[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In October 2013, the Radiation Medical Science Center of the Fukushima Medical University and the Section of Environment and Radiation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer held a joint workshop in Fukushima, Japan to discuss opportunities and challenges for long-term studies of the health effects following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This report describes four key areas of discussion - thyroid screening, dosimetry, mental health, and non-radiation risk factors - and summarizes recommendations resulting from the workshop. Four recommendations given at the workshop were to: 1) build-up a population-based cancer registry for long-term monitoring of the cancer burden in the prefecture; 2) enable future linkage of data from the various independent activities, particularly those related to dose reconstruction and health status ascertainment; 3) establish long-term observational studies with repeated measurements of lifestyle and behavioural factors to disentangle radiation and non-radiation factors; and 4) implement primary prevention strategies targeted for populations affected by natural disasters, including measures to better understand and address health risk concerns in the affected population. The workshop concluded that coordinated data collection between researchers from different institutes and disciplines can both reduce the burden on the population and facilitate efforts to examine the inter-relationships between the many factors at play.
Environmental Health 12/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12940-015-0013-z · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A potential impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, during intrauterine life, has been hypothesised in testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) aetiology, but exposure assessment is challenging. This large-scale registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the association between parental occupational exposure to pesticides and TGCT risk in their sons.
Cases born in 1960 or onwards, aged between 14 and 49 years, and diagnosed between 1978 and 2013 in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden, were identified from the respective nationwide cancer registries. Four controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix.
A total of 9569 cases and 32 028 controls were included. No overall associations were found for either maternal or paternal exposures and TGCT risk in their sons, with ORs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.23) and of 1.03 (0.92 to 1.14), respectively. Country-specific estimates and stratification by birth cohorts revealed some heterogeneity. Cryptorchidism, hypospadias and family history of testicular cancer were risk factors but adjustment did not change the main results.
This is the largest study on prenatal exposure to pesticides and TGCT risk, overall providing no evidence of an association. Limitations to assess individual exposure in registry-based studies might have contributed to the null result.
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Occupational and environmental medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/oemed-2015-102860 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess.
Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models.
We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association.
In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.
Cancer Causes and Control 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10552-015-0651-z · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hot beverage consumption has been linked to oesophageal squamous cell cancer (EC), but its contribution to the poorly understood East African EC corridor is not known.
In a cross-sectional study of general-population residents in Kilimanjaro, North Tanzania, tea drinking temperatures and times were measured. Using linear regression models, we compared drinking temperatures to those in previous studies, by socio-demographic factors and tea type ("milky tea" which can be 50 % or more milk and water boiled together vs "black tea" which has no milk).
Participants started drinking at a mean of 70.6 °C (standard deviation 3.9, n = 188), which exceeds that in all previous studies (p ≤ 0.01 for each). Tea type, gender and age were associated with drinking temperatures. After mutual adjustment for each other, milky tea drinkers drank their tea 1.9 °C (95 % confidence interval: 0.9, 2.9) hotter than drinkers of black tea, largely because black tea cooled twice as fast as milky tea. Men commenced drinking tea 0.9 °C (-0.2, 2.1) hotter than women did and finished their cups 30 (-9, 69) seconds faster. 70 % and 39 % of milky and black tea drinkers, respectively, reported a history of tongue burning.
Hot tea consumption, especially milky tea, may be an important and modifiable risk factor for EC in Tanzania. The contribution of this habit to EC risk needs to be evaluated in this setting, jointly with that of the many risk factors acting synergistically in this multi-factorial disease.
Cancer Causes and Control 08/2015; 26(10). DOI:10.1007/s10552-015-0646-9 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and quarrymen.
We estimated lung cancer risks of coal and ore miners and quarrymen among 14 251 lung cancer cases and 17 267 controls from the SYNERGY pooled case-control study, controlling for smoking and employment in other at-risk occupations.
Ever working as miner or quarryman (690 cases, 436 controls) was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.34-1.79] for lung cancer. Ore miners (53 cases, 24 controls) had a higher OR (2.34, 95% CI 1.36-4.03) than quarrymen (67 cases, 39 controls; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.05) and coal miners (442 cases, 297 controls; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.67), but CI overlapped. We did not observe trends by duration of exposure or time since last exposure.
This pooled analysis of population-based studies demonstrated an excess lung cancer risk among miners and quarrymen that remained increased after adjustment for detailed smoking history and working in other at-risk occupations. The increase in risk among coal miners were less pronounced than for ore miners or quarrymen.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 07/2015; 41(5). DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3513 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco-related cancers (TRC) represent approximately a third of the cancer incidence in Denmark. However, tobacco consumption levels in immigrants may differ to the native population. We compared incidence rates of nine TRCs among male immigrants of first and second generation in Denmark with those among males of the native population.
We used an established cohort of all Danish men (1978-2010) and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare incidence by immigration status and region of birth for nine TRCs.
We identified 131 317 incident cases of TRCs among 3 508 204 men (280 526 first generation and 129 056 second generation immigrants). Overall, immigrants of both generations experienced approximately 15% lower incidence of TRC than natives, however, with large variations by country of birth and type of TRC. Compared to natives, lung cancer incidence in first and second generation immigrants was 10% and 27% lower, respectively. However, lung cancer incidence increased in first generation immigrants reaching the level of native Danes in the late 2000s. First generation immigrants experienced approximately 50% lower incidence of lower urinary tract cancer than natives. However, only liver and stomach cancer had higher SIRs in immigrants.
Overall TRC incidence was lower among immigrants than in native Danes. Lower urinary tract cancer among first generation immigrants warrants further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity.
In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators.
For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients with high-stage disease who lived alone were less likely to receive first-line treatment. The socioeconomic difference in overall survival was partly explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity, although some differences remained after adjustment. Among patients with high-stage disease, the hazard ratio (HR) for death of those with low income was 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.19) in comparison with those with high income. Among patients with low-stage disease, those who lived alone had a 14% higher risk for dying (95% CI 1.05-1.25) than those who lived with a partner. The differences in risk for death by SEP were greatest in the first six months after diagnosis.
Socioeconomic differences in survival after lung cancer are partly explained by social inequality in stage, first-line treatment and comorbidity. Efforts should be made to improve early diagnosis and adherence to first-line treatment recommendations among disadvantaged lung cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To follow up populations exposed to several radiation accidents in the Southern Urals, a cause-of-death registry was established at the Urals Center capturing deaths in the Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Sverdlovsk region since 1950. Objectives: When registering deaths over such a long time period, quality measures need to be in place to maintain quality and reduce the impact of individual coders as well as quality changes in death certificates. Methods: To ensure the uniformity of coding, a method for semi-automatic coding was developed, which is described here. Briefly, the method is based on a dynamic thesaurus, database-supported coding and parallel coding by two different individuals. Results: A comparison of the proposed method for organizing the coding process with the common procedure of coding showed good agreement, with, at the end of the coding process, 70 - 90% agreement for the three-digit ICD -9 rubrics. Conclusions: The semi-automatic method ensures a sufficiently high quality of coding by at the same time providing an opportunity to reduce the labor intensity inherent in the creation of large-volume cause-of-death registries.
Methods of Information in Medicine 03/2015; 54(3). DOI:10.3414/ME14-01-0101 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among cooks, while controlling for smoking habits.
We used data from the SYNERGY project including pooled information on lifetime work histories and smoking habits from 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China.
Before adjustment for smoking, we observed an increased risk of lung cancer in male cooks, but not in female cooks. After adjusting, there was no increased risk and no significant exposure-response relationship. Nevertheless, subgroup analyses highlighted some possible excess risks of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma in female cooks.
There is evidence that lung cancer risks among cooks may be confounded by smoking. After adjustment, cooks did not experience an increased risk of lung cancer overall. The subgroup analyses showing some excess risks among female cooks require cautious interpretation.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 02/2015; 57(2):202-9. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000337 · 1.63 Impact Factor