[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We sought to define the clinical and ultrastructure effects of ixabepilone (Ix), a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapy agent on cutaneous sensory nerves and to investigate a potential mitochondrial toxicity mechanism.Methods
Ten breast cancer patients receiving Ix underwent total neuropathy score clinical (TNSc) assessment, distal leg skin biopsies at cycle (Cy) 3 (80–90 mg/m2), Cy5 (160–190 mg/m2), and Cy7 (>200 mg/m2) and were compared to 5 controls. Skin blocks were processed for EM and ultrastructural morphometry of Remak axons done.ResultsAt baseline, Ix-treated subjects had higher TNSc values (4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0), greater percentage of empty (denervated) Schwann cells (29% vs. 12%), altered axonal diameter (422.9 ± 17 vs. 354.9 ± 14.8 nm, P = 0.01), and axon profiles without mitochondria tended to increase compared to control subjects (71% vs. 70%). With increasing cumulative Ix exposure, an increase in TNSc values (Cy3: 5.4 ± 1.2, Cy7: 10 ± 4, P < 0.001), empty Schwann cells (39% by Cy7), and dilated axons (in nm, Cy3: 506.3 ± 22.1, Cy5: 534.8 ± 33, Cy7: 527.8 ± 24.4; P < 0.001) was observed. In addition, axon profiles without mitochondria (Cy3:74%, Cy7:78%) and mitochondria with abnormal morphology (grade 3 or 4) increased from 24% to 79%. Schwann cells with atypical mitochondria and perineuronal macrophage infiltration in dermis were noted.InterpretationThis study provides functional and structural evidence that Ix exposure induces a dose-dependent toxicity on small sensory fibers with an increase in TNSc scores and progressive axonal loss. Mitochondria appear to bear the cumulative toxic effect and chemotherapy-induced toxicity can be monitored through serial skin biopsy-based analysis.
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eribulin mesylate, a novel non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor, is approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in patients who have previously received at least 2 chemotherapeutic regimens for MBC that should have included an anthracycline and a taxane in the adjuvant or metastatic setting. This phase 2 study evaluated efficacy and safety of eribulin as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) MBC. Patients with measurable HER2-negative locally recurrent breast cancer or MBC with ≥12 months since prior neoadjuvant or adjuvant (neo/adjuvant) chemotherapy received eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 and 8 of each 3-week cycle. Endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST v1.1 (primary), safety, progression-free survival (PFS), clinical benefit rate (ORR + stable disease ≥6 months; CBR), and duration of response (DOR). Fifty-six patients were enrolled and received eribulin; 38 (68 %) had prior neo/adjuvant therapy, including 33 who had anthracycline and/or taxane-containing chemotherapy; 41 (73 %) had estrogen receptor-positive disease, and 12 (21 %) had estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative (triple-negative) disease. Patients received a median of 7 cycles (range 1-43); 6 (11 %) received treatment for ≥12 months. ORR was 29 % (95 % CI 17.3-42.2), CBR was 52 %, and median DOR was 5.8 months. Median PFS was 6.8 months. Thirty-six patients (64 %) had grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events; most common were neutropenia (50 %), leukopenia (21 %), and peripheral neuropathy (21 %). These results demonstrate that eribulin has substantial antitumor activity as first-line treatment for HER2-negative MBC with acceptable safety.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients.Methods.Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m(2) as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, ≥70 years).Results.Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50-59 years, n = 289; 60-69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia).Conclusion.Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To assess efficacy and safety of eribulin plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy for locally recurrent or metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
In this multicenter, phase 2, single-arm study, patients with recurrent or metastatic HER2+ breast cancer received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle plus an initial trastuzumab dose of 8 mg/kg IV on Day 1, followed by 6 mg/kg of trastuzumab on Day 1 of each subsequent cycle. Tumor assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for the first 6 cycles and every 12 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), time to response (TTR), duration of response (DOR), and safety.
Fifty-two patients were enrolled. Most (98.1%) had metastatic disease, 48.1% with liver metastases, 46.2% with lung metastases, and 36.5% with bone metastases. Patients received a median of 10.0 cycles of eribulin and 11.0 cycles of trastuzumab. The ORR was 71.2% with median TTR of 1.3 months, DOR of 11.1 months, and PFS of 11.6 months. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (38.5%), peripheral neuropathy (26.9%, all grade 3), fatigue (7.7%), and febrile neutropenia (7.7%).
Given the high ORR, prolonged median PFS, an acceptable safety profile, combination eribulin/trastuzumab is an acceptable treatment option for locally recurrent or metastatic HER2+ breast cancer.
Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI)-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103896. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as a reliable source of tumor cells, and their concentration has prognostic implications. CTC capture offers real-time access to cancer tissue without the need of an invasive biopsy, while their phenotypic and molecular interrogation can provide insight into the biological changes of the tumor that occur during treatment. The majority of the CTC capture methods are based on EpCAM expression as a surface marker of tumor-derived cells. However, EpCAM protein expression levels can be significantly down regulated during cancer progression as a consequence of the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In this paper, we describe a novel HER2 (Human Epidermal Receptor 2)-based microfluidic device for the isolation of CTCs from peripheral blood of patients with HER2-expressing solid tumors. We selected HER2 as an alternative to EpCAM as the receptor is biologically and therapeutically relevant in several solid tumors, like breast cancer (BC), where it is overexpressed in 30% of the patients and expressed in 90%, and gastric cancer (GC), in which HER2 presence is identified in more than 60% of the cases. We tested the performance of various anti HER2 antibodies in a panel of nine different BC cell lines with varying HER2 protein expression levels, using immunoblotting, confocal microscopy, live cells imaging and flow cytometry analyses. The antibody associated with the highest capture efficiency and sensitivity for HER2 expressing cells on the microfluidic device was the one that performed best in live cells imaging and flow cytometry assays as opposed to the fixed cell analyses, suggesting that recognition of the native conformation of the HER2 extracellular epitope on living cells was essential for specificity and sensitivity of CTC capture. Next, we tested the performance of the HER2 microfluidic device using blood from metastatic breast and gastric cancer patients. The HER2 microfluidic device exhibited CTC capture in 9/9 blood samples. Thus, the described HER2-based microfluidic device can be considered as a valid clinically relevant method for CTC capture in HER2 expressing solid cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tipifarnib (T) is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) that enhances the antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic therapy in vitro, has activity in metastatic breast cancer, and enhances the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate to neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. We, therefore, performed a phase I-II trial of T plus neoadjuvant sequential weekly paclitaxel and 2-week AC chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer. Eligible patients with HER2-negative clinical stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer received 12 weekly doses of paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) followed by AC (60/600 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks and filgrastim), plus T (100 or 200 mg PO on days 1-3 of each P dose, and 200 mg PO on days 2-7 of each AC cycle). The trial was powered to detect an improvement in breast pCR rate from 15 to 35 % (α = 0.10, β = 0.10) in two strata, including ER and/or PR-positive, non-inflammatory (stratum A) and inflammatory carcinoma (stratum B). Of the 60 patients accrued, there were no dose-limiting toxicities among the first six patients treated at the first T dose level (100 mg BID; N = 3) or second T dose level (200 mg BID; N = 3) plus paclitaxel. Breast pCR occurred in 6/33 patients (18 %, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 7-36 %) and 1/22 patients (4 %, 95 % CI 0-8 %) in stratum B. Combination of the FTI T with weekly paclitaxel-AC is unlikely to be associated with a breast pCR rate of 35 % or higher in patients with locally advanced HER2/neu-negative inflammatory or non-inflammatory ER- and/or PR-positive breast carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathy is a common toxicity associated with tubulin-targeted chemotherapeutic agents. This Phase II study compares the incidence and severity of neuropathy associated with eribulin mesylate or ixabepilone in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The primary objective was to assess the incidence of neuropathy; the study was designed to detect a difference in neuropathy rate of 35 % for eribulin versus 63 % for ixabepilone (odds ratio 0.316, 80 % power, 0.05 two-sided significance level). Eligibility criteria included: MBC; prior taxane therapy; at least one chemotherapy for advanced disease; no or minimal pre-existing neuropathy (Grade 0 or 1). The intent-to-treat population comprised 104 patients randomized (1:1) to eribulin mesylate (1.4 mg/m(2), 2-5 min intravenous on days 1 and 8) or ixabepilone (40 mg/m(2), 3 h intravenous on day 1) on a 21-day cycle. 101 patients in the safety population received a median of 5.0 eribulin and 3.5 ixabepilone cycles. Incidence of neuropathy (any grade) was 33.3 and 48.0 %, and peripheral neuropathy was 31.4 and 44.0 % for eribulin and ixabepilone, respectively. After controlling for pre-existing neuropathy and number of prior chemotherapies, these differences were not significant. Compared with ixabepilone, fewer patients receiving eribulin discontinued treatment due to neuropathy (3.9 vs. 18.0 %) or adverse events (AEs) in general (11.8 vs. 32.0 %). Time to onset of neuropathy was 35.9 weeks for eribulin and 11.6 weeks for ixabepilone, and time to resolution was 48 versus 10 weeks, respectively; other AEs were comparable. Objective responses were 15.4 versus 5.8 % and clinical benefit rates were 26.9 versus 19.2 %. In conclusion, after controlling for pre-existing neuropathy and number of prior chemotherapies, the differences in the incidence of neuropathy with eribulin and ixabepilone were not statistically significant. Onset of neuropathy tended to occur later with eribulin and resolve later.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular prognostic assays, such as Oncotype DX, are increasingly incorporated into the management of patients with invasive breast carcinoma. BreastPRS is a new molecular assay developed and validated from a meta-analysis of publically available genomic datasets. We applied the assay to matched fresh-frozen (FF) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples to translate the assay to FFPE. A linear relationship of the BreastPRS prognostic score was observed between tissue preservation formats. BreastPRS recurrence scores were compared with Oncotype DX recurrence scores from 246 patients with invasive breast carcinoma and known Oncotype DX results. Using this series, a 120-gene Oncotype DX approximation algorithm was trained to predict Oncotype DX risk groups and then applied to series of untreated, node-negative, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients from previously published studies with known clinical outcomes. Correlation of recurrence score and risk group between Oncotype DX and BreastPRS was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). 59 of 260 (23 %) patients from four previously published studies were classified as intermediate-risk when the 120-gene Oncotype DX approximation algorithm was applied. BreastPRS reclassified the 59 patients into binary risk groups (high- vs. low-risk). 23 (39 %) patients were classified as low-risk and 36 (61 %) as high-risk (P = 0.029, HR: 3.64, 95 % CI: 1.40-9.50). At 10 years from diagnosis, the low-risk group had a 90 % recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate compared to 60 % for the high-risk group. BreastPRS recurrence score is comparable with Oncotype DX and can reclassify Oncotype DX intermediate-risk patients into two groups with significant differences in RFS. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for metastatic progression. This study explores the effect of tetrathiomolybdate (TM), an anti-angiogenic copper chelator, on EPCs in patients at high risk for breast cancer recurrence.Patients and methodsThis phase 2 study enrolled breast cancer patients with stage 3 and stage 4 without evidence of disease (NED), and stage 2 if triple-negative. TM 100 mg orally was administered to maintain ceruloplasmin <17 mg/dl for 2 years or until relapse. The primary end point was change in EPCs.ResultsForty patients (28 stage 2/3, 12 stage 4 NED) were enrolled. Seventy-five percent patients achieved the copper depletion target by 1 month. Ninety-one percent of triple-negative patients copper-depleted compared with 41% luminal subtypes. In copper-depleted patients only, there was a significant reduction in EPCs/ml by 27 (P = 0.04). Six patients relapsed while on study, of which only one patient had EPCs maintained below baseline. The 10-month relapse-free survival was 85.0% (95% CI 74.6%-96.8%). Only grade 3/4 toxicity was hematologic: neutropenia (3.1% of cycles), febrile neutropenia (0.2%), and anemia (0.2%).ConclusionsTM is safe and appears to maintain EPCs below baseline in copper-depleted patients. TM may promote tumor dormancy and ultimately prevent relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract PURPOSE: Dasatinib is a Src-family kinase inhibitor with modest activity in advanced breast cancer (ABC). We aimed to assess toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dasatinib plus capecitabine, estimate efficacy,and explore effects on angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Dose levels (DL) were: dasatinib 50 mg twice daily (BID; DL1), 70 mg BID (DL2 and DL3), or 100 mg daily (QD; DL3a), plus capecitabine on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle, at 825 mg/m2 BID (DL1 and DL2) or 1000 mg/m2 BID (DL3 and DL3a [MTD]). DL3a was expanded to evaluate safety/efficacy. Plasma samples were collected for biomarker analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-one and 21 patients were treated in the escalation and expansion phases. Sixty percent of tumors were hormone receptor-positive. Most common adverse events (AEs) were any grade nausea (58%), hand-foot syndrome (44%), diarrhea (33%), fatigue (33%), vomiting (31%), and asthenia (31%). Most common grade 3/4 AEs were hand-foot syndrome (12%), diarrhea (8%), fatigue (8%), pleural effusion (8%), and vomiting (6%). The MTD was defined at DL3a (capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 BID, and Dasatinib 100 mg daily). Of 25 response-evaluable patients treated at DL3a, confirmed partial response (PR) was noted in 24% and stable disease (SD) in an additional 32%; median progression-free survival was 14.4 weeks. Significant decreases in plasma VEGF-A and increases in VEGFR-2 and Collagen-IV was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Dasatinib 100 mg once daily plus capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 BID were tolerable and were associated with clinical benefit in 56% of response-evaluable patients. Biomarker changes were consistent with an antiangiogenic effect.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progression of cancer to metastatic disease is a major cause of death. We identified miR-708 being transcriptionally repressed by polycomb repressor complex 2-induced H3K27 trimethylation in metastatic breast cancer. miR-708 targets the endoplasmic reticulum protein neuronatin to decrease intracellular calcium level, resulting in reduction of activation of ERK and FAK, decreased cell migration, and impaired metastases. Ectopic expression of neuronatin refractory to suppression by miR-708 rescued cell migration and metastasis defects. In patients with breast cancer, miR-708 expression was decreased in lymph node and distal metastases, suggesting a metastasis-suppressive role. Our findings uncover a mechanistic role for miR-708 in metastasis and provide a rationale for developing miR-708 as a therapeutic agent against metastatic breast cancer.
Cancer cell 01/2013; 23(1):63-76. · 25.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Data on chemotherapy regimens in elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. The aim of this retrospective pooled analysis was to determine efficacy and safety of ixabepilone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in patients with MBC aged ≥ 65 years.
Materials and Methods
A total of 1973 patients with MBC previously treated with or resistant to anthracyclines and taxanes were randomized in two open-label, multinational, phase 3 studies (study 046 and study 048). Patients received ixabepilone (40 mg/m2 as a 3-hour intravenous infusion every 3 weeks) plus oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 administered twice each day), or capecitabine alone (1250 mg/m2 twice each day).
In total, 251 randomized patients were aged ≥ 65 years (ixabepilone plus capecitabine, n = 116; capecitabine monotherapy, n = 135). Efficacy results were consistent in patients aged < 65 and ≥ 65 years with respect to the observed improvement in progression-free survival and objective response rate with ixabepilone plus capecitabine compared with capecitabine alone. No significant differences in overall survival between arms were observed for either subgroup. In the ixabepilone plus capecitabine arm, grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were similar in both subgroups except leukopenia and febrile neutropenia, which had a higher incidence in patients aged ≥ 65 years. The majority of grade 3/4 nonhematologic AEs were similar in the two subgroups, including fatigue, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and hand–foot syndrome.
The combination of ixabepilone plus capecitabine maintains its efficacy in elderly patients with anthracycline and taxane pretreated MBC, with a similar safety profile to patients aged < 65 years.
Journal of Geriatric Oncology 01/2013; 4(4):346–352. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolution of the cancer cell into a metastatic entity is the major cause of death in patients with cancer.
Activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) endows invasive and metastatic properties upon
cancer cells that favor successful colonization of distal target organs. The observation that in many cancers
distant metastases resemble the epithelial phenotype of primary tumors has led to speculation that the
disseminated tumor cells recruited to the target organs undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET).
However, the MET cascade has not been recapitulated in vivo, and the cellular and molecular regulators that
promote MET remain unknown. In a recent report, using a model of spontaneous breast cancer, we have shown
that bone marrow–derived myeloid progenitor cells in the premetastatic lung secrete the proteoglycan versican,
which induces MET of metastatic tumor cells and accelerates metastases. This review summarizes recent
progress in MET research, outlines a unique paracrine cross-talk between the microenvironment and the cancer
cells, which promotes tumor outgrowth in the metastatic organ, and discusses opportunities for novel
antimetastatic approaches for cancer therapy.