Izumi Maezawa

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (34)139.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Development of therapeutic strategies to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of great importance. We show that mild inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with small molecule CP2 reduces levels of amyloid beta and phospho-Tau and averts cognitive decline in three animal models of familial AD. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical studies confirmed that CP2 competes with flavin mononucleotide for binding to the redox center of complex I leading to elevated AMP/ATP ratio and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in neurons and mouse brain without inducing oxidative damage or inflammation. Furthermore, modulation of complex I activity augmented mitochondrial bioenergetics increasing coupling efficiency of respiratory chain and neuronal resistance to stress. Concomitant reduction of glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity and restoration of axonal trafficking resulted in elevated levels of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins in adult AD mice. Our results suggest that metabolic reprogramming induced by modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity represents promising therapeutic strategy for AD.
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2, an epigenetic modulator that binds the methyl CpG dinucleotide in target genes to regulate transcription. Previously, we and others reported a role of microglia in the pathophysiology of RTT. To understand the mechanism of microglia dysfunction in RTT, we identified a MeCP2 target gene, SLC38A1, which encodes a major glutamine transporter (SNAT1), and characterized its role in microglia. We found that MeCP2 acts as a microglia-specific transcriptional repressor of SNAT1. Because glutamine is mainly metabolized in the mitochondria, where it is used as an energy substrate and a precursor for glutamate production, we hypothesize that SNAT1 overexpression in MeCP2-deficient microglia would impair the glutamine homeostasis, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction as well as microglial neurotoxicity because of glutamate overproduction. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that MeCP2 downregulation or SNAT1 overexpression in microglia resulted in (1) glutamine-dependent decrease in microglial viability, which was corroborated by reduced microglia counts in the brains of MECP2 knock-out mice; (2) proliferation of mitochondria and enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species; (3) increased oxygen consumption but decreased ATP production (an energy-wasting state); and (4) overproduction of glutamate that caused NMDA receptor-dependent neurotoxicity. The abnormalities could be rectified by mitochondria-targeted expression of catalase and a mitochondria-targeted peptide antioxidant, Szeto-Schiller 31. Our results reveal a novel mechanism via which MeCP2 regulates bioenergetic pathways in microglia and suggest a therapeutic potential of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for RTT. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352516-14$15.00/0.
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    ABSTRACT: Various condensation and ring-closing reactions were used for the syntheses of 3-[(alkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyri-dine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, bicyclic pyridinones, and tricyclic morpholinopyrones. For instance, 3-[(dialkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyridine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones were synthesized from the condensation of dialkylamines and 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one. 3-Formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, derived from 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, was used to construct a number of bicyclic pyridinones via a one-pot Knoevenagal and intramolecular lactonization reaction. Tricyclic morpholinopyrones were assembled from a dialkylation reaction involving a dinucleophile, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and a dielectrophile, trans-3,6-dibromocyclohexene. Depending on the reaction conditions, isomers of the tricyclic molecules can be selectively produced, and their chemical structures were unequivocally determined using single-crystal X-ray analyses and 2D COSY spectroscopy. The fluorescently active bicyclic pyridinone compounds show longer absorption (368-430 nm; maximum) and emission wavelengths (450-467 nm) than those of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC; λabs,max = 350 nm; λem = 430 nm) suggesting these molecules, such as 3-(2-aminoacetyl)-7-methyl-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-2,5(6H)-dione, can be employed as fluorescence activity based probes for tracing biological pathways.
    Synthesis 08/2014; 46(16):2179-2190. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1339027 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new series of fifteen 5-, 6-, and 8-appended 4-methylquinolines were synthesized and evaluated for their neural protective activities. Selected compounds were further examined for their inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and protein kinase C (PKC). Two most potent analogs, compounds 3 and 10, show nanomolar protective activities in amyloid β-induced MC65 cells and enzymatic inhibitory activities against GSK-3β, but poor PKC inhibitory activities. Using normal mouse model, the distribution of the most potent analog 3 in various tissues and possible toxic effects in the locomotors and inhibition of liver transaminases activities were carried out. No apparent decline of locomotor activity and no inhibition of liver transaminases were found. The compound appears to be safe for long-term use in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 06/2014; 24(15). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.05.085 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New Tacrine derivatives have been synthesized by modifying the amino group or incorporating nitroxide rings or sterically hindered amines into the Tacrine molecule. Compounds with piperazine spacers exhibited the best ROS scavenging and anti Alzheimer's activity.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2014; 77:343–350. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.03.026 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mutations in MECP2 encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome patients exhibit neurological symptoms that include irregular breathing, impaired mobility, stereotypic hand movements, and loss of speech. MeCP2 protein epigenetically modulates gene expression through genome-wide binding to methylated CpG dinucleotides. While neurons have the highest level of MeCP2 expression, astrocytes and other cell types also express detectable levels of MeCP2. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes likely control the progression of Rett syndrome. Thus, the object of these studies was to identify gene targets that are affected by loss of MeCP2 binding in astrocytes. Methods To identify gene targets of MeCP2 in astrocytes, combined approaches of expression microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation of MeCP2 followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) were compared between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient astrocytes. MeCP2 gene targets were compared with genes in the top 10% of MeCP2 binding levels in gene windows either within 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site, or the ‘gene body’ that extended from transcription start to end site, or 2 kb downstream of the transcription end site. Results A total of 118 gene transcripts surpassed the highly significant threshold (P < 0.005, fold change > 1.2) in expression microarray analysis from triplicate cultures. The top 10% of genes with the highest levels of MeCP2 binding were identified in two independent ChIP-seq experiments. Together this integrated, genome-wide screen for MeCP2 target genes provided an overlapping list of 19 high-confidence MeCP2-responsive gene transcripts in astrocytes. Validation of candidate target gene transcripts by RT-PCR revealed that expression of Apoc2, Cdon, Csrp and Nrep were consistently responsive to MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes. Conclusions The first MeCP2 ChIP-seq and gene expression microarray analysis in astrocytes reveals a set of potential MeCP2 target genes that may contribute to normal astrocyte signaling, cell division and neuronal support functions, the loss of which may contribute to the Rett syndrome phenotype.
    Molecular Autism 01/2013; 4(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-4-3 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major effort in Alzheimer's disease therapeutic development has targeted Aβ and downstream events. We have synthesized a small library of tricyclic pyrone compounds. Their protective action in MC65 cells and inhibition of ACAT along with the upregulation of cholesterol transporter gene were investigated. Five active compounds exhibited potencies in the nanomolar ranges. The multiple effects of the compounds on Aβ and cellular cholesterol pathways could be potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects in vivo.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2012; 55(20):8969-73. DOI:10.1021/jm3012189 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) including classic autism is a group of complex developmental disabilities with core deficits of impaired social interactions, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors. Although the neurobiology of ASDs has attracted much attention in the last two decades, the role of microglia has been ignored. Existing data are focused on their recognized role in neuroinflammation, which only covers a small part of the pathological repertoire of microglia. This review highlights recent findings on the broader roles of microglia, including their active surveillance of brain microenvironments and regulation of synaptic connectivity, maturation of brain circuitry and neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that microglia respond to pre- and postnatal environmental stimuli through epigenetic interface to change gene expression, thus acting as effectors of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Impairments of these microglial functions could substantially contribute to several major etiological factors of autism, such as environmental toxins and cortical underconnectivity. Our recent study on Rett syndrome, a syndromic autistic disorder, provides an example that intrinsic microglial dysfunction due to genetic and epigenetic aberrations could detrimentally affect the developmental trajectory without evoking neuroinflammation. We propose that ASDs provide excellent opportunities to study the influence of microglia on neurodevelopment, and this knowledge could lead to novel therapies.
    Neuron Glia Biology 04/2012; 7(1):85-97. DOI:10.1017/S1740925X1200004X · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The deposition and oligomerization of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptide arises from cleavage of the membrane-associated domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β and γ secretases. Several lines of evidence point to the soluble Aβ oligomer (AβO) as the primary neurotoxic species in the etiology of AD. Recently, we have demonstrated that a class of fluorene molecules specifically disrupts the AβO species. To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this disruptive ability, we extend the application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels in the Aβ peptide to investigate the binding and influence of fluorene compounds on AβO structure and dynamics. In addition, we have synthesized a spin-labeled fluorene (SLF) containing a pyrroline nitroxide group that provides both increased cell protection against AβO toxicity and a route to directly observe the binding of the fluorene to the AβO assembly. We also evaluate the ability of fluorenes to target multiple pathological processes involved in the neurodegenerative cascade, such as their ability to block AβO toxicity, scavenge free radicals and diminish the formation of intracellular AβO species. Fluorene modified with pyrroline nitroxide may be especially useful in counteracting Aβ peptide toxicity, because they possess both antioxidant properties and the ability to disrupt AβO species.
    PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e35443. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035443 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that white matter degeneration contributes to the neural disconnections that underlie Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Although this white matter degeneration is partly attributable to axonopathy associated with neuronal degeneration, amyloid β (Aβ) protein-mediated damage to oligodendrocytes could be another mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we studied effects of soluble Aβ in oligomeric form on survival and differentiation of cells of the oligodendroglial lineage using highly purified oligodendroglial cultures from rats at different developmental stages. Aβ oligomer at 10 μM or higher reduced survival of mature oligodendrocytes, whereas oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) were relatively resistant to the Aβ oligomer-mediated cytotoxicity. Further study revealed that Aβ oligomer even at 1 μM accelerated 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan exocytosis in mature oligodendrocytes, and, more significantly, inhibited myelin sheet formation after induction of in vitro differentiation of OPCs. These results imply a novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying Aβ oligomer-mediated white matter degeneration, which could impair myelin maintenance and remyelination by adult OPCs, resulting in accumulating damage to myelinating axons thereby contributing to neural disconnections.
    Neurobiology of aging 03/2012; 33(3):499-509. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.05.007 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There exists an urgent need for new target discovery to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, recent clinical trials based on anti-Aβ and anti-inflammatory strategies have yielded disappointing results. To expedite new drug discovery, we propose reposition targets which have been previously pursued by both industry and academia for indications other than AD. One such target is the calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 (KCNN4), which in the brain is primarily expressed in microglia and is significantly upregulated when microglia are activated. We here review the existing evidence supporting that KCa3.1 inhibition could block microglial neurotoxicity without affecting their neuroprotective phagocytosis activity and without being broadly immunosuppressive. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of KCa3.1 blockade would be suitable for treating AD as well as cerebrovascular and traumatic brain injuries, two well-known risk factors contributing to the dementia in AD patients presenting with mixed pathologies. Importantly, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several KCa3.1 blockers are well known, and a KCa3.1 blocker has been proven safe in clinical trials. It is therefore promising to reposition old or new KCa3.1 blockers for AD preclinical and clinical trials.
    01/2012; 2012:868972. DOI:10.1155/2012/868972
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2012; 102(3):679-. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2011.11.3691 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the most common single-gene disorder known to be associated with autism. Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging and our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, only limited neuropathologic information on FXS is available. Neuropathologic examinations were performed on post-mortem brain tissue from three older men (aged 57, 64 and 78 years) who had received a clinical or genetic diagnosis of FXS. In each case, physical and cognitive features were typical of FXS, and one man was also diagnosed with autism. Guided by reports of clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities of the limbic system and cerebellum of individuals with FXS, the current analysis focused on neuropathologic features present in the hippocampus and the cerebellar vermis. Histologic and immunologic staining revealed abnormalities in both the hippocampus and cerebellar vermis. Focal thickening of hippocampal CA1 and irregularities in the appearance of the dentate gyrus were identified. All lobules of the cerebellar vermis and the lateral cortex of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum had decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, which were occasionally misplaced, and often lacked proper orientation. There were mild, albeit excessive, undulations of the internal granular cell layer, with patchy foliar white matter axonal and astrocytic abnormalities. Quantitative analysis documented panfoliar atrophy of both the anterior and posterior lobes of the vermis, with preferential atrophy of the posterior lobule (VI to VII) compared with age-matched normal controls. Significant morphologic changes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in three adult men with FXS were identified. This pattern of pathologic features supports the idea that primary defects in neuronal migration, neurogenesis and aging may underlie the neuropathology reported in FXS.
    Molecular Autism 02/2011; 2(1):2. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-2-2 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are activated by aggregated forms of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), usually demonstrated in vitro by stimulating microglia with micromolar concentrations of fibrillar Aβ, a major component of amyloid plaques in AD brains. Here we report that amyloid-β oligomer (AβO), at 5-50 nm, induces a unique pattern of microglia activation that requires the activity of the scavenger receptor A and the Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel KCa3.1. AβO treatment induced an activated morphological and biochemical profile of microglia, including activation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor κB. Interestingly, although increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, AβO did not increase several proinflammatory mediators commonly induced by lipopolyliposaccharides or fibrillar Aβ, suggesting that AβO stimulates both common and divergent pathways of microglia activation. AβO at low nanomolar concentrations, although not neurotoxic, induced indirect, microglia-mediated damage to neurons in dissociated cultures and in organotypic hippocampal slices. The indirect neurotoxicity was prevented by (i) doxycycline, an inhibitor of microglia activation; (ii) TRAM-34, a selective KCa3.1 blocker; and (iii) two inhibitors of inducible NO synthase, indicating that KCa3.1 activity and excessive NO release are required for AβO-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that AβO, generally considered a neurotoxin, may more potently cause neuronal damage indirectly by activating microglia in AD.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 286(5):3693-706. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.135244 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin
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    ABSTRACT: MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2(-/+) females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. Recent studies suggest a role of glia in causing neuronal dysfunction via a non-cell-autonomous effect in RTT. Here we report a potent neurotoxic activity in the conditioned medium (CM) obtained from Mecp2-null microglia. Hippocampal neurons treated with CM from Mecp2-null microglia showed an abnormal stunted and beaded dendritic morphology, and signs of microtubule disruption and damage of postsynaptic glutamatergic components within 24 h. We identified that the toxic factor in the CM is glutamate, because (1) Mecp2-null microglia released a fivefold higher level of glutamate, (2) blockage of microglial glutamate synthesis by a glutaminase inhibitor abolished the neurotoxic activity, (3) blockage of microglial glutamate release by gap junction hemichannel blockers abolished the neurotoxic activity, and (4) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the neurotoxicity of the Mecp2-null microglia CM. We further identified that increased levels of glutaminase and connexin 32 in Mecp2-null microglia are responsible for increased glutamate production and release, respectively. In contrast, the CM from highly pure Mecp2-null astrocyte cultures showed no toxic effect. Our results suggest that microglia may influence the onset and progression of RTT and that microglia glutamate synthesis or release could be a therapeutic target for RTT.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2010; 30(15):5346-56. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5966-09.2010 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MECP2, an X-linked gene encoding the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein-2, is mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT) and aberrantly expressed in autism. Most children affected by RTT are heterozygous Mecp2-/+ females whose brain function is impaired postnatally due to MeCP2 deficiency. While prior functional investigations of MeCP2 have focused exclusively on neurons and have concluded the absence of MeCP2 in astrocytes, here we report that astrocytes express MeCP2, and MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes causes significant abnormalities in BDNF regulation, cytokine production, and neuronal dendritic induction, effects that may contribute to abnormal neurodevelopment. In addition, we show that the MeCP2 deficiency state can progressively spread at least in part via gap junction communications between mosaic Mecp2-/+ astrocytes in a novel non-cell-autonomous mechanism. This mechanism may lead to the pronounced loss of MeCP2 observed selectively in astrocytes in mouse Mecp2-/+ brain, which is coincident with phenotypic regression characteristic of RTT. Our results suggest that astrocytes are viable therapeutic targets for RTT and perhaps regressive forms of autism.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(16):5051-61. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0324-09.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by depositions of beta-amyloid (A beta) aggregates as amyloid in the brain. To facilitate diagnosis of AD by radioligand imaging, several highly specific small-molecule amyloid ligands have been developed. Because amyloid ligands display excellent pharmacokinetics properties and brain bioavailability, and because we have previously shown that some amyloid ligands bind the highly neurotoxic A beta oligomers (A beta O) with high affinities, they may also be valuable candidates for anti-A beta therapies. Here we identified two fluorene compounds from libraries of amyloid ligands, initially based on their ability to block cell death secondary to intracellular A beta O. We found that the lead fluorenes were able to reduce the amyloid burden including the levels of A beta O in cultured neurons and in 5xFAD mice. To explain these in vitro and in vivo effects, we found that the lead fluorenes bind and destabilize A beta O as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, and block the harmful A beta O-synapse interaction. These fluorenes and future derivatives, therefore, have a potential use in AD therapy and research.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2008; 31(10):1690-9. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.09.019 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several small molecule ligands for amyloid-beta (Abeta) fibrils deposited in brain have been developed to facilitate radiological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the build-up of Abeta oligomers (AbetaO) in brain has been recognized as an additional hallmark of AD and may play a more significant role in early stages. Evidence suggests that quantitative assessment of AbetaO would provide a more accurate index of therapeutic effect of drug trials. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop methods for efficient identification as well as structural analysis of AbetaO. We found that some well established amyloid ligands, analogs of Congo red and thioflavin-T (ThT), bind AbetaO with high affinity and detect AbetaO in vitro and in vivo. Binding studies revealed the presence of binding sites for Congo red- and thioflavin-T-analogs on AbetaO. Furthermore, these ligands can be used for imaging intracellular AbetaO in living cells and animals and as positive contrast agent for ultrastructural imaging of AbetaO, two applications useful for structural analysis of AbetaO in cells. We propose that by improving the binding affinity of current ligands, in vivo imaging of AbetaO is feasible by a 'signal subtraction' procedure. This approach may facilitate the identification of individuals with early AD.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2008; 104(2):457-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04972.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of small molecule inhibitors of cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers, either applied extracellularly or accumulated intraneuronally, is an important goal of drug development for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has been limited by the lack of efficient screening methods. Here we describe our approach using two cell-based methods. The first method takes advantage of the unique ability of extracellularly applied Abeta oligomers to rapidly induce the exocytosis of formazan formed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). We employed a short protocol to quantify this toxicity, and quickly identified two novel inhibitors, code-named CP2 and A5, from two compound libraries. A second independent screen of the same libraries using our previously published MC65 protection assay, which identifies inhibitors of toxicity related to intracellular Abeta oligomers, also selected the same two leads, suggesting that both assays select for the same anti-Abeta oligomer properties displayed by these compounds. We further demonstrated that A5 attenuated the progressive aggregation of existing Abeta oligomers, reduced the level of intracellular Abeta oligomers, and prevented the Abeta oligomer-induced death of primary cortical neurons, effects similar to those demonstrated by CP2. Our results suggest that, when combined, the two methods would generate fewer false results and give a high likelihood of identifying leads that show promises in ameliorating Abeta oligomer-induced toxicities within both intraneuronal and extracellular sites. Both assays are simple, suitable for rapid screening of a large number of medicinal libraries, and amenable for automation.
    Brain Research 02/2007; 1130(1):223-34. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.10.093 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) can affect immune response, inflammation, tissue injury, and possibly the susceptibility to Alzheimer disease (AD). To evaluate the association between promoter region polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha and IL-10 genes and risk of late-onset AD in older white subjects. Community-based case-control study. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. White subjects (n = 265) meeting criteria for probable or definite AD (cases) and white control subjects (n = 347) (controls). Genotyping results for TNF-alpha, IL-10, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping. The TNF-alpha -863 A allele was associated with reduced odds of developing AD, and the test for trend suggested that having 2 copies of the A allele further reduces the risk (odds ratios [C/C, reference], 0.66 for C/A and 0.58 for A/A; P = .04). Because of linkage disequilibrium in the TNF-alpha region, we constructed promoter region haplotypes as defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -863 and -308. Based on knowledge of TNF-alpha protein production, we ordered the haplotypes based on apparent increasing transcriptional activity. After adjusting for age, education, and the presence of the APOE epsilon4 genotype, the test for trend showed increasing odds of AD with increasing transcriptional activity (P = .02). The IL-10 -1082 and IL-10 -592 allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different between cases and controls. Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region, or possibly polymorphisms in nearby genes, could affect cerebral inflammatory response and the risk of late-onset AD.
    JAMA Neurology 09/2006; 63(8):1165-9. DOI:10.1001/archneur.63.8.1165 · 7.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
139.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • University of California, Davis
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Miami University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Oxford, Ohio, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, Washington, United States