[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strains responsible for acute hepatitis B infections (AHB) in France have not been characterized. This study was first designed to analyze the molecular epidemiology of AHB and second to describe the differences between AHB and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exacerbations.
This prospective study was based on the French mandatory notification system for AHB. 147 samples corresponding to declared cases were shipped to a central laboratory for classification as AHB or CHB according to the level of anti-HBc IgM and anti-HBc avidity.
Based on biological marker values and file examination, 75 cases (59%) were classified as AHB. Independently of the acute or chronic status, genotype A (57%), D (22%) and E (14%) were the most prevalent and no phylogenetic clustering was observed among HBV sequences (n=68). Precore or basal core-promoter variants were not particularly associated with disease severity but were more prevalent in CHB. No antiviral resistant strains or immune-escape HBsAg was observed. HBV viral loads in AHB or CHB were comparable but with opposite distributions. ALT levels reached 10 times the upper normal value in 94% of AHB but only in 24% of CHB.
After rigorous classification, no major difference at the genetic level was found between HBV strains isolated from AHB and CHB. Absence of potentially deleterious variant detection is reassuring. When based upon HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM determination, AHB notification may falsely include more than 40% CHB, leading to an important risk of bias in national surveillance programs of AHB.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75267. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS: With 10% of the general population aged 15-59 years chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), Egypt is the country with the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are therefore at particularly high risk of HCV infection. Our aim was to study HCV infection risk after occupational blood exposure among HCWs in Cairo. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was conducted in 2008-2010 at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo. HCWs reporting an occupational blood exposure at screening, having neither anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) nor HCV RNA, and exposed to a HCV RNA positive patient, were enrolled in a 6-month prospective cohort with follow-up visits at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24. During follow-up, anti-HCV, HCV RNA and ALT were tested. Among 597 HCWs who reported a blood exposure, anti-HCV prevalence at screening was 7.2%, not different from that of the general population of Cairo after age-standardization (11.6% and 10.4% respectively, p = 0.62). The proportion of HCV viremia among index patients was 37%. Of 73 HCWs exposed to HCV RNA from index patients, nine (12.3%; 95%CI, 5.8-22.1%) presented transient viremia, the majority of which occurred within the first two weeks after exposure. None of the workers presented seroconversion or elevation of ALT. CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: HCWs of a general University hospital in Cairo were exposed to a highly viremic patient population. They experienced frequent occupational blood exposures, particularly in early stages of training. These exposures resulted in transient viremic episodes without established infection. These findings call for further investigation of potential immune protection against HCV persistence in this high risk group.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57835. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 982-988 ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo. Patients with acute hepatitis E were identified through a surveillance of acute hepatitis using the following definition: recent (<3 weeks) onset of fever or jaundice, alanine aminotransferase at least three times the upper limit of normal (uln), negative markers for other causes of viral hepatitis and detectable hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. Comparison of the liver tests between acute hepatitis E and hepatitis A virus (HAV), case-control analysis (four sex-matched and age-matched (±1 year) HAV controls per case) to explore risk factors and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 17 acute HEV patients identified between 2002 and 2007, 14 were male. Median age was 16 years (interquartile range 13-22). Compared with HAV (n = 68 sex-matched and ±1 year age-matched), HEV patients had higher bilirubin (mean (SD) 10.9 (5.7) uln versus 7.5 (4.4) uln, p 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (38.6 (27.1) uln versus 18.3 (18.1) uln, p 0.02). Co-infection (hepatitis C virus RNA or hepatitis B surface (HBs) -antigen positive/IgM anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) anitgen negative) was diagnosed in four patients. In univariate matched analysis (17 cases, 68 matched controls), HEV cases were more likely to live in a rural area than HAV controls (matched OR 7.9; 95% CI 2.0-30.4). Of the 16 isolates confirmed as genotype 1, 15 belonged to the same cluster with 94-98.5% identity in the open-reading frame 2 region. Our findings documented the sporadic nature of HEV in Greater Cairo, characterized a large number of Egyptian HEV genotype 1 strains and identified living in a rural area as a potential risk factor for infection.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2011; 18(10):982-988. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause, respectively, 600,000 and 350,000 deaths each year. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, which in turn ranks as the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Within the WHO European region, approximately 14 million people are chronically infected with HBV, and nine million people are chronically infected with HCV. Lack of reliable epidemiological data on HBV and HCV is one of the biggest hurdles to advancing policy. Risk groups such as migrants and injecting drug users (IDU) tend to be under-represented in existing prevalence studies; thus, targeted surveillance is urgently needed to correctly estimate the burden of HBV and HCV. The most effective means of prevention against HBV is vaccination, and most European Union (EU) countries have universal vaccination programmes. For both HBV and HCV, screening of individuals who present a high risk of contracting the virus is critical given the asymptomatic, and thereby silent, nature of disease. Screening of migrants and IDUs has been shown to be effective and potentially cost-effective. There have been significant advances in the treatment of HCV and HBV in recent years, but health care professionals remain poorly aware of treatment options. Greater professional training is needed on the management of hepatitis including the treatment of liver cancer to encourage adherence to guidelines and offer patients the best possible outcomes. Viral hepatitis knows no borders. EU Member States, guided by the EU, need to work in a concerted manner to implement lasting, effective policies and programmes and make tackling viral hepatitis a public health priority.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elastometry has demonstrated good accuracy, but little is known about its reproducibility. The aim of this study was to assess the intra- and inter-operator reproducibility of liver stiffness measurement among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients in Egypt. The study was conducted among HCV-infected patients referred for treatment evaluation in two hepatitis treatment centres of Cairo. Two operators took liver stiffness measurement two times per patient the same day. Intra- and inter-reproducibility were estimated by different methods: Bland and Altman graphics, variation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient; 7.1 kPa was used as the threshold of significant (≥F2) fibrosis whenever needed. Fifty-eight patients were included in the study, and 216 measurements were taken. Failure rate was 7% and associated with overweight. For a value of 7.1 kPa, the inter-operator 95% limits of agreement were estimated at ±2.88 kPa. Intra- and inter-operator coefficients of variation ranged between 11% and 15%, intraclass correlation coefficients [95% confidence interval] between 0.94 [0.86-0.97] and 0.97 [0.95-0.99], and Kappa coefficients between 0.65 [0.44-0.88] and 0.92 [0.81-1.00]. The reliability of liver stiffness measurement is questionable when considering the decision to initiate antiviral therapy because of the percentage of discordance between measurements is notable, especially in the intermediate fibrosis stages.
Journal of Viral Hepatitis 07/2011; 18(7):e358-65. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three pathogens account for most cases of occupationally acquired blood-borne infection: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The highest proportion of occupational transmission is due to percutaneous injury (PI) via hollow-bore needles with vascular access. We briefly review prevention and management of blood-borne pathogens in health care workers (HCWs) in developed countries. HCW compliance with standard precautions is necessary for prevention of PI. Safety-engineered devices are now being increasingly promoted as an approach to decreasing the rate of PI. Prevention of HBV transmission requires HCW immunization through vaccination against HBV. In non-vaccinated HCWs (or HCWs with an unknown antibody response to vaccination) exposed to an HbsAg-positive or an untested source patient, post-exposure prophylaxis with HBV vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or both must be started as soon as possible. Although no available prophylaxis exists for HCV, it is crucial to identify HCV exposure and infection in health care settings and to consequently propose early treatment when transmission occurs. Following occupational exposure with potential for HIV transmission, use of antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis must be evaluated. Patients need to be protected from blood-borne pathogen-infected HCWs, and especially surgeons performing exposure-prone procedures (EPPs) with risk of transmission to the patient. However, HCWs not performing EPPs should be protected from arbitrary administrative decisions that would restrict their practice rights. Finally, it must be emphasized that occupational blood exposure is of great concern in developing countries, with higher risk of exposure to blood-borne viruses because of a higher prevalence of the latter than in developed countries, re-use of needles and syringes and greater risk of sustaining PI, since injection routes are more frequently used for drug administration than in developed countries.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2011; 52(1):4-10. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HEPAIG study was conducted to better understand Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among human immuno-deficiency (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and assess incidence of HCV infection among this population in France.
Acute HCV infection defined by anti-HCV or HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) positivity within one year of documented anti-HCV negativity was notified among HIV-infected MSM followed up in HIV/AIDS clinics from a nationwide sampling frame. HIV and HCV infection characteristics, HCV potential exposures and sexual behaviour were collected by the physicians and via self-administered questionnaires. Phylogenetic analysis of the HCV-NS5B region was conducted. HCV incidence was 48/10 000 [95% Confidence Interval (CI):43-54] and 36/10 000 [95% CI: 30-42] in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Among the 80 men enrolled (median age: 40 years), 55% were HIV-diagnosed before 2000, 56% had at least one sexually transmitted infection in the year before HCV diagnosis; 55% were HCV-infected with genotype 4 (15 men in one 4d-cluster), 32.5% with genotype 1 (three 1a-clusters); five men were HCV re-infected; in the six-month preceding HCV diagnosis, 92% reported having casual sexual partners sought online (75.5%) and at sex venues (79%), unprotected anal sex (90%) and fisting (65%); using recreational drugs (62%) and bleeding during sex (55%).
This study emphasizes the role of multiple unprotected sexual practices and recreational drugs use during sex in the HCV emergence in HIV-infected MSM. It becomes essential to adapt prevention strategies and inform HIV-infected MSM with recent acute HCV infection on risk of re-infection and on risk-reduction strategies.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29322. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To document hepatitis C virus (HCV) intrafamilial transmission and assess its relative importance in comparison to other current modes of transmission in the country with the largest HCV epidemic in the world. HCV intrafamilial transmission was defined as HCV transmission among relatives living in the same household.
Case-control study. Cases were adult patients with acute hepatitis C diagnosed in two 'fever hospitals' of Cairo. Controls were adult patients with acute hepatitis A diagnosed in the same two hospitals, and family members of cases. All consenting household members of cases provided blood for HCV serological and RNA testing. Homology of viral sequences (NS5b region) within households was used to ascertain HCV intrafamilial transmission. Exposures at risk for HCV during the 1-6 months previous to onset of symptoms were assessed in all cases and controls.
From April 2002 to June 2007, 100 cases with acute hepatitis C, and 678 controls (416 household members and 262 patients with acute hepatitis A) were recruited in the study. Factors independently associated with HCV infection and their attributable fractions (AFs) were the following: having had a catheter (OR=5.0, 95% CI=1.4 to 17.8; AF=6.7%), an intravenous perfusion (OR=5.8, 95% CI=2.5 to 13.3; AF=20.1%), stitches (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.3 to 6.6; AF=10.7%), gum treatment (OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.1 to 11.9; AF=3.8%) and being illiterate (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4 to 4.4). Of the 100 cases, 18 had viraemic HCV-infected household members. Three long-married (>15 years) couples were infected with virtually identical sequences and none of the three index patients reported any exposure at risk, suggesting HCV intra-familial transmission.
While three new HCV infections out of 100 could be linked to intra-familial transmission, parenteral iatrogenic transmission (dental care included) was accountable for 34.6% of these new infections. Thus, the relative contribution of intrafamilial transmission to HCV spread seems to be limited.
Gut 11/2010; 59(11):1554-60. · 10.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although risk factors for cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been identified, the role of HCV-genotype 3 remains controversial, and limited data are available in drug users. The aim of the study was to assess risk factors for severe liver disease (cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma) in HCV-infected drug users between 2001 and 2007 in France. Patients who reported drug use and who had been referred for HCV infection to hepatology centers from a national surveillance system were identified. The severity of liver disease was assessed clinically and histologically (Metavir score). Factors associated with severe liver disease were analyzed after estimating missing values by multiple imputation (MI). Of the 4,065 drug users naive to anti-HCV treatment who were referred to the 26 participating centers, 8.0% had severe liver disease, 25.7% were infected with HCV-genotype 3. Factors associated independently with an increased risk of severe liver disease were HCV-genotype 3 (adjusted odds ratio, multiple imputation (aOR(MI)) = 1.6, [95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1]), HIV infection (aOR(MI) = 1.8, [1.2-2.8]), male sex (aOR(MI) = 2.0, [1.4-2.8]), age over 40 years (aOR(MI) = 2.1, [1.6-2.9]), history of excessive alcohol consumption (aOR(MI) = 2.8, [2.1-3.7]), and duration of infection ≥18 years (aOR(MI) = 2.9, [2.0-4.3]). This analysis shows that HCV-genotype 3 is associated with severe liver disease in drug users, independently of age, sex, duration of infection, alcohol consumption, and co-infection with HIV. These results are in favor of earlier treatment for drug users infected with HCV- genotype 3 and confirm the need for concomitant care for excessive alcohol consumption.
Journal of Medical Virology 10/2010; 82(10):1647-54. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hepatitis C continues to be a concern in men who have sex with men (MSM), and its optimal management has yet to be established. In this study, the clinical, biological, and therapeutic data of 53 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected MSM included in a multicenter prospective study on acute hepatitis C in 2006-2007 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 1.1 log(10) IU/mL (genotype 4, n = 28; genotype 1, n = 14, genotype 3, n = 7). The cumulative rates of spontaneous HCV clearance were 11.0% and 16.5% 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, respectively. Forty patients were treated, 38 of whom received pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The mean duration of HCV therapy was 39 ± 17 weeks (24 ± 4 weeks in 14 cases). On treatment, 18/36 (50.0%; 95% confidence interval 34.3-65.7) patients had undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 (RVR), and 32/39 (82.1%; 95 confidence interval 70.0-94.1) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). SVR did not correlate with pretreatment parameters, including HCV genotype, but correlated with RVR (predictive positive value of 94.4%) and with effective duration of HCV therapy (64.3% for 24 ± 4 weeks versus 92.0% for longer treatment; P = 0.03). Conclusion: The low rate of spontaneous clearance and the high SVR rates argue for early HCV therapy following diagnosis of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected MSM. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin seem to be the best option. The duration of treatment should be modulated according to RVR, with a 24-week course for patients presenting RVR and a 48-week course for those who do not, irrespectively of HCV genotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To monitor the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 among French metropolitan residents. A complex sampling design was used to enroll 14,416 adult participants aged 18-80 years. Data collected included demographic and social characteristics and risk factors. Sera were tested for anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, anti-HBc and HBsAg. Data were analyzed with SUDAAN software to provide weighted estimates for the French metropolitan resident population. The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.65-1.10). Among anti-HCV positive individuals, 57.4% (95% CI: 43.2-70.5) knew their status. Factors associated independently with positive anti-HCV were drug use (intravenous and nasal), blood transfusion before 1992, a history of tattoos, low socioeconomic status, being born in a country where anti-HCV prevalence >2.5%, and age >29 years. The overall anti-HBc prevalence was 7.3% (95%: 6.5-8.2). Independent risk factors for anti-HBc were intravenous drug use, being a man who has sex with men, low socioeconomic status, a stay in a psychiatric facility or facility for the mentally disabled, <12 years of education, being born in a country where HBsAg prevalence >2%, age >29 and male sex. The HCV RNA and HBsAg prevalence were 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40-0.70) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.45-0.93), respectively. Among HBsAg positive individuals, 44.8% (95% CI: 22.8-69.1) knew their status. Anti-HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected. Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/2010; 82(4):546-55. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La surveillance nationale de l'hépatite B chronique a été mise en place en 2008, en collaboration avec les pôles de ré- férence (services hospitalo-universitaires d'hépatologie), pour décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et clinico- biologiques des patients nouvellement pris en charge pour une hépatite B chronique. L'hépatite B chronique est définie par le portage de l'antigène HBs (AgHBs) depuis plus de six mois. Les caractéristiques des patients qui sont recueillies incluent les modalités de découverte de l'AgHBs et leurs expositions à risque vis-à-vis du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB). Nous présentons certaines caractéristiques des patients naïfs de traitement antiviral, selon le niveau de prévalence de l'AgHBs du pays de naissance (endémicité faible vs. moyenne/forte). Entre janvier 2008 et août 2009, 1 016 patients ont été pris en charge, dont 78% sont nés dans une zone de moyenne ou forte endémicité VHB. La découverte de l'AgHBs est fortuite pour 69% des patients. Le délai entre le dépistage et la prise en charge, déterminé pour 837 patients, est supérieur à trois ans pour 41% des patients nés en zone de faible endémicité et pour 22% de ceux nés ailleurs. Ces résultats préliminaires suggèrent des pratiques de dépistage de l'AgHBs imparfaites et un retard à la prise en charge des personnes dépistées, en particulier celles nées dans une zone de faible endémicité VHB.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of the French national hepatitis C prevention programme initiated in 1999, we analysed trends in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, testing and characteristics of HCV-infected patient at first referral from 1994 to 2006. We used four data sources: Two national population-based sero-prevalence surveys carried out in 1994 and 2004; two surveillance networks, one based on public and private laboratories throughout France and the other on hepatology reference centres, which aim to monitor, respectively, trends of anti-HCV screening and of epidemiological–clinical characteristics of HCV patients at first referral.Between 1994 and 2004, the anti-HCV prevalence for adults aged 20–59 years decreased from 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.75–1.34) to 0.71 (0.52–0.97). During the same period, those anti-HCV positive with detectable HCV RNA decreased from 81 to 57%, whereas, the proportion of anti-HCV positive persons aware of their status evolved from 24 to 56%. Anti-HCV screening activity increased by 45% from 2000 to 2005, but decreased in 2006 (−10%), while HCV positivity among those tested decreased from 4.3 to 2.9%. The proportion of cirrhosis at first referral remains around 10% between 2001 and 2006, with many patients with excessive alcohol consumption (34.7% among males) or viral co-infections (HIV seropositivity for 5.2% patients). Our analysis indicates that the national programme had a positive impact at the population level through improved prevention, screening and management. There is still a need to identify timely those at risk for earlier interventions, to assess co-morbidities better and for a multidisciplinary approach to HCV management.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current French hepatitis C virus infection screening programme is not yet reaching all populations at risk. In order to better identify individuals that would benefit from a screening test, we investigated an expanded combination of personal characteristics as potential screening criteria for this infection.
We constructed two multiple-regression models predicting hepatitis C antibody seropositivity using the population sample from the 2004 French national hepatitis C antibody seroprevalence survey (SPS) (n = 14 416): one representing current screening guidelines and another constructed from personal characteristics collected for the SPS. Performance of the two predictive models was statistically compared and we internally validated the better performing model.
The expanded screening criteria model better discriminated seropositive and seronegative individuals [area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.869 (95% CI 0.861-0.873)] than the current screening guidelines model [AUC 0.821 (95% CI 0.810-0.824)]. This performance difference was statistically significant (P < 0.00001). The expanded criteria model contains the variables age, sex, pre-1992 blood transfusion, intra-venous drug use, receipt of medical welfare for precarious individuals, previous surgeries, illicit nasal drug use, previous hepatitis C screening, tattoo, raised alanine aminotransferase level and birth in a hepatitis C high/moderate-prevalence country.
Results indicate that an expanded combination of screening criteria better predicted hepatitis C antibody status and thus individuals needing screening than the current French-screening guidelines. The proposed combination of screening criteria could more effectively target hepatitis C risk-populations in France and could serve as the basis for a decision-making screening tool for the general population.
The European Journal of Public Health 09/2009; 19(5):527-33. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe current epidemiological and clinical characteristics, medical follow-up and outcome in the real practice of acute hepatitis C (AHC) patients. AHC cases were retrospectively identified through the French Hepatology Reference Centres Surveillance system and additional data were collected. Sixty-one patients with AHC were identified (sex ratio: M/F 1.7/1; mean age 39 years). Forty-four (72%) had documented seroconversion within a 6-month period. Main reported risk exposures were intravenous or nasal drug use (35%), invasive medical procedures (25%) and sexual contact with a HCV-positive partner (20%). Spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA was observed in seven out of 16 patients followed without therapy. This study confirms the major role of drug use in HCV transmission and highlights the role of invasive medical procedures and occupational exposure.
Epidemiology and Infection 08/2008; 136(7):988-96. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality related to HCV and HBV infections was estimated in France.
A random sample (n=999) of death certificates was obtained from all death certificates listing HBV, HCV, hepatitis, liver disease, possible complication of cirrhosis, bacterial infection, HIV, or transplantation (n=65,000) in France in 2001. Physicians who reported the deaths were sent a questionnaire to identify how many deaths were related to HBV/HCV infection. Completed forms were independently analyzed by a panel of hepatologists. Death rates were estimated according to national population census data.
Estimated annual number of deaths associated with HCV and HBV infection was 3618 and 1507, respectively (6.1 and 2.5 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). Estimated number of deaths attributable to HCV or HBV infection was 2646 and 1327, respectively (4.5 and 2.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). In the HCV infection group, 95 percent had cirrhosis; 33 percent had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the HBV infection group, 93 percent had cirrhosis; 35 percent had HCC. Eleven percent of deaths occurred in patients with HIV coinfection. Deaths related to HBV or HCV infection occurred at an earlier age in patients with a history of excessive alcohol consumption.
In France, 4000-5000 deaths related to HCV and HBV infection occurred in 2001. Alcohol consumption and HIV infection were important co-factors. These data emphasize the need for ongoing, efficient public health programs that include screening, management, and counseling for HCV- and HBV-infected individuals.
Journal of Hepatology 03/2008; 48(2):200-7. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported high prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 5a (HCV 5) (14%) in Central France.
To identify the risk factors associated with HCV5 infection and to characterize local HCV5 lineages.
A case-control study and phylogenetic analysis were conducted.
In all, 131 HCV5 and 343 HCV non 5 infected patients were enrolled. No HCV5 patient was born in sub-Saharan Africa and only two were injection drug user. HCV5 contamination was associated with living in a rural area called Vic le Comte (VLC) in non-transfused patients (OR = 17.7), with transfusion in patients living outside VLC (OR = 3.8) and with receiving injections in patients from VLC (OR = 3.1). More than 80% of the patients from outside VLC were contaminated by transfusion and those from VLC mainly by an iatrogenic factor - injections performed before 1972 by the local physician. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV5 isolates evidenced no distinct genetic cluster, but close relationships between the isolates of spouse pairs and between blood donors and recipients.
Our results suggest that HCV5 spread in our district by iatrogenic route before 1972 and then via transfusion to the whole district. Collaborative studies are underway to study viral sequences from different parts of Africa and Europe to estimate the origin of our HCV 5a strains.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have rarely been estimated using incident case-control studies in the "general" population. We undertook a case-control study of incident HCV infection to identify persistent modes of transmission in France.
Two types of case-patients were included: (1) repeat blood donors who seroconverted between 1998 and 2001 (with a last negative third-generation test reported from 1995 or after) and (2) seroconverters referred to hepatology departments in 2000 through 2001. For each case-patient, four age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected from the population of occurrence. Data on risk factors were recorded for each case-patient's and matched control's referent exposure period (between last negative and first positive tests).
Sixty-four case-patients and 227 controls were included. In univariate analysis, endoscopy (matched odds ratios [mORs] = 8.0; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 2.3-27.2), general anesthesia (mOR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.2-14.7), tattooing or body piercing (mOR = 8.8; 95% CI = 1.7-44.1), and intravenous (IV) drug use (p < 0.0001; mOR not defined) were associated with HCV seroconversion. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HCV seroconversion were drug use (adjusted OR [aOR] = 109.0; 95% CI = 11.7-1015.8), digestive endoscopy (aOR = 5.7; CI = 1.4-23.8), and invasive radiology procedures (aOR = 11.6; CI = 1.7-78.5).
The results showed the continuing major role of IV drug use and suggested that transmission related to invasive health care remained a potential source of new HCV infection between 1995 and 2001.
Annals of Epidemiology 10/2007; 17(10):755-62. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the source of infection in a patient who developed acute hepatitis C virus infection after cardiothoracic surgery. A healthcare worker was found to be infected with hepatitis C virus, and molecular analysis indicated the strain was similar to that found in the patient. The exact mode of transmission was not identified; however, atopic eczema on the healthcare worker's hands may have contributed to the transmission.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 03/2007; 28(2):227-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor