[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mutations in MECP2 encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome patients exhibit neurological symptoms that include irregular breathing, impaired mobility, stereotypic hand movements, and loss of speech. MeCP2 protein epigenetically modulates gene expression through genome-wide binding to methylated CpG dinucleotides. While neurons have the highest level of MeCP2 expression, astrocytes and other cell types also express detectable levels of MeCP2. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes likely control the progression of Rett syndrome. Thus, the object of these studies was to identify gene targets that are affected by loss of MeCP2 binding in astrocytes. METHODS: To identify gene targets of MeCP2 in astrocytes, combined approaches of expression microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation of MeCP2 followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) were compared between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient astrocytes. MeCP2 gene targets were compared with genes in the top 10% of MeCP2 binding levels in gene windows either within 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site, or the 'gene body' that extended from transcription start to end site, or 2 kb downstream of the transcription end site. RESULTS: A total of 118 gene transcripts surpassed the highly significant threshold (P <0.005, fold change >1.2) in expression microarray analysis from triplicate cultures. The top 10% of genes with the highest levels of MeCP2 binding were identified in two independent ChIP-seq experiments. Together this integrated, genome-wide screen for MeCP2 target genes provided an overlapping list of 19 high-confidence MeCP2-responsive gene transcripts in astrocytes. Validation of candidate target gene transcripts by RT-PCR revealed that expression of Apoc2, Cdon, Csrp and Nrep were consistently responsive to MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The first MeCP2 ChIP-seq and gene expression microarray analysis in astrocytes reveals a set of potential MeCP2 target genes that may contribute to normal astrocyte signaling, cell division and neuronal support functions, the loss of which may contribute to the Rett syndrome phenotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major effort in Alzheimer's disease therapeutic development has targeted Aβ and downstream events. We have synthesized a small library of tricyclic pyrone compounds. Their protective action in MC65 cells and inhibition of ACAT along with the upregulation of cholesterol transporter gene were investigated. Five active compounds exhibited potencies in the nanomolar ranges. The multiple effects of the compounds on Aβ and cellular cholesterol pathways could be potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects in vivo.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2012; 55(20):8969-73. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) including classic autism is a group of complex developmental disabilities with core deficits of impaired social interactions, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors. Although the neurobiology of ASDs has attracted much attention in the last two decades, the role of microglia has been ignored. Existing data are focused on their recognized role in neuroinflammation, which only covers a small part of the pathological repertoire of microglia. This review highlights recent findings on the broader roles of microglia, including their active surveillance of brain microenvironments and regulation of synaptic connectivity, maturation of brain circuitry and neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that microglia respond to pre- and postnatal environmental stimuli through epigenetic interface to change gene expression, thus acting as effectors of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Impairments of these microglial functions could substantially contribute to several major etiological factors of autism, such as environmental toxins and cortical underconnectivity. Our recent study on Rett syndrome, a syndromic autistic disorder, provides an example that intrinsic microglial dysfunction due to genetic and epigenetic aberrations could detrimentally affect the developmental trajectory without evoking neuroinflammation. We propose that ASDs provide excellent opportunities to study the influence of microglia on neurodevelopment, and this knowledge could lead to novel therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that white matter degeneration contributes to the neural disconnections that underlie Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Although this white matter degeneration is partly attributable to axonopathy associated with neuronal degeneration, amyloid β (Aβ) protein-mediated damage to oligodendrocytes could be another mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we studied effects of soluble Aβ in oligomeric form on survival and differentiation of cells of the oligodendroglial lineage using highly purified oligodendroglial cultures from rats at different developmental stages. Aβ oligomer at 10 μM or higher reduced survival of mature oligodendrocytes, whereas oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) were relatively resistant to the Aβ oligomer-mediated cytotoxicity. Further study revealed that Aβ oligomer even at 1 μM accelerated 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan exocytosis in mature oligodendrocytes, and, more significantly, inhibited myelin sheet formation after induction of in vitro differentiation of OPCs. These results imply a novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying Aβ oligomer-mediated white matter degeneration, which could impair myelin maintenance and remyelination by adult OPCs, resulting in accumulating damage to myelinating axons thereby contributing to neural disconnections.
Neurobiology of aging 03/2012; 33(3):499-509. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deposition and oligomerization of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptide arises from cleavage of the membrane-associated domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β and γ secretases. Several lines of evidence point to the soluble Aβ oligomer (AβO) as the primary neurotoxic species in the etiology of AD. Recently, we have demonstrated that a class of fluorene molecules specifically disrupts the AβO species.
To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this disruptive ability, we extend the application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels in the Aβ peptide to investigate the binding and influence of fluorene compounds on AβO structure and dynamics. In addition, we have synthesized a spin-labeled fluorene (SLF) containing a pyrroline nitroxide group that provides both increased cell protection against AβO toxicity and a route to directly observe the binding of the fluorene to the AβO assembly. We also evaluate the ability of fluorenes to target multiple pathological processes involved in the neurodegenerative cascade, such as their ability to block AβO toxicity, scavenge free radicals and diminish the formation of intracellular AβO species.
Fluorene modified with pyrroline nitroxide may be especially useful in counteracting Aβ peptide toxicity, because they possess both antioxidant properties and the ability to disrupt AβO species.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35443. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There exists an urgent need for new target discovery to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, recent clinical trials based on anti-Aβ and anti-inflammatory strategies have yielded disappointing results. To expedite new drug discovery, we propose reposition targets which have been previously pursued by both industry and academia for indications other than AD. One such target is the calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 (KCNN4), which in the brain is primarily expressed in microglia and is significantly upregulated when microglia are activated. We here review the existing evidence supporting that KCa3.1 inhibition could block microglial neurotoxicity without affecting their neuroprotective phagocytosis activity and without being broadly immunosuppressive. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of KCa3.1 blockade would be suitable for treating AD as well as cerebrovascular and traumatic brain injuries, two well-known risk factors contributing to the dementia in AD patients presenting with mixed pathologies. Importantly, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several KCa3.1 blockers are well known, and a KCa3.1 blocker has been proven safe in clinical trials. It is therefore promising to reposition old or new KCa3.1 blockers for AD preclinical and clinical trials.
International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2012; 2012:868972.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the most common single-gene disorder known to be associated with autism. Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging and our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, only limited neuropathologic information on FXS is available.
Neuropathologic examinations were performed on post-mortem brain tissue from three older men (aged 57, 64 and 78 years) who had received a clinical or genetic diagnosis of FXS. In each case, physical and cognitive features were typical of FXS, and one man was also diagnosed with autism. Guided by reports of clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities of the limbic system and cerebellum of individuals with FXS, the current analysis focused on neuropathologic features present in the hippocampus and the cerebellar vermis.
Histologic and immunologic staining revealed abnormalities in both the hippocampus and cerebellar vermis. Focal thickening of hippocampal CA1 and irregularities in the appearance of the dentate gyrus were identified. All lobules of the cerebellar vermis and the lateral cortex of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum had decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, which were occasionally misplaced, and often lacked proper orientation. There were mild, albeit excessive, undulations of the internal granular cell layer, with patchy foliar white matter axonal and astrocytic abnormalities. Quantitative analysis documented panfoliar atrophy of both the anterior and posterior lobes of the vermis, with preferential atrophy of the posterior lobule (VI to VII) compared with age-matched normal controls.
Significant morphologic changes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in three adult men with FXS were identified. This pattern of pathologic features supports the idea that primary defects in neuronal migration, neurogenesis and aging may underlie the neuropathology reported in FXS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are activated by aggregated forms of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), usually demonstrated in vitro by stimulating microglia with micromolar concentrations of fibrillar Aβ, a major component of amyloid plaques in AD brains. Here we report that amyloid-β oligomer (AβO), at 5-50 nm, induces a unique pattern of microglia activation that requires the activity of the scavenger receptor A and the Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel KCa3.1. AβO treatment induced an activated morphological and biochemical profile of microglia, including activation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor κB. Interestingly, although increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, AβO did not increase several proinflammatory mediators commonly induced by lipopolyliposaccharides or fibrillar Aβ, suggesting that AβO stimulates both common and divergent pathways of microglia activation. AβO at low nanomolar concentrations, although not neurotoxic, induced indirect, microglia-mediated damage to neurons in dissociated cultures and in organotypic hippocampal slices. The indirect neurotoxicity was prevented by (i) doxycycline, an inhibitor of microglia activation; (ii) TRAM-34, a selective KCa3.1 blocker; and (iii) two inhibitors of inducible NO synthase, indicating that KCa3.1 activity and excessive NO release are required for AβO-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that AβO, generally considered a neurotoxin, may more potently cause neuronal damage indirectly by activating microglia in AD.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 286(5):3693-706. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2(-/+) females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. Recent studies suggest a role of glia in causing neuronal dysfunction via a non-cell-autonomous effect in RTT. Here we report a potent neurotoxic activity in the conditioned medium (CM) obtained from Mecp2-null microglia. Hippocampal neurons treated with CM from Mecp2-null microglia showed an abnormal stunted and beaded dendritic morphology, and signs of microtubule disruption and damage of postsynaptic glutamatergic components within 24 h. We identified that the toxic factor in the CM is glutamate, because (1) Mecp2-null microglia released a fivefold higher level of glutamate, (2) blockage of microglial glutamate synthesis by a glutaminase inhibitor abolished the neurotoxic activity, (3) blockage of microglial glutamate release by gap junction hemichannel blockers abolished the neurotoxic activity, and (4) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the neurotoxicity of the Mecp2-null microglia CM. We further identified that increased levels of glutaminase and connexin 32 in Mecp2-null microglia are responsible for increased glutamate production and release, respectively. In contrast, the CM from highly pure Mecp2-null astrocyte cultures showed no toxic effect. Our results suggest that microglia may influence the onset and progression of RTT and that microglia glutamate synthesis or release could be a therapeutic target for RTT.
Journal of Neuroscience 04/2010; 30(15):5346-56. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2-/+ females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. While prior functional investigations of MeCP2 have focused exclusively on neurons and have concluded the absence of MeCP2 in astrocytes, here we report that astrocytes express MeCP2, and MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes causes significant abnormalities in BDNF regulation, cytokine production, and neuronal dendritic induction, effects that may contribute to abnormal neurodevelopment. In addition, we show that the MeCP2 deficiency state can progressively spread at least in part via gap junction communications between mosaic Mecp2-/+ astrocytes in a novel non-cell-autonomous mechanism. This mechanism may lead to the pronounced loss of MeCP2 observed selectively in astrocytes in mouse Mecp2-/+ brain, which is coincident with phenotypic regression characteristic of RTT. Our results suggest that astrocytes are viable therapeutic targets for RTT and perhaps regressive forms of autism.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(16):5051-61. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by depositions of beta-amyloid (A beta) aggregates as amyloid in the brain. To facilitate diagnosis of AD by radioligand imaging, several highly specific small-molecule amyloid ligands have been developed. Because amyloid ligands display excellent pharmacokinetics properties and brain bioavailability, and because we have previously shown that some amyloid ligands bind the highly neurotoxic A beta oligomers (A beta O) with high affinities, they may also be valuable candidates for anti-A beta therapies. Here we identified two fluorene compounds from libraries of amyloid ligands, initially based on their ability to block cell death secondary to intracellular A beta O. We found that the lead fluorenes were able to reduce the amyloid burden including the levels of A beta O in cultured neurons and in 5xFAD mice. To explain these in vitro and in vivo effects, we found that the lead fluorenes bind and destabilize A beta O as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, and block the harmful A beta O-synapse interaction. These fluorenes and future derivatives, therefore, have a potential use in AD therapy and research.
Neurobiology of aging 12/2008; 31(10):1690-9. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several small molecule ligands for amyloid-beta (Abeta) fibrils deposited in brain have been developed to facilitate radiological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the build-up of Abeta oligomers (AbetaO) in brain has been recognized as an additional hallmark of AD and may play a more significant role in early stages. Evidence suggests that quantitative assessment of AbetaO would provide a more accurate index of therapeutic effect of drug trials. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop methods for efficient identification as well as structural analysis of AbetaO. We found that some well established amyloid ligands, analogs of Congo red and thioflavin-T (ThT), bind AbetaO with high affinity and detect AbetaO in vitro and in vivo. Binding studies revealed the presence of binding sites for Congo red- and thioflavin-T-analogs on AbetaO. Furthermore, these ligands can be used for imaging intracellular AbetaO in living cells and animals and as positive contrast agent for ultrastructural imaging of AbetaO, two applications useful for structural analysis of AbetaO in cells. We propose that by improving the binding affinity of current ligands, in vivo imaging of AbetaO is feasible by a 'signal subtraction' procedure. This approach may facilitate the identification of individuals with early AD.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2008; 104(2):457-68. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of small molecule inhibitors of cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers, either applied extracellularly or accumulated intraneuronally, is an important goal of drug development for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has been limited by the lack of efficient screening methods. Here we describe our approach using two cell-based methods. The first method takes advantage of the unique ability of extracellularly applied Abeta oligomers to rapidly induce the exocytosis of formazan formed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). We employed a short protocol to quantify this toxicity, and quickly identified two novel inhibitors, code-named CP2 and A5, from two compound libraries. A second independent screen of the same libraries using our previously published MC65 protection assay, which identifies inhibitors of toxicity related to intracellular Abeta oligomers, also selected the same two leads, suggesting that both assays select for the same anti-Abeta oligomer properties displayed by these compounds. We further demonstrated that A5 attenuated the progressive aggregation of existing Abeta oligomers, reduced the level of intracellular Abeta oligomers, and prevented the Abeta oligomer-induced death of primary cortical neurons, effects similar to those demonstrated by CP2. Our results suggest that, when combined, the two methods would generate fewer false results and give a high likelihood of identifying leads that show promises in ameliorating Abeta oligomer-induced toxicities within both intraneuronal and extracellular sites. Both assays are simple, suitable for rapid screening of a large number of medicinal libraries, and amenable for automation.
Brain Research 02/2007; 1130(1):223-34. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) can affect immune response, inflammation, tissue injury, and possibly the susceptibility to Alzheimer disease (AD).
To evaluate the association between promoter region polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha and IL-10 genes and risk of late-onset AD in older white subjects.
Community-based case-control study.
Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound.
White subjects (n = 265) meeting criteria for probable or definite AD (cases) and white control subjects (n = 347) (controls).
Genotyping results for TNF-alpha, IL-10, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping.
The TNF-alpha -863 A allele was associated with reduced odds of developing AD, and the test for trend suggested that having 2 copies of the A allele further reduces the risk (odds ratios [C/C, reference], 0.66 for C/A and 0.58 for A/A; P = .04). Because of linkage disequilibrium in the TNF-alpha region, we constructed promoter region haplotypes as defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -863 and -308. Based on knowledge of TNF-alpha protein production, we ordered the haplotypes based on apparent increasing transcriptional activity. After adjusting for age, education, and the presence of the APOE epsilon4 genotype, the test for trend showed increasing odds of AD with increasing transcriptional activity (P = .02). The IL-10 -1082 and IL-10 -592 allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different between cases and controls.
Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region, or possibly polymorphisms in nearby genes, could affect cerebral inflammatory response and the risk of late-onset AD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is widely regarded as one of the fundamental causes of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This toxicity is related to Abeta aggregation into oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils. Recent studies suggest that intracellular Abeta, which causes profound toxicity, could be one of the primary therapeutic targets in AD. So far, no compounds targeting intracellular Abeta have been identified. We have investigated the toxicity induced by intracellular Abeta in a neuroblastoma MC65 line and found that it was closely related to intracellular accumulation of oligomeric complexes of Abeta (Abeta-OCs). We further identified a cell-permeable tricyclic pyrone named CP2 that ameliorates this toxicity and significantly reduces the levels of Abeta-OCs. In aqueous solution, CP2 attenuates Abeta oligomerization and prevents the oligomer-induced death of primary cortical neurons. CP2 analogs represent a new class of promising compounds for the amelioration of Abeta toxicities within both intracellular and extracellular sites.
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2006; 98(1):57-67. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inheritance of APOE alleles is associated with varying clinical outcomes in several neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with innate immune response in brain. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of different APOE alleles would significantly modulate neurotoxicity arising from glial innate immune response. We first used dissociated cultures of wild-type (wt) murine neurons and glia derived from mice with targeted replacement (TR) of the epsilon2, epsilon3, or, epsilon4 APOE allele. Our results showed that the vast majority of bystander damage to wt neurons derived from microglia was greatest with TR APOE4 glia, intermediate from TR APOE3 glia, and least from TR APOE2 glia and preceded detectable NO secretion. Microglial p38MAPK-dependent cytokine secretion followed a similar pattern of TR APOE dependence. In hippocampal slice cultures, innate immune activation had a similar pattern of TR APOE-dependence and produced postsynaptic neuronal damage in TR APOE4 and TR APOE3 but not TR APOE2 cultures that was p38MAPK dependent. These findings suggest a new mechanism by which inheritance of different APOE alleles may influence the outcome of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglial innate immune response.
The FASEB Journal 05/2006; 20(6):797-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New developments in optical microscopy are discussed with relevance to the imaging of amyloid plaques that are pathognomonic of a variety of degenerative disorders. We present the results of linear birefringence, linear dichroism, and circular dichroism imaging of Congo red stained plaques ex vivo and in vitro. A new technique for measuring rapid changes in linear anisotropies is introduced. The application of polarimetric imaging as demonstrated here can be extended to broader pathological practice since polarimetric measurements are sensitive to transformations in tissues that are specific disease signatures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate immune activation, including a role for cluster of differentiation 14/toll-like receptor 4 co-receptors (CD14/TLR-4) co-receptors, has been implicated in paracrine damage to neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases that also display stratification of risk or clinical outcome with the common alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE): APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. Previously, we have shown that specific stimulation of CD14/TLR-4 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to greatest innate immune response by primary microglial cultures from targeted replacement (TR) APOE4 mice and greatest p38MAPK-dependent paracrine damage to neurons in mixed primary cultures and hippocampal slice cultures derived from TR APOE4 mice. In contrast, TR APOE2 astrocytes had the highest NF-kappaB activity and no neurotoxicity. Here we tested the hypothesis that direct activation of CD14/TLR-4 in vivo would yield different amounts of paracrine damage to hippocampal sector CA1 pyramidal neurons in TR APOE mice.
We measured in vivo changes in dendrite length in hippocampal CA1 neurons using Golgi staining and determined hippocampal apoE levels by Western blot. Neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons in response to astrocyte conditioned medium was assessed by measuring neuron length and branch number.
Our results showed that TR APOE4 mice had slightly but significantly shorter dendrites at 6 weeks of age. Following exposure to intracerebroventricular LPS, there was comparable loss of dendrite length at 24 hr among the three TR APOE mice. Recovery of dendrite length over the next 48 hr was greater in TR APOE2 than TR APOE3 mice, while TR APOE4 mice had failure of dendrite regeneration. Cell culture experiments indicated that the enhanced neurotrophic effect of TR APOE2 was LDL related protein-dependent.
The data indicate that the environment within TR APOE2 mouse hippocampus was most supportive of dendrite regeneration while that within TR APOE4 hippocampus failed to support dendrite regeneration in this model of reversible paracrine damage to neurons from innate immune activation, and suggest an explanation for the stratification of clinical outcome with APOE seen in several degenerative diseases or brain that are associated with activated innate immune response.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2006; 3:21. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. ApoE isoform-specific modulation of several pathogenic processes, in addition to amyloid beta metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, have been proposed: one of these is innate immune response by glia. Previously we have shown that primary microglia cultures from targeted replacement (TR) APOE mice have apoE isoform-dependent innate immune activation and paracrine damage to neurons that is greatest with TR by the epsilon4 allele (TR APOE4) and that derives from p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activity.
Primary cultures of TR APOE2, TR APOE3 and TR APOE4 astrocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ApoE secretion, cytokine production, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunit activity were measured and compared.
Here we showed that activation of primary astrocytes from TR APOE mice with LPS led to TR APOE-dependent differences in cytokine secretion that were greatest in TR APOE2 and that were associated with differences in NF-kappaB subunit activity.
Our results suggest that LPS activation of innate immune response in TR APOE glia results in opposing outcomes from microglia and astrocytes as a result of TR APOE-dependent activation of p38MAPK or NF-kappaB signaling in these two cell types.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2006; 3:10. · 4.35 Impact Factor