[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the risk of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors associated with parental occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diesel motor exhaust (DME), asbestos, crystalline silica, and metals, which are established carcinogens in adults.
Cancer Causes and Control 10/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: •Workshop of cancer research needs in people living by South Africa gold mine tailings.•Environmental measures indicate uranium contamination around gold mine tailings.•Epidemiologic research of human exposures to gold mine tailings currently lacking.•Well-designed epidemiologic studies with individual exposure and outcome data needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968-1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132-400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p = 0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p = 0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p = 0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107096. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes ,and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in the first year and continuing exposure, the lifetime radiation-related cancer risks based on lifetime dose (which are highest for children under 5 years of age at initial exposure), are small, and much smaller than the lifetime baseline cancer risks. For example, after initial exposure at age 1 year, the lifetime excess radiation risk and baseline risk of all solid cancers in females were estimated to be 0.7 · 10(-2) and 29.0 · 10(-2), respectively. The 15 year risks based on the lifetime reference dose are very small. However, for initial exposure in childhood, the 15 year risks based on the lifetime reference dose are up to 33 and 88% as large as the 15 year baseline risks for leukemia and thyroid cancer, respectively. The results may be scaled to particular dose estimates after consideration of caveats. One caveat is related to the lack of epidemiological evidence defining risks at low doses, because the predicted risks come from cancer risk models fitted to a wide dose range (0-4 Gy), which assume that the solid cancer and leukemia lifetime risks for doses less than about 0.5 Gy and 0.2 Gy, respectively, are proportional to organ/tissue doses: this is unlikely to seriously underestimate risks, but may overestimate risks. This WHO-HRA framework may be used to update the risk estimates, when new population health statistics data, dosimetry information and radiation risk models become available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most common cancer in men aged 15 to 45 years, has doubled over the last 30 years in developed countries. Reasons remain unclear but a role of environmental factors, especially during critical periods of development, is strongly suspected. Reliable data on environmental exposure during this critical time period are sparse. Little is known on whether it could be a combined effect of early and later-life exposures.
BMC Cancer 08/2014; 14(1):563. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma. Methods and Measurements: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 cases and 14,945 controls from 7 case-control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, centre, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years and time-since quitting smoking. Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (for example in men OR=1.33; 95% CI 1.20-1.48 and 1.50; 1.21-1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 or fewer years prior to lung cancer (OR=3.31; 2.33-4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than individual conditions. Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 or more years prior to lung cancer compared to shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case-control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2014; · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent analyses of long-term trends in respirable dust and quartz concentrations from the long term monitoring program of the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe) Dust Monitoring Program (covering the years 2000-2013) showed striking downward temporal trends in exposure which came to a halt at around the year 2009. Careful analyses and discussion with occupational health and safety representatives pointed at a direct detrimental effect of the current economic crisis on measured concentrations. This observation led us to hypothesise that similar disruptions of downward temporal trends in occupational exposures might also be visible in other large databases with longitudinal exposure measurements.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A48. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Explore quantitative exposure-response association for exposure to asbestos, crystalline silica, nickel, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population; further study effects on specific cell types and potential interaction with smoking and co-occurring occupational exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A46-7. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germany has one of the highest age-adjusted mesothelioma mortality rates worldwide. As mesothelioma occurs ≥30 years after asbestos exposure, contemporary rates likely reflect exposures in the 1960-1970s. During this period, political division between West and East Germany led to differences regarding the import and consumption of asbestos. It is unclear whether mesothelioma rates also differ between these formerly separate countries which are now served by similar health and mortality reporting systems, thereby facilitating regional comparisons.
We examined regional, temporal, and sex variations in mesothelioma mortality rates in Germany in 2000-2010, collapsing the federal states into West Germany, East Germany, and Berlin. We calculated truncated (≥40 years) age-standardized mesothelioma mortality rates (ASRs40+) per 100,000 person-years, estimated sex-stratified mortality rate ratios (MRRs) (95 % confidence intervals (CIs)), adjusted for age and calendar year from Poisson models, and fitted age-period-cohort models.
There were 12,854 mesothelioma deaths at ages ≥ 40 years in Germany during 2000-2010. ASRs40+ were higher in West (males 4.4; females 0.8) than East (males 1.7; females 0.6) Germany. MRRs for West versus East Germany were 2.68 (95 % CI 2.48-2.88) among males and 1.42 (95 % CI 1.27-1.59) among females. In both regions, mortality rates increased for birth cohorts until the mid 1940s and subsequently declined. The country's peak mesothelioma burden is predicted to occur by 2020.
Geographical differences in mesothelioma mortality rates are consistent with heterogeneous historical asbestos exposures. Differences may exist for other asbestos-related cancers and should be investigated in analytic studies with individual asbestos exposure information.
Cancer Causes and Control 03/2014; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between atopy and brain tumors in adults, particularly gliomas. We investigated the association between atopic disorders and intracranial brain tumors in children and adolescents, using international collaborative CEFALO data.
CEFALO is a population-based case-control study conducted in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, including all children and adolescents in the age range 7-19 years diagnosed with a primary brain tumor between 2004 and 2008. Two controls per case were randomly selected from population registers matched on age, sex, and geographic region. Information about atopic conditions and potential confounders was collected through personal interviews.
In total, 352 cases (83%) and 646 controls (71%) participated in the study. For all brain tumors combined, there was no association between ever having had an atopic disorder and brain tumor risk [odds ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.34]. The OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.53-1.11) for a current atopic condition (in the year before diagnosis) and 1.22 (95% CI 0.86-1.74) for an atopic condition in the past. Similar results were observed for glioma.
There was no association between atopic conditions and risk of all brain tumors combined or of glioma in particular. Stratification on current or past atopic conditions suggested the possibility of reverse causality, but may also the result of random variation because of small numbers in subgroups. In addition, an ongoing tumor treatment may affect the manifestation of atopic conditions, which could possibly affect recall when reporting about a history of atopic diseases. Only a few studies on atopic conditions and pediatric brain tumors are currently available, and the evidence is conflicting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most frequent cancer in men aged between 15 and 45 years. Current hypotheses are focusing on environmental exposures occurring during prenatal periods. However, very few studies have explored intra-uterine environmental exposure related to TGCT. TESTEPERA is a pilot case-control study aiming to determine the effectiveness of different recruitment approaches in the French context and to verify our ability to collect relevant data on their prenatal periods. Between 2011 and 2012, 150 male subjects were contacted in the Rhône-Alpes region (58 cases from a cancer center and 92 controls from a regional maternity). Participation rate varied from 33% for cases diagnosed in 2008 vs 68% for cases diagnosed in 2010. Participation rate of controls varied depending on modalities of contact (13% for face-to-face recruitment; 0% for contact by phone only; 50% for face-to-face contact with phone reminder). Data collection allowed precise job identification and geolocation of subjects' addresses. Precision of geolocation was dependent upon the level of urbanization (p < 0.001) but not on the time period (p = 0.52). Our results support the feasibility of a case-control study focusing on the relation between TGCT and environmental pesticide exposures during early and later life.
Bulletin du cancer 03/2014; 101(3):225-235. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sex, age, immunophenotype and white blood cell count at diagnosis are well accepted predictors of survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Less is known about the relationship between socio-economic determinants and survival from paediatric ALL, studied here for the first time in German children.
ALL cases were diagnosed between 1992 and 1994 and their parents interviewed during a previous nationwide case-control study. Children were followed-up for 10years after diagnosis by the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated to assess the impact of selected socio-demographic characteristics on overall and event-free survival.
Overall survival was 82.5%, with a higher proportion of girls than boys surviving (85% versus 81%). We found a non-linear relationship between age at diagnosis and survival, with poorer survival in infants and children aged >5years. There was no association between socio-economic factors and survival or risk of relapse. For five levels of increasing family income, all HRs were close to one. No relationship was seen with parental educational level.
Socio-economic determinants did not affect ALL survival in West German children, in contrast to studies from some other countries. Dissimilarities in social welfare systems, including access to health care, lifestyle and differences in treatment may contribute to these differences in findings. Our observation of no social inequalities in paediatric ALL survival is reassuring, but needs continued monitoring to assess the potential impact of evolvement of treatment options and changes in paediatric health service.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case–control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28–1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32–1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93–1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies.
There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44–2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95–1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor