F Grant Pearce

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand

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Publications (25)78.11 Total impact

  • Jeremy R Keown, Frederick Grant Pearce
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    ABSTRACT: Most plants contain two isoforms of Rubisco activase, a chloroplast protein that maintains the activity of Rubisco during photosynthesis. The longer (α-) Rubisco activase isoform has previously been shown to regulate the activity of Rubisco in response to both the ADP:ATP ratio and redox potential via thioredoxin-f. We have characterised the arrangement of the different spinach (Spinacia oleracea) isoforms in solution, and show how the presence of nucleotides changes the oligomeric state. While the shorter (β-) isoform from both tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and spinach tend to form a range of oligomers in solution, the size of which which are relatively unaffected by the addition of nucleotide, the spinach α-isoform assembles as a hexamer in the presence of adenosine-5'-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS). These hexamers have significantly higher heat stability, and may play a role in optimising photosynthesis in higher temperatures. Hexamers were also observed for mixtures of the two isoforms, suggesting that the α-isoform can act as a structural scaffold for hexamer formation by the β-isoform. Additionally, it is shown that a variant of the tobacco β-isoform acts in a similar fashion to the α-isoform of spinach, forming thermally stable hexamers in the presence of ATPγS. Both isoforms had similar rates ATP hydrolysis, suggesting that a propensity for hexamer formation may not necessarily be correlated with activity. Modelling of the hexameric structures suggests that while the N-terminus of Rubisco activase forms a highly dynamic, extended structure, the C-terminus is located adjacent to the intersubunit interface.
    The Biochemical journal. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The potential for protein tectons to be used in nanotechnology is increasingly recognised, but the repertoire of stable proteins that assemble into defined shapes in response to an environmental trigger is limited. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a protein family that shows an amazing array of supramolecular assemblies, making them attractive tectons. hPrx3 forms toroidal oligomers characteristic of the Prx family, but no structure has been solved to date. Here we report the first 3-D structure of this protein, derived from single particle analysis of TEM images, establishing a dodecameric structure. This result was supported by SAXS measurements. We also present the first detailed structure of a double toroidal Prx from a higher organism determined by SPA. Guided by these structures, variants of the protein were designed to facilitate controlled assembly of protein nanostructures through the association of the toroids. We observed an enhanced population of stacked toroids, as seen by TEM; nanocages and inter-locked toroids were also visible. Low pH was successfully predicted to generate long ordered nanotubes. Control over the length of the tubes was gained by adding ammonium sulfate to the assembly buffer. These versatile assembly properties demonstrate the considerable potential of hPrx3 as a tecton for protein nanotechnology.
    Biomacromolecules 04/2014; · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rubisco activase uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to remove tight binding inhibitors from Rubisco, thus playing a key role in regulating photosynthesis in plants. While several structures have recently added much needed structural information for different Rubisco activase enzymes, the arrangement of these subunits in solution remains unclear. In this study, we use a variety of techniques to show that Rubisco activase forms a wide range of structures in solution, ranging from monomers to much higher order species, and that the distribution of these species is highly dependent on protein concentration. The data supports a model in which Rubisco activase forms an open spiralling structure rather than a closed hexameric structure. At protein concentrations of μ1 M, corresponding to the maximal activity of the enzyme, Rubisco activase has an oligomeric state of 2-4 subunits. We propose a model in which Rubisco activase requires at least one neighbouring subunit for hydrolysis of ATP.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given the rise in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, there is an urgent need to discover new antimicrobials targeting this pathogen and an equally urgent need to characterize new drug targets. A promising antibiotic target is dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in lysine biosynthesis. In this study, we firstly show by gene knock out studies that S. pneumoniae (sp) lacking the DHDPS gene is unable to grow unless supplemented with lysine-rich media. We subsequently set out to characterize the structure, function and stability of the enzyme drug target. Our studies show that sp-DHDPS is folded and active with a k cat = 22 s(-1), K M (PYR) = 2.55 ± 0.05 mM and K M (ASA) = 0.044 ± 0.003 mM. Thermal denaturation experiments demonstrate sp-DHDPS exhibits an apparent melting temperature (T M (app)) of 72 °C, which is significantly greater than Escherichia coli DHDPS (Ec-DHDPS) (T M (app) = 59 °C). Sedimentation studies show that sp-DHDPS exists in a dimer-tetramer equilibrium with a K D (4→2) = 1.7 nM, which is considerably tighter than its E. coli ortholog (K D (4→2) = 76 nM). To further characterize the structure of the enzyme and probe its enhanced stability, we solved the high resolution (1.9 Å) crystal structure of sp-DHDPS (PDB ID 3VFL). The enzyme is tetrameric in the crystal state, consistent with biophysical measurements in solution. Although the sp-DHDPS and Ec-DHDPS active sites are almost identical, the tetramerization interface of the s. pneumoniae enzyme is significantly different in composition and has greater buried surface area (800 Å(2)) compared to its E. coli counterpart (500 Å(2)). This larger interface area is consistent with our solution studies demonstrating that sp-DHDPS is considerably more thermally and thermodynamically stable than Ec-DHDPS. Our study describe for the first time the knock-out phenotype, solution properties, stability and crystal structure of DHDPS from S. pneumoniae, a promising antimicrobial target.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83419. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In plants, the lysine biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for both the development of herbicides and increasing the nutritional value of crops given that lysine is a limiting amino acid in cereals. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) and dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR) catalyse the first two committed steps of lysine biosynthesis. Here, we carry out for the first time a comprehensive characterisation of the structure and activity of both DHDPS and DHDPR from Arabidopsis thaliana. The A. thaliana DHDPS enzyme (At-DHDPS2) has similar activity to the bacterial form of the enzyme, but is more strongly allosterically inhibited by (S)-lysine. Structural studies of At-DHDPS2 show (S)-lysine bound at a cleft between two monomers, highlighting the allosteric site; however, unlike previous studies, binding is not accompanied by conformational changes, suggesting that binding may cause changes in protein dynamics rather than large conformation changes. DHDPR from A. thaliana (At-DHDPR2) has similar specificity for both NADH and NADPH during catalysis, and has tighter binding of substrate than has previously been reported. While all known bacterial DHDPR enzymes have a tetrameric structure, analytical ultracentrifugation, and scattering data unequivocally show that At-DHDPR2 exists as a dimer in solution. The exact arrangement of the dimeric protein is as yet unknown, but ab initio modelling of x-ray scattering data is consistent with an elongated structure in solution, which does not correspond to any of the possible dimeric pairings observed in the X-ray crystal structure of DHDPR from other organisms. This increased knowledge of the structure and function of plant lysine biosynthetic enzymes will aid future work aimed at improving primary production.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40318. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Moritz Lassé, Juliet A Gerrard, F Grant Pearce
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    ABSTRACT: While amyloid structures have been well characterised in a medical context, there is increasing interest in studying amyloid-like aggregates in other areas, such as food science and nanomaterials. Several proteins relevant to food processing, including serum albumen, lactoglobulin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, casein, and soy protein isolate have been shown to form fibrillar structures under both physiological and non-physiological conditions. These structures are likely to contribute to the structural characteristics of the final food product. In a biotechnological context, proteins such as insulin and eye lens crystallins can be induced to form amyloid structures which can subsequently be used in biotechnology. One example of this is the use of amyloid fibrils as a scaffold for the immobilisation of enzymes. Another current interest in amyloid fibrils is as a storage form for peptide hormones, including insulin, glucagon and calcitonin. Here, we give an overview of a selection of well characterised proteins that have been studied outside the context of disease.
    Sub-cellular biochemistry 01/2012; 65:253-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the rate limiting step in lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants. The structure of DHDPS has been determined from several bacterial species and shown in most cases to form a homotetramer or dimer of dimers. However, only one plant DHDPS structure has been determined to date from the wild tobacco species, Nicotiana sylvestris (Blickling et al. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 274, 608-621). Whilst N. sylvestris DHDPS also forms a homotetramer, the plant enzyme adopts a 'back-to-back' dimer of dimers compared to the 'head-to-head' architecture observed for bacterial DHDPS tetramers. This raises the question of whether the alternative quaternary architecture observed for N. sylvestris DHDPS is common to all plant DHDPS enzymes. Here, we describe the structure of DHDPS from the grapevine plant, Vitis vinifera, and show using analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography that V. vinifera DHDPS forms a 'back-to-back' homotetramer, consistent with N. sylvestris DHDPS. This study is the first to demonstrate using both crystal and solution state measurements that DHDPS from the grapevine plant adopts an alternative tetrameric architecture to the bacterial form, which is important for optimizing protein dynamics as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations reported in this study.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38318. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) catalyzes the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway in plants and bacteria. Since (S)-lysine biosynthesis does not occur in animals, DHDPS is an attractive target for rational antibiotic and herbicide design. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS2 from Arabidopsis thaliana are reported. Diffraction-quality protein crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 11/2011; 67(Pt 11):1386-90. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To gain insights into the role of quaternary structure in the TIM-barrel family of enzymes, we introduced mutations to the DHDPS enzyme of Thermotoga maritima, which we have previously shown to be a stable tetramer in solution. These mutations were aimed at reducing the number of salt bridges at one of the two tetramerization interface of the enzyme, which contains many more interactions than the well characterized equivalent interface of the mesophilic Escherichia coli DHDPS enzyme. The resulting variants had altered quaternary structure, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration liquid chromatography, and small angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray crystallographic studies confirmed that one variant existed as an independent monomer, but with few changes to the secondary and tertiary structure. Reduction of higher order assembly resulted in a loss of thermal stability, as measured by a variety of methods, and impaired catalytic function. Binding of pyruvate increased the oligomeric status of the variants, with a concomitant increase in thermal stability, suggesting a role for substrate binding in optimizing stable, higher order structures. The results of this work show that the salt bridges located at the tetramerization interface of DHDPS play a significant role in maintaining higher order structures, and demonstrate the importance of quaternary structure in determining protein stability and in the optimization of enzyme catalysis.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2011; 1814(12):1900-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is a validated antibiotic target for which a new approach to inhibitor design has been proposed: disrupting native tetramer formation by targeting the dimer-dimer interface. In this study, rational design afforded a variant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mtb-DHDPS-A204R, with disrupted quaternary structure. X-ray crystallography (at a resolution of 2.1Å) revealed a dimeric protein with an identical fold and active-site structure to the tetrameric wild-type enzyme. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed the dimeric structure in solution, yet the dimeric mutant has similar activity to the wild-type enzyme. Although the affinity for both substrates was somewhat decreased, the high catalytic competency of the enzyme was surprising in the light of previous results showing that dimeric variants of the Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis DHDPS enzymes have dramatically reduced activity compared to their wild-type tetrameric counterparts. These results suggest that Mtb-DHDPS-A204R is similar to the natively dimeric enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus, and highlight our incomplete understanding of the role played by oligomerisation in relating protein structure and function.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 06/2011; 512(2):154-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphate hydrolase has potential as a bioremediation and chemical detoxification enzyme, but the problems of reusability and stability need to be addressed to use this enzyme on an industrial scale. Immobilizing the enzyme to a nanoscaffold may help to solve these problems. Amyloid fibrils generated from insulin and crystallin provided a novel nanoscaffold for the immobilization of organophosphate hydrolase, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking reagent. Electrophoretic, centrifugation, and temperature stability experiments, together with transmission electron microscopy were undertaken to verify that crosslinking had successfully occurred. The resulting fibrils remained active towards the substrate paraoxon and when immobilized to the insulin amyloid fibrils, the enzyme exhibited a significant (∼ 300%) increase in the relative temperature stability at 40, 45, and 50°C (as measured by comparing the initial enzyme activity to the activity remaining after heating), compared to free enzyme. This confirms that amyloid fibrils could provide a new type of nanoscaffold for enzyme immobilization.
    Biotechnology Progress 03/2011; 27(2):360-7. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, E.C. 4.2.1.52), a natively homotetrameric enzyme was converted to a monomeric species through the introduction of destabilising interactions at two different subunit interfaces allowing exploration of the roles of the quaternary structure in affecting catalytic competency. The double mutant DHDPS-L197D/Y107W displays gel filtration characteristics consistent with a single non-interacting monomeric species, which was confirmed by sedimentary velocity experiments. This monomer was shown to be catalytically active, but with reduced catalytic efficiency (k(cat)=9.8±0.5s(-1)), displaying 8% of the specific activity of the wild-type enzyme. The Michaelis constants for the substrates pyruvate and for (S)-aspartate semialdehyde increased by an order of magnitude, indicating that quaternary structure plays a significant role in substrate specificity. This monomeric species exhibited an enhanced propensity for aggregation and inactivation, indicating that whilst the oligomerization is not an intrinsic criterion for catalysis, higher oligomeric forms may benefit from both increased catalytic efficiency and diminished aggregation propensity. Furthermore, allosteric inhibition by (S)-lysine was abolished for DHDPS-L197D/Y107W, confirming the importance of the dimeric unit as the minimal functional assembly for efficient (S)-lysine binding.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 11/2010; 503(2):202-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR; EC 1.3.1.26) catalyzes the nucleotide (NADH/NADPH) dependent second step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria and plants. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPR from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-DHDPR) are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, with the best crystal form diffracting to beyond 3.65 A resolution. Crystal structures of the apo form as well as of cofactor (NADPH) bound and inhibitor (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate) bound forms of MRSA-DHDPR will provide insight into the structure and function of this essential enzyme and valid drug target.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 01/2010; 66(Pt 1):57-60. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-assembling complexes have potential as novel supramolecular biomaterials but domain swapped complexes have yet to investigated in this capacity. Bovine ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a useful model protein as it is able to form a range of three dimensional domain swapped structures, including dimers, trimers and tetramers that have similar catalytic ability. However, little work has been carried out investigating the physical characteristics of these complexes. In an effort to characterise the strength of these oligomeric interactions, analytical ultracentrifugation was carried out to measure the dissociation of higher order complexes, using fluorescent tags to test for dissociation at very low concentrations. Results of this work suggest that the oligomers form a very tight complex, with no evidence of dissociation down to 250 pM. RNase A oligomers also had similar thermal stability to that of monomeric enzyme, suggesting that the main limiting factor in RNase A stability is the tertiary, rather than quaternary structure. Following thermal unfolding of RNase A, the protein refolded upon cooling, but returned to the monomeric state. This latter result may limit the potential of domain swapping as a means of material assembly.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2009; 382(1):114-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is a tetrameric enzyme that is the first enzyme unique to the ( S)-lysine biosynthetic pathway in plants and bacteria. Previous studies have looked at the important role of Tyr107, an amino acid residue located at the tight-dimer interface between two monomers, in participating in a catalytic triad of residues during catalysis. In this study, we examine the importance of this residue in determining the quaternary structure of the DHDPS enzyme. The Tyr107 residue was mutated to tryptophan, and structural, biophysical, and kinetic studies were carried out on the mutant enzyme. These revealed that while the solid-state structure of the mutant enzyme was largely unchanged, as judged by X-ray crystallography, it exists as a mixture of primarily monomer and tetramer in solution, as determined by analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The catalytic ability of the DHDPS enzyme was reduced by the mutation, which also allowed the adventitious binding of alpha-ketoglutarate to the active site. A reduction in the apparent melting temperature of the mutant enzyme was observed. Thus, the tetrameric quaternary structure of DHDPS is critical to controlling specificity, heat stability, and intrinsic activity.
    Biochemistry 11/2008; 47(46):12108-17. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, E.C. 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from a mechanistic and structural viewpoint. DHDPS catalyzes the reaction of (S)-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde with pyruvate, which is bound via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine (Lys161 in the enzyme from Escherichia coli). To probe the mechanism of DHDPS, we have studied the inhibition of E. coli DHDPS by the substrate analog, beta-hydroxypyruvate. The K (i) was determined to be 0.21 (+/-0.02) mM, similar to that of the allosteric inhibitor, (S)-lysine, and beta-hydroxypyruvate was observed to cause time-dependent inhibition. The inhibitory reaction with beta-hydroxypyruvate could be qualitatively followed by mass spectrometry, which showed initial noncovalent adduct formation, followed by the slow formation of the covalent adduct. It is unclear whether beta-hydroxypyruvate plays a role in regulating the biosynthesis of meso-diaminopimelate and (S)-lysine in E. coli, although we note that it is present in vivo. The crystal structure of DHDPS complexed with beta-hydroxypyruvate was solved. The active site clearly showed the presence of the inhibitor covalently bound to the Lys161. Interestingly, the hydroxyl group of beta-hydroxypyruvate was hydrogen-bonded to the main-chain carbonyl of Ile203. This provides insight into the possible catalytic role played by this peptide unit, which has a highly strained torsion angle (omega approximately 201 degrees ). A survey of the known DHDPS structures from other organisms shows this distortion to be a highly conserved feature of the DHDPS active site, and we propose that this peptide unit plays a critical role in catalysis.
    Protein Science 10/2008; 17(12):2080-90. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is an essential enzyme in (S)-lysine biosynthesis and an important antibiotic target. All X-ray crystal structures solved to date reveal a homotetrameric enzyme. In order to explore the role of this quaternary structure, dimeric variants of Escherichia coli DHDPS were engineered and their properties were compared to those of the wild-type tetrameric form. X-ray crystallography reveals that the active site is not disturbed when the quaternary structure is disrupted. However, the activity of the dimeric enzymes in solution is substantially reduced, and a tetrahedral adduct of a substrate analogue is observed to be trapped at the active site in the crystal form. Remarkably, heating the dimeric enzymes increases activity. We propose that the homotetrameric structure of DHDPS reduces dynamic fluctuations present in the dimeric forms and increases specificity for the first substrate, pyruvate. By restricting motion in a key catalytic motif, a competing, non-productive reaction with a substrate analogue is avoided. Small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis data, together with a B-factor analysis of the crystal structures, support this hypothesis and lead to the suggestion that in at least some cases, the evolution of quaternary enzyme structures might serve to optimise the dynamic properties of the protein subunits.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 08/2008; 380(4):691-703. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In lysine biosynthesis, dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR) catalyses the formation of tetrahydrodipicolinate. Unlike DHDPR enzymes from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which have dual specificity for both NADH and NADPH as co-factors, the enzyme from Thermotoga maritima has a significantly greater affinity for NADPH. Despite low sequence identity with the E. coli and M. tuberculosis DHDPR enzymes, DHDPR from T. maritima has a similar catalytic site, with many conserved residues involved in interactions with substrates. This suggests that as the enzyme evolved, the co-factor specificity was relaxed. Kinetic studies show that the T. maritima DHDPR enzyme is inhibited by high concentrations of its substrate, DHDP, and that at high concentrations NADH also acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme, suggesting a novel method of regulation for the lysine biosynthetic pathway. Increased thermal stability of the T. maritima DHDPR enzyme may be associated with the lack of C-terminal and N-terminal loops that are present in the E. coli DHDPR enzyme.
    Journal of Biochemistry 06/2008; 143(5):617-23. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase (KEGG entry Rv2753c, EC 4.2.1.52) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-DHDPS) was determined and refined at 2.28 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two tetramers, each of which we propose to be the functional enzyme unit. This is supported by analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which show the enzyme to be tetrameric in solution. The structure of each subunit consists of an N-terminal (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel followed by a C-terminal alpha-helical domain. The active site comprises residues from two adjacent subunits, across an interface, and is located at the C-terminal side of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel domain. A comparison with the other known DHDPS structures shows that the overall architecture of the active site is largely conserved, albeit the proton relay motif comprising Tyr(143), Thr(54) and Tyr(117) appears to be disrupted. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme are reported: K(M)(ASA)=0.43+/-0.02 mM, K(M)(pyruvate)=0.17+/-0.01 mM and V(max)=4.42+/-0.08 micromol x s(-1) x mg(-1). Interestingly, the V(max) of Mtb-DHDPS is 6-fold higher than the corresponding value for Escherichia coli DHDPS, and the enzyme is insensitive to feedback inhibition by (S)-lysine. This can be explained by the three-dimensional structure, which shows that the (S)-lysine-binding site is not conserved in Mtb-DHDPS, when compared with DHDPS enzymes that are known to be inhibited by (S)-lysine. A selection of metabolites from the aspartate family of amino acids do not inhibit this enzyme. A comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of this important enzyme from the (S)-lysine biosynthesis pathway may provide the key for the design of new antibiotics to combat tuberculosis.
    Biochemical Journal 05/2008; 411(2):351-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is a key enzyme in lysine biosynthesis and an important antibiotic target. The specificity of a range of heterocyclic product analogues against DHDPS from three pathogenic species, Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the evolutionarily related N-acetylneuraminate lyase, has been determined. The results suggest that the development of species-specific inhibitors of DHDPS as potential antibacterials is achievable.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2008; 18(2):842-4. · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

275 Citations
78.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • University of Canterbury
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand
  • 2012
    • La Trobe University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Melbourne
      • Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia