J Balmer

Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (29)72.58 Total impact

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    James Balmer, Steve Bird, Richard Davison
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed age-related changes in indoor 16.1-km cycling time-trial performance in 40 competitive male cyclists aged 25-63 years. Participants completed two tests: (1) a maximal ramped Kingcycle ergometer test, with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest mean external power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats min(-1)) as the highest value during the test; and (2) an indoor Kingcycle 16.1-km time-trial with mean external power output (W), heart rate (beats min(-1)), and pedal cadence (rev min(-1)) recorded throughout the event. Results revealed age-related declines (P < 0.05) in absolute and relative time-trial external power output [(24 W (7.0%) per decade], heart rate [7 beats min(-1) (3.87%) per decade], and cadence [3 rev min(-1) (3.1%) per decade]. No relationships (P > 0.05) were observed for mean power output and heart rate recorded during the time-trial versus age when expressed relative to maximal ramped minute power and maximal heart rate respectively. Strong relationships (P < 0.05) were observed for maximal ramped minute power and time-trial power (r= 0.95) and for maximal heart rate and time-trial heart rate (r= 0.95). Our results show that indoor 16.1-km time-trial performance declines with age but relative exercise intensity (%RMPmax and %HRmax) does not change.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 02/2008; 26(1):57-62. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed the performance of trained senior (n = 6) and veteran (n = 6) cyclists (mean age 28 years, s = 3 and 57 years, s = 4 respectively). Each competitor completed two cycling tests, a ramped peak aerobic test and an indoor 16.1-km time-trial. The tests were performed using a Kingcycle ergometer with the cyclists riding their own bicycle fitted with an SRM powermeter. Power output, heart rate, and gas exchange variables were recorded continuously and blood lactate concentration [HLa] was assessed 3 min after the peak ramped test and at 2.5-min intervals during the time-trial. Peak values for power output (RMP(max)), heart rate (HR(peak)), oxygen uptake (VO2(peak)), and ventilation (V(Epeak)) attained during the ramped test were higher in the senior group (P < 0.05), whereas [HLa](peak), RER(peak), V(E): VO2(peak), and economy(peak) were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Time-trial values (mean for duration of race) for power output (W(TT)), heart rate (HR(TT)), VO2 (VO(2TT)), and V(E) (V(ETT)) were higher in the seniors (P < 0.05), but [HLa](TT), RER(TT), V(ETT): VO2(TT), and economy(TT) were similar between the groups (P > 0.05). Time-trial exercise intensity, expressed as %RMP(max), %HR(peak), % VO2(peak), and % V(Epeak), was similar (P > 0.05) for seniors and veterans (W(TT): 81%, s = 2 vs. 78%, s = 8; HR(TT): 96%, s = 4 vs. 94%, s = 4; VO2(TT): 92%, s = 4 vs. 95%, s = 10; V(ETT): 89%, s = 8 vs. 85%, s = 8, respectively). Overall, seniors attained higher absolute values for power output, heart rate, VO2, and V(E) but not blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), V(E): VO2, and economy. Veterans did not accommodate age-related declines in time trial performance by maintaining higher relative exercise intensity.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 01/2008; 26(2):197-206. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • World Commission of Science & Sports, 01/2008; CRC Press.
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    ABSTRACT: Sprint tests are frequently used to evaluate between-subject differences and can provide a valuable insight into performance capacity. The present study determined the reproducibility of peak and mean power output during upper-body sprints. After familiarization 25 men (mean [+/- SD] age 29 [6] years, body mass 82.8 [12.7] kg and height 1.76 [0.05] m) completed 2 20-second upper-body sprint tests using an adapted cycle ergometer. Mean (+/- SD) values of all power (uncorrected and corrected) measurements achieved during the 2 tests were checked for systematic bias using separate paired t-tests. Test-retest reproducibility was examined using coefficients of variation and single-measure intraclass correlation coefficients, as well as an assessment of the typical (random) error and the 95% limits of agreement. The value of corrected peak power (628 [167] W) was higher (p < 0.05) compared with the uncorrected value (509 [109] W). Values of corrected (465 [95] W) and uncorrected (444 [87] W) mean power were similar (p > 0.05). The mean bias value for all power parameters equated to less than +/-1% of the absolute values of power measured. Intraclass correlation coefficients for all data sets ranged from 0.97 to 0.98. Coefficients of variation for uncorrected and corrected values of peak power were 2.8 and 4.5%, while corresponding values for mean power were 2.9 and 3.2%, respectively. The reproducibility of all power indices was below 5%. The results of this study indicate that both uncorrected and corrected measurements of peak power output and mean power output can be used to assess performance during sprint arm ergometry.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12/2007; 21(4):1315-9. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether indices of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to quality of life (QOL) in women survivors of breast cancer. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30 questionnaire, we assessed the QOL of 16 participants (age, 50 +/- 9 years; body mass, 66.6 +/- 9.6 kg). All participants performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to determine several indices of cardiorespiratory fitness (e.g., peak oxygen uptake [.V(O2)peak, in L.min(-1), ml.kg(-1).min(-1)]), peak power output (PPO, in W), PPO/ body mass (W.kg(-1), peak heart rate (HRpeak, b.min(-1), peak ventilation (VEpeak), and .V(O2) and heart rate (HR) at the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds. Relationships between QOL and variables were assessed using Spearman rank-difference correlation tests. A significant inverse relationship (p < 0.05) was found for QOL scores and values for age (years) and body mass (kg) ( = -0.53), %HRpeak@VT ( = -0.59) and %VEpeak@VT ( = -0.61). A significant positive relationship (p < 0.05) was found for QOL and PPO/body mass ( = 0.59) and HRpeak ( = 0.78), .V(O2)@RCT (ml.kg(-1.min(-1) ( = 0.51), power output (PO, expressed as either W or W.kg(-1) at RCT, and HR at RCT ( = 0.54). No other significant relationship was found between QOL and variables obtained from the tests. In conclusion, these findings highlight possible relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and well-being in survivors of breast cancer. From a practical point of view, our data emphasize the need for this population to engage in programmed cardiorespiratory exercise training, mainly designed to improve VT and RCT. The improvement of both submaximal indices can have a beneficial effect on QOL.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2006; 20(3):535-40. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether indices of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to quality of life (QOL) in women survivors of breast cancer. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30 questionnaire, we assessed the QOL of 16 participants (age, 50 +/- 9 years; body mass, 66.6 +/- 9.6 kg). All participants performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to determine several indices of cardiorespiratory fitness (e.g., peak oxygen uptake [.V(O2)peak, in L.min(-1), ml.kg(-1).min(-1)]), peak power output (PPO, in W), PPO/ body mass (W.kg(-1), peak heart rate (HRpeak, b.min(-1), peak ventilation (VEpeak), and .V(O2) and heart rate (HR) at the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds. Relationships between QOL and variables were assessed using Spearman rank-difference correlation tests. A significant inverse relationship (p < 0.05) was found for QOL scores and values for age (years) and body mass (kg) ( = -0.53), %HRpeak@VT ( = -0.59) and %VEpeak@VT ( = -0.61). A significant positive relationship (p < 0.05) was found for QOL and PPO/body mass ( = 0.59) and HRpeak ( = 0.78), .V(O2)@RCT (ml.kg(-1.min(-1) ( = 0.51), power output (PO, expressed as either W or W.kg(-1) at RCT, and HR at RCT ( = 0.54). No other significant relationship was found between QOL and variables obtained from the tests. In conclusion, these findings highlight possible relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and well-being in survivors of breast cancer. From a practical point of view, our data emphasize the need for this population to engage in programmed cardiorespiratory exercise training, mainly designed to improve VT and RCT. The improvement of both submaximal indices can have a beneficial effect on QOL.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 08/2006; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2006; 27(7):573-80. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 07/2006; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed age-related changes in power and heart rate in 114 competitive male cyclists age 15-73 years. Participants completed a maximal Kingcycle ergometer test with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest average power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats/min) as the highest value during the test. From age 15 to 29 (n = 38) RMPmax increased by 7.2 W/year (r = .53, SE 49 W, p < .05). From age 30 to 73 (n = 78) RMPmax declined by 2.4 W/year (r = - .49, SE 49 W, p < .05). Heart rate decreased across the full age range by 0.66 beats . min( -1 ) . year( -1 ) (r = -.75, SE 9 beats/min, p < .05). Age accounted for only 25% of the variance in RMPmax but 56% in HRmax. RMPmax was shown to peak at age 30, then decline with age, whereas HRmax declined across the full age range.
    Journal of aging and physical activity 02/2005; 13(1):75-86. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms of actual racing, of the new system, commonly used indicators of endurance cycling performance do not seem to be improved with the Rotor in trained cyclists.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2004; 25(7):479-85. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed the agreement between the powers recorded during a 30 s upper-body Wingate test using three different methods. Fifty-six men completed a single test on a Monark 814E mechanically braked ergometer fitted with a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) powermeter. A commercial software package (Wingate test kit version 2.21, Cranlea, UK) was used to calculate conventional and corrected (with accelerative forces) values of power based on a resistive load (5% body mass) and flywheel velocity. The SRM calculated powers based on torque (measured at the crank arm) and crank rate. Values for peak 1 and 5 s power and mean 30 s power were measured. No significant differences (P >0.05) were found between the three methods for 30 s power values. However, the corrected values for peak 1 and 5 s power were 36 and 23% higher (P <0.05) respectively than those for the conventional method, and 27 and 16% higher (P <0.05) respectively than those for the SRM method. The conventional and SRM values for peak 1 and 5 s power were similar (P >0.05). Power values recorded using each method were influenced by sample time (P <0.05). Our results suggest that these three measures of power are similar when sampled over 30 s, but discrepancies occur when the sample time is reduced to either 1 or 5 s.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 07/2004; 22(7):661-7. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most fitness assessments either use a constant load to exhaustion (exercise capacity test) or an "all-out" effort (performance test). The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a high-intensity assessment that combined a constant load element with a performance test. Ten moderately trained male cyclists completed a ramp test to voluntary exhaustion in order to measure maximum minute power output (mean +/- s, 349.3 w +/- 55.0 w). On two other occasions subjects cycled at a constant load at maximum minute power output for 2-min immediately followed by a 1-min performance test. All tests were conducted on the subjects' own bicycles using a Kingcycle trade mark test rig. Power output was measured each second using SRM trade mark Power Cranks. The data were analysed by measuring the reliability of each 30 s of the 3-min test together with the peak power and the peak cadence achieved in the performance element of the test. There was no systematic bias in the data from trial 1 to trial 2 for any of the 6, 30 s blocks of the test, the peak power (mean, 95 % CI, 413.8 w, 357.8 - 469.7 w and 403.8 w, 339.9 - 467.6 w, trial 1 and trial 2, respectively) or peak cadence (95.0 rev x min(-1), 89.5 - 100.5 rev x min(-1) and 95.1 rev x min(-1), 90.0 - 100.1 rev x min(-1), trial 1 and trial 2, respectively). Mean (+/- s) total distance over the 3-min was 2.23 +/- 0.23 km and 2.26 +/- 0.26 km for trial 1 and trial 2 respectively (p > 0.05). The coefficients of variation ranged from 0.9 - 5.4 % and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.96 - 0.99. It is concluded that in moderately trained subjects, the 3-min combination test provides reliable data and could therefore be used for short-term, high-intensity cycling intervention studies.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 07/2003; 24(5):366-71. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23-67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24-67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a race recognised by the British Orienteering Federation. Peak heart rate (HR(PEAK)), mean heart rate (HR(MEAN)), standard deviation of her heart rate during each orienteering race (HR(SD)), and mean change in heart rate at each control point (DeltaHR(CONTROL)) were identified. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. National standard orienteers displayed a lower within orienteering race standard deviation in heart rate (6 (2) v 12 (2) beats/min, p<0.001) and a lower DeltaHR(CONTROL) (5 (1) v 17 (4) beats/min, p<0.001). The mean heart rate during competition was higher in the national standard group (170 (11) v 158 (11) beats/min, p = 0.025). The HR(MEAN) for the national and club standard groups were 99 (8)% and 88 (9)% of their age predicted maximum heart rate (220-age) respectively. All orienteers aged >55 years (n = 4) recorded HR(MEAN) greater than their age predicted maximum. The heart rate responses indicate that national and club standard women orienteers of all ages participate in the sport at a vigorous intensity. The higher DeltaHR(CONTROL) of club standard orienteers is probably due to failing to plan ahead before arriving at the controls and this, coupled with slowing down to navigate or relocate when lost, produced a higher HR(SD).
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2003; 37(3):254-7. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P < 0.001) for mean heart rate. Mean heart rates were 86 +/- 6% of the participants' maximal heart rates and were not associated with age. The orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P < 0.005) within-race standard deviation in heart rate (6 +/- 2 beats x min(-1)) than those in groups 2 and 3 (10 +/- 3 and 10 +/- 4 beats x min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the mean heart rates indicated that all three groups of orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 03/2003; 21(3):221-8. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/2003; 35. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Davison RCR, Balmer J, Bird SR
    Kinanthropometry VIII, 01/2003: pages 45-54; Routledge., ISBN: 0-415-28969-6
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of different lactate elevation protocols on the determination of the lactate minimum (Lac(min)) point. Eight highly trained racing cyclists each completed four continuous ramp lactate minimum tests using the following blood lactate elevation protocols: 1) continuous ramp maximal aerobic power (RMP(max)) assessment, 2) 30-s maximal sprint, 3) 40-s maximal sprint, and 4) two 20-s maximal sprints separated by a 1-min recovery. Each blood lactate elevation protocol was followed by a 5-min active recovery leading into a continuous ramp test commencing at a power of 60% of RMP(max), using a 6 W x min ramp rate, lasting 15 min. Peak [La](b) values were significantly higher (P > 0.05) after the RMP(max) compared with all other protocols and higher in the 40-s versus 30-s sprint. However, by the start of Lac(min) ramp, [La](b) after the RMP(max) was no longer higher than the 40-s sprint, but Lac(min) [La](b) was similar for all protocols. This resulted in no differences in the total decline of [La](b) measured as a percentage from the highest to the lowest value. At Lac(min) point, there were no significant differences in power (P > 0.05), but heart rate was higher in the RMP versus 2 x 20 s and VO(2) was significantly higher after the 40 s compared with the 2 x 20 s protocol. This study demonstrated that the determination of lactate minimum power in cycling is not dependent upon the lactate elevation protocol.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 11/2002; 34(11):1744-9. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Journal of aging and physical activity 01/2002; 10(10):119-131. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two protocols were used to assess the reliability (Protocol 1) and validity (Protocol 2) of expansive force measured using a new hand-held dynamometer (model TSD121C). In Protocol 1 the dynamometer was calibrated at zero and spanned with a measured mass of 89.36 kg. Measured masses of 79.42, 49.41, 29.67 and 9.59 kg were suspended from the dynamometer and the values recorded. This loading procedure was repeated eight times per test, with the protocol being repeated on three separate occasions. For Protocol 2, the dynamometer was calibrated at zero and spanned with a measured mass of 9.59 kg. Measured masses of 9.59, 29.67, 49.41 and 79.42 kg were then suspended from the dynamometer and the values recorded. This loading procedure was repeated two more times. The entire procedure was then performed using different span masses of 29.67, 49.41, and 89.37 kg. Protocol 2 was then repeated on two further occasions.For Protocol 1, mean coefficients of variation (CV%) ranged from 0.4 to 0.8, whilst estimated confidence intervals (95% CI) for CV% did not exceed 1.2%. This showed that measurements of known actual mass using the new dynamometer were highly reproducible. Calculation of absolute and ratio 95% limits of agreement for data obtained in Protocol 2 showed that using a span mass of 0–29.67 kg provided the most accurate agreement between measured and actual values across the range of masses used in this investigation (bias of 0.99 and random error of ×/÷ 1.04). However, investigators should be aware of a random error of approximately 4% based on the limits of agreement.
    Sports Engineering 12/2001; 4(3):147 - 152.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess reliability of both indoor and outdoor 40 km time-trial cycling performance. Eight trained cyclists completed three indoor 40 km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer (Kingcycle) and three outdoor 40 km time-trials on a local course. Power output was measured for all trials using the SRM powermeter. Mean performance time across three indoor trials was 54.21 +/- 2.59 (min:sec) and was significantly different (P<0.05) to mean time across three outdoor trials (57.29 +/- 3.22 min:sec). However, there was no significant difference (P = 0.34) for mean power across three indoor trials (303+/-35W) when compared to outdoor performances (312 +/- 23 W). Within-subject variation for mean power output expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) improved in both indoors and outdoors for trials 2 and 3 (CV = 1.9%, 95% CI 1.0 - 3.4 and CV = 2.1 %, 95 % CI 1.1 - 3.8) when compared to trials 1 and 2 (CV=2.1%, 95% CI 1.2-3.8 and CV=2.4%, 95% CI 1.3-4.3). These findings indicate that power output measured using the SRM powermeter is highly reproducible for both laboratory-based and actual 40 km time-trial cycling performance.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2001; 22(4):270-4. · 2.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

313 Citations
72.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2008
    • Liverpool Hope University
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    • Victoria University Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007
    • University of Greenwich
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • European University of Madrid
      • School of Sports Science
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2000–2001
    • Canterbury Christ Church University
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom