often demonstrate immunopositivity for neuronal markers. However, the significance of their neuronal marker expression is still controversial. To evaluate the prognostic implication of neuronal expression in glioblastoma, this study investigated the expression of neuronal markers in a large series of glioblastoma patients in terms of patient survival rate.
Expression of synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and NeuN was explored using immunohistochemistry in 88 cases of glioblastoma. Clinicopathological variables as well as patients' survival data were compared according to the immunopositivity of cases.
Sixty-one of the 88 tumors (69.3 %) were positive for at least one neuronal marker. Synaptophysin positivity was observed in 43 cases (48.9 %). Neurofilament protein and NeuN were positive in 38 (43.2 %) and 42 cases (47.7 %), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival in association with neuronal marker expression. However, gross total removal or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.041 and 0.044). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that NeuN expression was the independent prognostic factors in progression-free survival (P = 0.012).
Although the correlation of neuronal marker expression and clinical outcome in glioblastoma is of considerable interest, the presented data support the limited prognostic value of neuronal marker expression in glioblastoma.
Child s Nervous System 08/2012; 28(11):1879-86. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of bacteria has contributed to recent advances in targeted cancer therapy especially for its tumor-specific accumulation and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events following bacterial therapy using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (ΔppGpp), by analyzing those proteins differentially expressed in tumor tissues from treated and untreated mice. CT26 murine colon cancer cells were implanted in BALB/c mice and allowed to form tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium. Tumor tissues were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed that cytoskeletal components, including vimentin, drebrin-like protein, and tropomyosin-alpha 3, were decreased while serum proteins related to heme or iron metabolism, including transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin were increased. Subsequent studies revealed that the decrease in cytoskeletal components occurred at the transcriptional level and that the increase in heme and iron metabolism proteins occurred in liver. Most interestingly, the same pattern of increased expression of transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin was observed following radiotherapy at the dosage of 14 Gy.
The Journal of Microbiology 06/2012; 50(3):502-10. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used label-free quantitative proteomics with the insoluble fractions from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to gain further insight into the utility of profiling altered protein expression as a potential biomarker for cancer. The insoluble fractions were prepared from paired tumor/normal biopsies from 13 patients diagnosed with CRC (stages I to IV). Fifty-six proteins identified in data pooled from the 13 cases were differentially expressed between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. The connections between these proteins are involved in reciprocal networks related to tumorigenesis, cancer incidence based on genetic disorder, and skeletal and muscular disorders. To assess their potential utility as biomarkers, the relative expression levels of the proteins were validated using personal proteomics and a heat map to compare five individual CRC samples with five normal tissue samples. Further validation of a panel of proteins (KRT5, JUP, TUBB, and COL6A1) using western blotting confirmed the differential expression. These proteins gave specific network information for CRC, and yielded a panel of novel markers and potential targets for treatment. It is anticipated that the experimental approach described here will increase our understanding of the membrane environment in CRC, which may provide direction for making diagnoses and prognoses through molecular biomarker targeting.
Journal of proteomics 04/2012; 75(12):3639-53. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To obtain more representative biopsy specimens in glioblastoma, we performed multiple stereotactic biopsies of active tumor and necrosis. We investigated their pathologic differences of diagnosis and also examined the pathologic features that varied with 11C-methionine uptake on PET. From December 2009 to October 2010, we performed stereotactic biopsies in 12 patients with radiologically heterogeneous, ring-enhanced lesions. We biopsied the MR enhanced lesions for active tumor and the MR non-enhanced lesions for necrosis and analyzed differences of pathologic diagnoses between them. As correlating factors of the degree of 11C-methionine uptake (T/N ratio), the pathologic findings, including cell density, Ki‑67 LI, microvessel density, number of endothelial proliferations, the immunopositivity for L-amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) were analyzed. The final diagnosis of each specimen was glio-blastoma. The diagnostic failure rate was 33.3% (4/12 patients) when we selected only active tumors and 40% (4/10 patients) when we selected necrotic lesions. The T/N ratio showed a statistical correlation with cell density depending on the degree of necrosis and LAT1 immunopositivity (P=0.002 and 0.032). LAT1 was localized in the tumor cells, vascular endothelium, and the vicinity of endothelial proliferation. Multiple stereotactic biopsies of active tumor and necrosis could provide the diagnostic yield in glioblastoma. The 11C-methionine uptake mostly reflected cell densities depending on the degree of necrosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here one case of rapid and aggressive course of cerebral metastatic angiosarcoma from the heart. A 36-year-old man presented with 10-days history of headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated subacute hemorrhage with a small region of enhancement in right parietal region and the pathological diagnosis was angiosarcoma. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated 3.2×3 cm sized mass on right atrial wall. Newly developed lesion was reoperated, three and four weeks later respectively, and whole brain radiotherapy of total 30 Gy was done. With the interval of two months, gamma knife surgery was done for new lesions two times, which were well controlled. Newly developed lesions rapidly happened even in the adjuvant treatment. He died 9 months after the diagnosis because of the aggravation of primary cancer. The cerebral metastatic angiosarcoma from the heart showed the rapid aggressive behavior and the closed follow-up could be needed for the adjuvant treatment.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 01/2012; 51(1):47-50. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic implication of cancer stem cell markers in pancreac ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the expression of CD133 and nestin were investigated in a series of PDAC patients in relation to the survival rate.
This series included 42 cases of PDAC patients and evaluated the stem cell markers CD133 and nestin expression detected by immunohistochemistry. The presence of immunopositive tumor cells considering intensity and area was evaluated and interpreted in comparison to the patients' clinicopathological and survival data.
Twenty eight cases (66.7%) showed high CD133 expression. The CD133 expression was mainly identified in the apical border of the tumor cell, but aberrant expression in the cytoplasmic or perinuclear location was also noted. High nestin expression in tumor cells were found in only 2 cases, but high nestin expression along perinuerial or stromal region was found in 15 cases (35.7%). There was no correlation between CD133, nestin expression and gemcitabine resistance. Statistically significant difference was found in patient survival in N stage (p=0.007), and CD133 expression (p= 0.014) in univariate analysis. Nestin expression wan not statistically significant, but it was helpful to identify the perineurial invasion. In Cox-regression hazard model stratified by age and sex for multivariable analysis, AJCC stage and CD133 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
CD133 expression is upregulated in PDAC that is related to poor prognosis, and treatment targeted the CD133 positive cancer/cancer stem cells might be a promising therapeutic strategy for this patients.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2012; 5(8):754-61. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis after global or focal cerebral ischemia plays a crucial role in mediating cell death. In this study, we observed the time point expression of physiologic events involving apoptosis regulatory proteins after photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Protein expression was evaluated at days 1, 3, and 7 by Western blot. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) activity markedly increased in the ischemic hemisphere in a time-dependent manner, not affected. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 was dramatically changed around day 3, whereas changes in pAkt expression occurred at day 1. Differential elevation of these apoptosis regulatory proteins at various time points indicates that different modes of cell death occur in photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in a rat brain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the migration of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) toward an infarct lesion in a photo-thrombotic stroke model. The lesions produced by using rose bengal dye (20 mg/kg) with cold light in the motor cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats were also evaluated with sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 30 minutes through 8 weeks. Migration of NSCs was identified by immunohistochemistry for nestin monoclonal antibody in the lesion cortex, subventricular zone (SVZ), and corpus callosum (CC). The contrast to noncontrast ratio (CNR) on MRI was greatest at 12 hours in DWI and decreased over time. By contrast, T1-weighted and T2-weighted images showed a constant CNR from the beginning through 8 weeks. MRI of the lesional cortex correlated with histopathologic findings, which could be divided into three stages: acute (edema and necrosis) within 24 hours, subacute (acute and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration) at 2 to 7 days, and chronic (gliofibrosis) at 2 to 4 weeks. The volume of the infarct was significantly reduced by reparative gliofibrosis. The number of nestin(+) NSCs in the contralateral SVZ was similar to that of the ipsilateral SVZ in each group. However, the number of nestin(+) NSCs in the ipsilateral cortex and CC increased at 12 hours to 3 days compared with the contralateral side (p<0.01) and was reduced significantly by 7 days (p<0.01). Active emigration of internal NSCs from the SVZ toward the infarct lesion may also contribute to decreased volume of the infarct lesion, but the self-repair mechanism by endogenous NSCs is insufficient to treat stroke causing extensive neuronal death. Further studies should be focused on amplification technologies of NSCs to enhance the collection of endogenous or transplanted NSCs for the treatment of stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimization of the specific affinity of cardiac delivery vector could significantly improve the efficiency of gene/protein delivery, yet no cardiac vectors to date have sufficient target specificity for myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we explored bacterial tropism for infarcted myocardium based on our previous observations that certain bacteria are capable of targeting the hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Out of several Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium strains, the S. typhimurium defective in the synthesis of ppGpp (ΔppGpp S. typhimurium) revealed accumulation and selective proliferation in the infarcted myocardium without spillover to noncardiac tissue. The Salmonellae that were engineered to express a variant of Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc8), under the control of the E. coli arabinose operon promoter (P(BAD)), selectively targeted and delivered RLuc8 in the infarcted myocardium only upon injection of L-arabinose. An examination of the infarct size before and after infection, and estimations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin indicated that intravenous injection of ΔppGpp S. typhimurium did not induce serious local or systemic immune reactions. This current proof-of-principle study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of Salmonellae to target infarcted myocardium and to serve as a vehicle for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents in MI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Rabbits were randomly assigned to one of seven groups: saline only, UTI, LPS, pre- or post-UTI-high (infusion of UTI of 25,000 U/kg followed by 25,000 U/kg over 2 h), pre- or post-UTI-low (infusion of UTI of 2,500 U/kg followed by 2,500 U/kg over 2 h). UTI was administered 30 min before (pre-groups) or 15 min after (post-groups) LPS administration. Rabbits were mechanically ventilated with 40% oxygen for 6 h. LPS decreased peripheral blood leukocyte counts and increased wet/dry weight ratio of lung, lung injury score, neutrophil infiltration in lung, and IL-8 production in systemic blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Rabbits treated by UTI were protected from LPS-induced lung injury, as determined by wet/dry weight ratio, neutrophil infiltration in lung, lung injury score, and IL-8 in BALF levels. UTI attenuated LPS-induced acute lung injury in rabbits mainly by inhibiting neutrophil and IL-8 responses, which may play a central role in sepsis-related lung injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nogo-A belongs to the reticulon protein family and is expressed in the inner and outer loops of myelin sheaths of oligodendrocytes. We analyzed the patterns of Nogo-A expression in human gliomas in an effort to identify a useful marker for the characterization of oligodendroglial tumors. We determined the expression of Nogo-A in a panel of 58 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors using immunohistochemistry and compared the expression of Nogo-A with Olig-2, a recently identified marker for oligodendrogliomas. To localize Nogo-A expression, immunofluorescent staining was performed using other glial markers (MAP-2 and GFAP). We also confirmed the overexpression of the Nogo-A protein in 53 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors using Western blot analysis. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, Nogo-A and Olig-2 had specificity in the detection of oligodendroglial tumors from astrocytic tumors (P=0.001). The level of Nogo-A staining was highly correlated with Olig-2 (P=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of Nogo-A for oligodendroglial tumors was 86.9% and 57.1%, respectively. Nogo-A expression overlapped that of other oligodendroglial markers, but with different patterns of expression. Western blot analysis revealed that Nogo-A is predominantly expressed in 85.7% of oligodendroglioma cells and 93.7% of anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells. Like other oligodendroglial markers, Nogo-A is highly expressed in oligodendroglial tumors; however, it does not serve as a definite marker specific for oligodendroglial tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dysgenetic syndrome involved in multiple organs, and the pathognomonic cortical tuber act as an epileptic substrate. The amino acid transport system L (LAT) is a major nutrient transport system, and LAT1 is highly expressed in malignant tumors to support tumor cell growth. To study the life-long epilepsy from the cortical tuber, the expression of LAT1 in balloon cells and dysplastic neurons of the cortical tuber is investigated.
LAT1 expression was investigated by LAT1 mRNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining with anti-human LAT1 antibody in nine patients with TSC and three control brains.
LAT1 mRNA was detectable only in fresh-frozen tissues of TSC, and it was upregulated in the cortical tuber lesion. While the LAT1 immunopositivity of control brains was limited in the capillary endothelial cells in the gray matter, increased LAT1 immunopositivity was noted in balloon cells of the cortical tubers in addition to the capillary endothelial cells as shown in control brains. Linear and strong immunopositivity along the cell membrane and cytoplasm of the balloon cells, and weakly granular immunopositivity in their cytoplasm were noted. Increased expression of LAT1 in the balloon cells is important for the active transport of large neutral amino acids into the balloon cells, and that the biologic process may play an important role in the active protein synthesis with metabolic maintenance of balloon cells in cortical tubers of patients with TSC.
Child s Nervous System 01/2011; 27(1):63-70. · 1.24 Impact Factor